History Year 2

Events

Bombing of Pearl Harbour

December 7, 1941

Declaration of war on Axis by America, beginning of Pacific War

December 8, 1941

Fall of Singapore to the Japanese. Britain surrenders Singapore to Japan

February 15, 1942

Japanese carry out various atrocities to the people of Singapore

February 15, 1942 - August 17, 1942

such as Kempeitai activities including torture, being slapped, kicked, and punched for not showing proper respect to the Japanese, and severe punishments for looting. Nipponisation activities such as Japanese language education occur. Lack of basic necessities such as food and water.

Operation Sook Ching

February 18, 1942 - March 4, 1942

anywhere from 50,000 to 100,000 people died, mostly Chinese, is carried out by the Japanese.

BMA takes various measures to solve problems

1945

food shortage, disruption of supplies, change of currency, housing shortage, poor health conditions, and disruption of education.

Bombing of Hiroshima

August 6, 1945

Bombing of Nagasaki

August 9, 1945

Japan surrenders

August 15, 1945

Announcement over radio of surrender

August 17, 1945

Brit. Army returns to SG

September 3, 1945

Grand victory parade at the Padang

September 12, 1945

Surrender document was signed in the City Hall between Lord Mountbatten and the Japanese Commander. British Military Administration (BMA) arrives in Singapore to take charge.

Health Campaign, re-opening of schools

October 1945

nope we aren't giving you back ur weapons

December 1, 1945

4,000 members reject the BMA’s terms and go underground with their weapons.

MPAJA disbanded

December 1, 1945

MPAJA weapons are turned in to BMA.

Yamashita is executed in Manila

February 23, 1946

Iron Curtain Speech

March 5, 1946

Winston Churchill gives ‘Iron Curtain’ Speech, showing rise of Communism

Bye BMA

April 1, 1946

BMA leaves, Straits Settlements are dissolved and Singapore becomes a Crown Colony with its own Governor (British colonial government).

Social Welfare Department created

June 1946

First People's Restaurant in Telok Ayer

June 29, 1946

Social Welfare Department opens Family Restaurants to serve food to the poor

December 1946

Poland falls to Communists

January 1947

British bans TU

1947

because of TU-led strikes

Pea-cer-foo Age-jit-tay-shun

1947

MCP begins strategy of Peaceful Agitation. This leads to the “Year of Strikes”, with 300 strikes (mostly agitated by Communists) by 70,000 workers in Singapore and Malaya.

Lai Teck runs

February 1947

To escape questioning about his possible treachery, Lai Teck, Secretary-General of the Malayan Communist Party, flees the country with the party funds and is replaced by Chin Peng. Lai Teck was first a French spy in Indochina, then a British agent who infiltrated the MCP, then gave up his information about the MCP to the Japanese when he was captured during the fall of Singapore in exchange for his freedom. This resulted in the capture and execution of many MCP leaders.

Sook Ching War Trials

March 1947

2 officers (Onishi and Kawamura) executed, 5 sentenced to life imprisonment because most fled/died/no eye-witnesses. This leads to local dissatisfaction with the punishment dealt.

Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947

Truman Doctrine announced to counter Soviet and Communist expansion. Marshall Plan also announced (aid for European countries). Cold War begins.

MCP change of strategy

1948

OH NOEs pEaCEfUL AgITaTioN is not wORkING!!!! off we go to do some Armed Insurrection

1948 elections

March 20, 1948

1948 elections. Singapore Progressive Party (SPP) wins 3 of 6 seats (hint hint favoured by british) and the other 3 are won by independents. Only Singapore-born people allowed to vote and only around 13800 voted.

Murder!

June 16, 1948

Three British plantation members are killed by MCP

Start of Emergency

June 18, 1948

Emergency declared throughout Malaya; MCP and various left-leaning parties banned.

Mother Russia has discovered how to atomic bomb

August 1948

CCP inspires chinese in Malaya

1949

Many local Chinese are inspired by the rise of Communist China. At the same time, China creates the Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission; it also asks Nanyang Chinese schools and newspapers to establish links with CCP, and asks people to send children for Chinese education and send remittance back. In response, Singapore authorities clamp communications with China, while also instating a ban on returning visitors from China in 1950. This angers the Chinese Chamber of Commerce.

Briggs Plan

April 2, 1949

General Sir Harold Briggs is appointed to Malaya. Briggs plans the Briggs Plan. Starts relocating villagers to “New Villages”.

Nadra found by mother

September 1949

Maria Hertogh found by her mother Adeline, who wants to claim her back. (this incites the Maria Hertogh riots later on)

CCP wins civil war - China is now Communist!

October 1, 1949

毛泽东主席 proclaims People’s Republic of China as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) defeats Kuomintang. China is now a Communist state.

Court ruling for Nadra

May 1950

Court rules that Maria Hertogh be returned to her biological parents

Korean War begins

June 25, 1950

Marriage

July 1950 - November 1950

Nadra gets married to a Malay teacher at the age of 13

Appeal by Che Aminah

July 1950

Che Aminah appeals and courts rules Maria to be given back to Che Aminah.

Nope ur not married

November 1950

Court does not recognise Nadra's marriage, Nadra is returned to her biological parents. Che Aminah sends in yet another appeal

Verdict announced

December 11, 1950

Court rejects Che Aminah's appeal, much to the dismay of the large number of Malay-Muslims outside the courthouse, who begin rioting

Curfew

December 12, 1950

Curfew imposed, military police is called in to manage situation

Peace restored

December 13, 1950

RIP Sir Henry Gurney

October 6, 1951

British High Commissioner in Malaya Sir Henry Gurney is killed in an ambush by Communist insurgents. Replaced by Field Marshal Gerald Templer.

Briggs leaves Malaya

December 1951

Recommendations by Rendel

1953 - 1954

Rendel Commission recommends increase in number of Legislative Council seats to 32, 25 of which would be elected by people, basic requirements for citizenship, etc.

Rendel Commission formed

1953

The Rendel Commission was appointed by Governor John Nicoll (Sir) in July 1953 to undertake a comprehensive review of the constitution of the Singapore colony.

Legislative Assembly GE

April 2, 1953

Legislative Assembly General Election (GE) was held to elect 25 out of 32 seats in Legislative Assembly. On 28 February, nomination day, a total of 79 candidates submitted their names to contest for the 25 available seats. Ten of the candidates were independents while the remaining 69 were from six political parties. The contesting parties were the Progressive Party (22 candidates), Democratic Party (20), Labour Front (17), PAP (4), Singapore Alliance (5), Labour Party (1).

Korean War ended

July 27, 1953

NS ordinance implemented by Brit

March 1954

National Service Ordinance implemented by the British. This triggers demonstrations by Chinese students.

White areas

May 1954

All areas in Malaya are declared "White Areas" other than Johore and Penang

Anti NS Riots

May 13, 1954

Anti-National Service Riots: violence erupts when hundreds of students clash with the police as they demonstrate against the mandatory registration for military service.

Proposal of Merger

1955

David Marshall tries and fails to get Malaya to merge with SG

1955 General Elections

April 2, 1955

Singapore general elections held with strong anti-colonialist feelings. Rendel Constitution implemented, limited self-government granted to Singapore (education, healthcare, housing, trade and industry, transport and communication). LF win 10 seats and PAP win 3 seats (out of 25). British shock at SPP loss (LF was not favoured by British). David Marshall becomes Chief Minister.

Notice for Strike

April 23, 1955

Singapore Bus Workers’ Union puts up notice to go on strike. This leads to the company firing more than 200 workers who were related to the SBWU.

Hock Lee Bus Riots

May 12, 1955

Hock Lee Bus Riots: workers of Hock Lee Amalgamated Bus Co., members of the pro-Communist Singapore Bus Workers’ Union (SBWU), go on strike. They paralyse the transport system and students support them with song and dance. Students also provided food and money to the strikers and set up donation drives for them. Two police officers and an American press correspondent, Gene Symonds, are killed by rioters. The police kill a student and 11 were injured. Marshall not willing to arrest Communist instigators of the riots or open fire, believing the workers to have genuine grievances and being unable to let himself attack students.

Moar Power to Commissioner of Police

May 16, 1955

Emergency Meeting of the Legislative Assembly held to reinstate certain powers to the Commissioner of Police so that he could control the internal security of the state. Marshall is criticized.

Amnesty for Communists

September 8, 1955

Singapore and Malayan governments announce amnesty for Communist insurgents: all MCP members who surrendered would be granted immunity from prosecution for Communist-related affairs

Vietnam War begins

November 1, 1955

Baling Talks

December 28, 1955

Baling Talks held between Malayan Government led by Tunku Abdul Rahman and MCP led by Chin Peng. However, Chin Peng refuses to agree to the terms of the MCP not being involved in politics in the future.

No more amnesty for you

February 1956

Tunku ends amnesty for MCP members and ignores all further appeals for peace.

First Merdeka Talks

April 23, 1956

Marshall leads a delegation to London to discuss internal self-government for Singapore. (First Merdeka Talks)

First Merdeka Talks failed

May 15, 1956

Talks reach a deadlock.

David Marshall resigns

June 7, 1956

Lim Yew Hock succeeds him to be the next Chief Minister

SCMSSU and Musical Gong shut down

October 1956

Singapore Chinese Middle School Students’ Union, Chinese Musical Gong Society (because Musical Gongs are clearly communist), and Singapore Women’s Association is closed down by Lim Yew Hock’s government. Students protest by camping at Chung Cheng High School and Chinese High School for 2 weeks.

Vacate the schools pls -British

October 24, 1956

Government issues an ultimatum that the two Chinese schools be vacated

Out comes the Tear Gas

October 26, 1956

Police cleared schools of students with tear gas

Order restored

October 31, 1956

13 deaths, 100 injured

Second Merdeka Talks

March 11, 1957

British allow Singapore full-internal self government in Second Merdeka Talks to Lim Yew Hock, who was more willing to suppress strikes and riots. Full internal self-government in Singapore after an election in 1959.

PKI numbers 1.5 million

1958

PKI membership in Indonesia reaches 1.5 million. This, in conjunction with CCP takeover of China in 1949, causes the British to fear Singapore and Malaya falling to external Communist influence (Domino Theory).

1959 elections

May 30, 1959

PAP wins 43 of 51 seats. LF wins 0.

LKY becomes PM

June 3, 1959

End of Emergency

July 31, 1960

Hong Lim by-election

April 29, 1961

PAP loses Hong Lim by-election to Ong Eng Guan

Merger Proposal

May 27, 1961

Merger is proposed by Tunku Abdul Rahman, first Chief Minister of Malaya.

Anson by-election

July 15, 1961

PAP loses Anson by-election to David Marshall

Communists in PAP

August 1961

Pro-communists led by Lim Chin Siong attempted to capture the leadership of the PAP so that they could reject merger. However, they were not successful and 13 PAP Assemblymen who supported Lim were expelled.

BS founded

August 13, 1961

Lee Siew Choh and Lim Chin Siong found Barisan Sosialis. BS established on instructions of Fong Chong Pik, chief representative of the Communist Party of Malaya in Singapore.

Merger referendum

September 1, 1962

Singaporean integration referendum held, with 3 options. No option to reject merger altogether available, so BS calls BS and calls on its supporters to cast blank votes. PAP responds that all blank votes will just be counted as being for the winning vote. About 25% of votes are blank votes anyway. 96% choose Option A (merger with reserved powers, autonomy over labour and education, automatic of Singapore citizenship to Malayan citizenship, 15 seats in Central Parliament, retention of multi-lingualism)

Rebellion in Brunei

December 8, 1962

The left-wing Brunei People's Party stages a rebellion against the British Governor and the Sultan. This rebellion is crushed in less than a month and impacts Brunei's decision to not join Malaysia

Cold Storage begins

February 3, 1963

Operation Coldstore captures a confederacy of colluding Communists, including Lim Chin Siong. Armchair philosophers debate ethics of this for years to come.

Merger

September 16, 1963

Merger occurs. Federation of Malaya comes into existence, comprising Malaya, Singapore, Sabah, and Sarawak.

full 1963 Elections

September 21, 1963

Months after their political opponents are removed by Operation Coldstore, Lee Kuan Yew calls for a full elections. PAP wins 37 out of 51 (BS 13, UPP 1).

Second Malayan Emergency

June 17, 1968

MCP returns to Malaya; “Second Malayan Emergency”

Hat Yai Peace Accords

1989

After MCP fails to pull off another insurgency, they finally sign the Hat Yai Peace accords in 1989, ending all violence and conflict.

Chin Peng dieded

September 16, 2013