By: Ty Willis and Jaylen Childs
Egypt used rules for construction of buildings and most notably the pyramids. They used methods to compute areas and volumes for various types of objects, triangles, quadrilaterals, circles, and truncated pyramids.
Anon Moscow Papyrus use the formula V=h(a2+ab+b2)13
Ahmes wrote the book Rhind Papyrus
Egyptians had a decimal system using seven different symbols.Egyptians invented and used many simple machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes.
Sumerians developed writing and Arithmetic base on 60 number system. Babylon went beyond the problems, they mostly solved was construction and land estimation with areas and volumes. They knew some special cases of Pythagorean knowledge. They had tablets of rectangle, radius, square, and Pythagorean Integer Triples.Sumerians wrote multiplication tables on clay tablets and dealt with geometrical exercises and division problems.
The Chinese use simple math, like using small bamboo rods to represent 1-9. They didn't have a concept or symbol of zero. Lo Shu Square is an order three square which each row, column, and diagonal adds up to 15, is perhaps the earliest of these, dating back to around 650 BCE. The greatest mathematicians of ancient China was Liu Hui, he produced a detailed commentary on the "Nine Chapters".' But also the Chinese independently developed very large and negative numbers, decimals, a place value decimal system, a binary system, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.
Mathematics was developed by the Indian Culture.
Early discovered the benefits of a decimal place value number system. Bhaskara II accomplished all of the Indian mathematicians cause he noticed that dividing one into two pieces yields a half. Another one is Aryabhata was a astronomer produced definitions of sine, cosine, versine, inverse sine, and complete sine and versine.
This is the period were Alexander the Great breakthrough begin in mathematics. Euclid, Archimedes, Thales are people who studied and taught Alexander. Euclid was a great chronicler of mathematics of the 3rd century. But mainly Alexander was best known for the Heronian Triangles, and first to recognize fractions as numbers, then later known has algebra. Thales used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. Archimedes discovery for the relation between the surface and volume of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder.
Al-Khwarizmi had an important contribution to mathematics for the Hindu numerical system.( which is really just Algebra). He introduced the fundamental Algebraic methods of "reduction" and "balancing" and solving polynomial equations up to the second degree. He also prove the binomial theorem by using mathematical induction. Over time Muslim artists discovered all the different forms of symmetry that can be depicted on a 2-dimensional surface.
17th- This the century Pascal wrote a treatise on the subject of projective geometry known as Pascal Theorem. Pascal built a functional calculating machine, and he was a member of the Royal Society in London just like Leibniz. Talking about him Leibniz developed a complete theory of differential calculus and integral. Newton a great mathematician published the greatest scientific book ever, which is "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (usually called simply the "Principia"), its considered to be among the most influential books in the history.
18th- The Bernoulli brothers Jacob and Johann was great mathematicians in this century. Jacob publish The Art of Conjecture which was on probability theory and expected values. He invented polar coordinates, and discovered the approximate value of the irrational number. His brother Johann derived the equations for catenary curves and ramps. There is one more in this period Euler is consider the greatest mathematician of all times, causes he cover all aspects of all mathematicians.
19th- The 19th Century saw an increase in the breadth and complexity of mathematical concepts. Napoleon practical usefulness of mathematics in this century, and his reforms and military ambitions gave French mathematics a big boost. Joseph Fourier's was in mathematician who study at the beginning of the 19th Century, of infinite sums in which the terms are trigonometric functions were another important advance in mathematical analysis.There was also a young German prodigy Carl Friedrich Gauss, sometimes called the “Prince of Mathematics”, his idea was ahead of their time they say.
Euclid studied continued an they later name it, Euclidean geometry, which is the study of plane and solid figures on the basis of axioms and theorems employed by him.
Present geometry is the study of points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids. Hilbert was a brilliant mathematician, responsible for several theorems and some entirely new mathematical concepts in modern time. A Chinese American Perelman provided a proof of the first finite bound on gaps between prime numbers in 2013.