UNIT IV

Events

Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

june 28 1914

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie were shot to death by a Bosnian Serb nationalist during an official visit to the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo. They were killed by an assassin's bullets just hours after they escaped another assassination attempt. Gavrilo Princip was immediately arrested for the shooting and Nedjelko Cabrinovic and was caught fleeing after the bomb attempt

Mussolini Launches Fascist Movement

1915

Mussolini formed the Fascist Party to gain the support of many unemployed war veterans. He organised them into armed squads known as Black Shirts, who terrorized their political opponents. He sought to increase the size of the Italian empire and to satisfy the claims of Italian residents.

Gallipoli Campaign

February 19, 1915 - January 9, 1916

also known as the Battle of Gallipoli or the Dardanelles Campaign, was an unsuccessful attempt by the Allied Powers to control the sea route from Europe to Russia during World War I. It intended to force Germany's ally, Turkey, out of the war. This failed when the warships were unable to force a way through the Dardanelles.

German Resumption of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

February 1, 1917

Occurred when Germany declared the area around the British Isles a war zone, in which all merchant ships, including those from neutral countries, would be attacked by the German navy. Happened when submarines sank vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning. Germany broke its promise to the United States to stop attacking passenger ships because the German leaders knew America entering the war would increase the strength of Allied Powers.

Bolshevik Revolution

March 8, 1917 - November 7, 1917

Vladimir Lenin launched a nearly bloodless coup d'état against the Duma's provisional government. Their goal was to overthrow the Provisional Government and set up a government for the proletariat. The soldiers began to ask for land just as peasants were. In response Lenin, seized control of the government in Russia and became the dominant political power.

Civil War in Russia

October 1917 - October 1922

The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups opposed Lenin's Bolsheviks. They were known as the Whites while the Bolsheviks were known as the Reds. This occurred because the Bolsheviks had many enemies and the Social Revolutionaries were angry because Lenin had closed the Assembly. They were also afraid because the Bolsheviks wanted to cause communist revolutions all over the world.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

March 3, 1918

A peace treaty signed between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire, that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The terms of this treaty included Russia recognition of the independence of Ukraine, Georgia and Finland. Furthermore, it gave up Poland and the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia to Germany and Austria-Hungary, and ceded Kars, Ardahan and Batum to Turkey

Paris Peace Conference

January 18, 1919

It was also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers after World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers. The Big Four met at this conference and David Lloyd George, President Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, and Vittorio Orlando discussed and establish the terms of the peace after World War I.

First Meeting of the League of Nations

January 16, 1920

An international organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after the First World War in order to help resolve international disputes. It was founded by Woodrow Wilson but America never joined because and many people in the USA wanted to keep America out of European affairs.

Lenin's Economic Policy

March 1921

His new policy allowed peasants to sell some of their produce for profit and small traders were allowed to run businesses. Its purpose was reintroduce money into the economy. It helped the Bolshevik government survive the problems of 1921. After there were no new revolts, and the government was able to establish itself securely in power. It made the peasants and small traders happy because it gave them a little more money in their pockets.

First Soviet Five-Year Plan

1928 - 1932

Stalin launched his “revolution from above” by setting two goals for Soviet domestic policy. The two were rapid industrialization and collectivization of agriculture. They concentrated on developing heavy industry and collectivizing agriculture, at the cost of a fall in consumer goods. Also focused on the development of iron and steel, machine-tools, electric power and transportation.

US Stock Market Crash

October 29, 1929

Collapsed due to black Tuesday when investors traded 16 million shares on the same day. Billions of dollars were lost during this day wiping out thousands of investors. America and the rest of the industrialized world spiraled downward into the Great Depression after this the deepest and longest-lasting economic problem of the time occurred.

Civil Disobedience Movement in India

March 12, 1930

Mahatma Gandhi begins a defiant march to the sea in protest of the British monopoly on salt. The Indians refused to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of their government, or of their occupying international power. They used nonviolent techniques as boycotting, picketing, and nonpayment of taxes.

Invasion of China by Japan

September 18, 1931

The Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident. The Japanese claimed that Chinese soldiers had sabotaged the railway, and attacked the Chinese army, which had just executed a Japanese spy. The Chinese army did not fight back because it knew that the Japanese were just wanting an excuse to invade Manchuria. The United States refused to acknowledge or recognize any situation, or agreement that Japan may enter into as a result of the invasion.

japanese Invasion of Manchuria

September 19, 1931 - February 27, 1932

The Japanese claimed that Chinese soldiers had sabotaged the railway, and attacked the Chinese army, which had just executed a Japanese spy. The Chinese army did not fight back because it knew that the Japanese were just wanting an excuse to invade Manchuria. The United States refused to acknowledge or recognize any situation, or agreement that Japan may enter into as a result of the invasion.

Sandino is Murdered in Nicaragua

February 23, 1934

Following the withdrawal of the Marines and the inauguration of Sacasa as president, Sandino was invited to meet with Anastasio Somoza, the head of the National Guard, for a peace conference but was abducted and murdered instead by National Guardsmen.

Hitler is Ruler in Germany

August 19, 1934

He was elected president of Germany in because of his unprecedented consolidation of power. This is considered to be in the shortest republic in history. He promised to turn Germany back into the great pancake it once was and stated that not only could he bring everyone in Germany together but he could also return them their former glory and offer them revenge.

Long March by Chinese Communists

October 16, 1934

This marked the emergence of Mao Zedong as the undisputed leader of the Chinese Communists. It was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Chinese Nationalist Party army. The 6,000-mile march resulted in the relocation of the communist revolutionary base from southeastern to northwestern China and in the emergence of Mao Zedong as the undisputed party leader.

Stalin's "Great Purge" in USSR

1936 - 1938

The Great Purge or the Great Terror was a campaign of political repression. At least 600,000 people died at the hands of the Stalin-led Soviet government during the Purge. Occurred because Joseph Stalin, was paranoid of opposition, this ultimately led to the Great Purge where millions of people were executed or sent to labor camps in Siberia. Many prominent Old Bolsheviks were found guilty of treason and executed or imprisoned.

German Anschluss with Austria

March 1938

Hitler wanted all German-speaking nations in Europe to be a part of Germany. He designed a re-uniting Germany with his native homeland, Austria. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, however, Germany and Austria were forbidden to be unified. German troops march into Austria to annex the German-speaking nation for the Third Reich. In early 1938, Austrian Nazis conspired for the second time in four years to seize the Austrian government by force and unite their nation with Nazi Germany.

Cardenas Nationalizes Oil Industry in Mexico

March 18, 1938

The Mexican oil expropriation was the nationalization of all petroleum reserves, facilities, and foreign oil companies in Mexico. Mexico was the seventh-largest oil producer in the world as of 2006, producing 3.71 million barrels per day. Most of Mexico's production decline involves one enormous oil field in the Gulf of Mexico. Mexican President Lázaro Cárdenas signed an order that expropriated the assets of nearly all of the foreign oil companies operating in Mexico.

Invasion of Poland by Germany

September 1, 1939 - October 6, 1939

When Germany invaded Poland the Polish army was defeated within weeks of the invasion. After heavy shelling and bombing, Warsaw surrendered to the Germans. Soon after Britain and France, standing by their guarantee of Poland's border, had declared war on Germany. After that the Soviet Union invaded eastern Poland.

German Invasion of USSR

Jun 22, 1941 - Dec 5, 1941

Under the code name Operation "Barbarossa," Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in the largest German military operation of World War II. Made it obvious that Adolf Hitler had always regarded the German-Soviet nonaggression pact as a temporary tactical maneuver. The war was fought between Nazi Germany, its allies and Finland, against the Soviet Union.

Soviet Victory at Stalingrad

August 23, 1942 - February 2, 1943

General Paulus surrendered what remained of his army-some 91,000 men. About 150,000 Germans had died in the fighting. The Soviet victory at Stalingrad was a great humiliation for Hitler, who had elevated the battle's importance in German opinion. This battle was the first major German loss during World War II. After the Germans lost in Stalingrad, they did not advance any farther into eastern Europe or Russia.

D-Day, Allied invasion at Normandy

June 6, 1944

The Normandy landings were the landing operations of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. Code named Operation Neptune and often referred to as D-Day, it was the largest seaborne invasion in history. 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France's Normandy region.

Capture of Berlin by Soviet Forces

April 23, 1945

Was the final major offensive of the Europeans of World War II. General Helmuth Weidling assumed command of the forces within Berlin. Was a race to Berlin as a competition between two Soviet marshals, Georgy Zhukov and Ivan Konev. The first to enter Berlin during the final months of World War II was to win. With Germany's defeat inevitable, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin set his two marshals in a race to capture Berlin.

Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

August 6, 1945 - August 9, 1945

During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. President Harry S. Truman was warned by some of his advisers that any attempt to invade Japan would result in horrific American casualties. SO he ordered that the new weapon be used to bring the war to a speedy end. On August 6, 1945, the American bomber Enola Gay dropped a five-ton bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.

Establishment of United Nations

October 24, 1945

A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established after World War II with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states now there are 193. Representatives of 26 nations at war with the Axis powers met in Washington to sign the Declaration of the United Nations endorsing the Atlantic Charter , pledging to use their full resources against the Axis and agreeing not to make a separate peace.

Partition of India

August 15, 1947

The Partition of India was the division of British India which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan. The British leaders finally agreed that the partition was the best way to limit bloodshed between Hindus and Muslims within India. It was decided that India would be split into two independent nations. Pakistan would contain the mainly Muslim regions of India, and India would retain the regions of Hindu majority.

Apartheid in South Africa

1948 - 1991

Apartheid was a political and social system in South Africa while it was under white minority rule. The word apartheid means "apartness". This policy relations between South Africa's white minority and nonwhite majority and sanctioned racial segregation and political and economic discrimination against nonwhites. Initially, aim of the apartheid was to maintain white domination while extending racial separation.

Creation of Israel

May 14, 1948

David Ben-Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel. U.S. President Harry S. Truman recognized the new nation on the same day. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, the British assumed control of Palestine. The British government then issued the Balfour Declaration, announcing its intention to facilitate the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people."

Arab-Israeli War

May 15, 1948 - March 1949

The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the Palestine war. Broke out when five Arab nations invaded territory in the former Palestinian mandate immediately following the announcement of the independence of the state of Israel.

Human Rights Declaration Adopted

December 10, 1948

Is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session. Forty eight countries came together at the United Nations held in Paris; they are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights signatories. There was a total of 30 created on that day. Motivated by the experiences of the preceding world wars, the Universal Declaration was the first time that countries agreed on a comprehensive statement of inalienable human rights.

Established of NATO

April 4, 1949

A formal alliance between the territories of North American and Europe. Its main purpose was to defend each other from the possibility of the communist Soviet Union taking control of their nation. The prospect of further Communist expansion prompted the United States and 11 other Western nations to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Soviet Union and its affiliated Communist nations in Eastern Europe founded a rival alliance, the Warsaw Pact.

Establishment of People's Republic of China

October 1, 1949

A republic was formally established following the Xinhai Revolution, which itself began with the Wuchang Uprising successfully overthrowing the Qing Dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. From its founding until 1949 it was based on mainland China. President Liu Shaoqi, he was also the first Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China, ranked second in the Communist Party of China, behind Chairman Mao Zedong.

Korean War

June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953

Began when the North Korean Communist army crossed the 38th Parallel and invaded non-Communist South Korea. As Kim Il-sung's North Korean army, armed with Soviet tanks, quickly overran South Korea, the United States came to South Korea's aid. North Korea, supported by the Soviet Union and China, invaded South Korea, which was supported by the United States. General MacArthur, leader of the United Nations forces, drove the North Koreans back across the divide, yet encountered a Chinese invasion.

French Defeat at Dien Bien Phu

May 7, 1954

In northwest Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh's Viet Minh forces decisively defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu, a French stronghold besieged by the Vietnamese communists for 57 days. The Viet Minh victory at Dien Bien Phu signaled the end of French colonial influence in Indochina and cleared the way for the division of Vietnam.

Algerian War of Liberation

November 1, 1954 - March 19, 1962

A war between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. France and the leaders of the Front de Liberation Nationale sign a peace agreement to end the seven-year Algerian War, signaling its independence. Despite terrorist acts by French Algerians opposed to independence and an attempted coup in France by elements of the French army and Algeria became independent.

Establishment of Warsaw Pact

May 14, 1955

The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defense treaty signed in Warsaw. Was created in response to the NATO group. he Warsaw Pact came to be seen as quite a potential militaristic threat, as a sign of Communist dominance, and a definite opponent to American capitalism. The signing of the pact became a symbol of Soviet dominance in Eastern Europe.

Sino-Soviet Rift

1956 - 1966

A time when the relations between the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union weakened during the Cold War. Break in political relations between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Happened because of rebellion of Russia's working class under Marxism but the Chinese people didn't. This divide in fundamental ideology led them to split. Eventually, China's leader, Mao Zedong, decided to break the alliance with the Soviet Union.

Uprising in Hungary

23 October 1956 - 10 November 1956

A nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. Considered by many as the nation's greatest tragedy. The Uprising was an almost spontaneous revolt by the Hungarian people against the ruling Communist Party of the time and the Soviet policies which were crippling post-war Hungary.

Suez Crisis

October 29, 1956

Israeli armed forces pushed into Egypt toward the Suez Canal after Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the canal in July of that same year, initiating the Suez Crisis. The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War, was an invasion of Egypt by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.

Great Leap Forward in China

1958

It was an effort made by the Communist Party of China under the leadership of Mao Zedong to transform China into a society capable of competing with other Western industrialized nations, within a short, five-year time period. Sadly this "Great Leap Forward" failed.

Castro comes to power in Cuba

February 16, 1959

Established the first communist state in the Western Hemisphere after leading an overthrow of the military dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1959. He ruled over Cuba for nearly five decades, until handing off power to his younger brother.

Construction of Berlin Wall

August 13, 1961

The Berlin Wall. During the early years of the Cold War, West Berlin was a geographical loophole through which thousands of East Germans fled to the democratic West. In response, the Communist East German authorities built a wall that totally encircled West Berlin. It was built overnight.

US Troops in Vietnam

August 5, 1964 - May 7, 1975

The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began after World War II and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War. The U.S. involvement in South Vietnam stemmed from 20 long years also resulted in 58,318 US soldiers dead. The last remaining American troops withdraw from Vietnam as President Nixon declares "the day we have all worked and prayed for has finally come." America's longest war, and its first defeat, thus concludes.

Revolution in Iran

January 1978 - February 1979

The Iranian Revolution refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States. First came to political prominence in 1963 when he led opposition to the Shah and his program of reforms known as the "White Revolution", which aimed to break up landholdings owned by some Shi'a clergy, allow women to vote and religious freedom.

Iran-Iraq War

1980 - 1988

A bitter eight-year war which destabilised the region and devastated both countries. The then Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein claimed as a reason for the invasion a territorial dispute over the Shatt al-Arab, the waterway which forms the boundary between the two countries. Iraqi president Saddam Hussein claimed as the reason for his attack on Iran a territorial dispute over the Shatt al Arab, a waterway that empties into the Persian Gulf and forms the boundary between Iran and Iraq.

Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan

May 15, 1988 - February 15, 1989

The final and complete withdrawal of Soviet combatant forces from Afghanistan under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov. The Soviet Union signed the Geneva Accords with the United States, Pakistan and Afghanistan that created a timetable for withdrawal. The last Soviet troops left Afghanistan ending an occupation that lasted more than nine years.

Persian Gulf War

1990 - 1991

International conflict that was triggered by Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Egypt and several other Arab nations joined the anti-Iraq coalition and contributed forces to the military buildup, known as Operation Desert Shield. Hussein defied United Nations Security Council demands to withdraw from Kuwait and the Persian Gulf War began with a massive U.S.-led air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm.

Collapse of USSR

Dec 25, 1991

The Soviet Union disintegrated into fifteen separate countries. Its collapse was hailed by the west as a victory for freedom, a triumph of democracy over totalitarianism, and evidence of the superiority of capitalism over socialism. Thousands of jubilant Germans brought down the most visible symbol of division at the heart of Europe, the Berlin Wall.

Transfer of Hong Kong to China

July 1, 1997

China regained control of Hong Kong after 156 years of British rule. China gave up the island at the end of the first Opium War. The agreement stipulated that under Chinese rule except in matters of foreign relations and defense, and that the social and economic systems as well as the lifestyle in Hong Kong would remain unchanged for 50 years.

Camp Established at Guantanamo Bay

2002

A United States military prison located in Cuba. Since the inmates have been detained indefinitely without trial and several inmates were allegedly severely tortured, the operations of this camp are considered to be a major breach of human rights by Amnesty International. Guantánamo Bay detention camp, also called Gitmo.

International Outbreak of SARS

2003

Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus. SARS was first reported in Asia. he virus also can spread when a person touches a surface or object contaminated with infectious droplets and then touches his or her mouth, nose, or eye(s). In addition, it is possible that SARS-CoV might be spread more broadly through the air (airborne spread) or by other ways that are not now known. he virus also can spread when a person touches a surface or object contaminated with infectious droplets and then touches his or her mouth, nose, or eyes. In addition, it is possible it might be spread more broadly through the air or by other ways that are not now known.

Terrorist Attack on London Subway

July 7, 2005

he blast on a subway train caused panic and disrupted services over 29 people were injured. A homemade bomb exploded on a packed London subway train during the Friday-morning rush hour, unleashing panic. Police make 'significant' arrest in connection to London subway attack. The bombers were Mohammad Sidique Khan, Shehzad Tanweer, Germaine Lindsay, and Hasib Hussain. Three bombs were detonated at the same time by four terrorists on the London Underground trains. There were 56 deaths including the 4 bombers.