such as Kempeitai activities including torture, being slapped, kicked, and punched for not showing proper respect to the Japanese, and severe punishments for looting. Nipponisation activities such as Japanese language education occur. Lack of basic necessities such as food and water.
anywhere from 50,000 to 100,000 people died, mostly Chinese, is carried out by the Japanese.
food shortage, disruption of supplies, change of currency, housing shortage, poor health conditions, and disruption of education.
Surrender document was signed in the City Hall between Lord Mountbatten and the Japanese Commander. British Military Administration (BMA) arrives in Singapore to take charge.
4,000 members reject the BMA’s terms and go underground with their weapons.
MPAJA weapons are turned in to BMA.
Winston Churchill gives ‘Iron Curtain’ Speech, showing rise of Communism
BMA leaves, Straits Settlements are dissolved and Singapore becomes a Crown Colony with its own Governor (British colonial government).
because of TU-led strikes
MCP begins strategy of Peaceful Agitation. This leads to the “Year of Strikes”, with 300 strikes (mostly agitated by Communists) by 70,000 workers in Singapore and Malaya.
To escape questioning about his possible treachery, Lai Teck, Secretary-General of the Malayan Communist Party, flees the country with the party funds and is replaced by Chin Peng. Lai Teck was first a French spy in Indochina, then a British agent who infiltrated the MCP, then gave up his information about the MCP to the Japanese when he was captured during the fall of Singapore in exchange for his freedom. This resulted in the capture and execution of many MCP leaders.
2 officers (Onishi and Kawamura) executed, 5 sentenced to life imprisonment because most fled/died/no eye-witnesses. This leads to local dissatisfaction with the punishment dealt.
Truman Doctrine announced to counter Soviet and Communist expansion. Marshall Plan also announced (aid for European countries). Cold War begins.
OH NOEs pEaCEfUL AgITaTioN is not wORkING!!!! off we go to do some Armed Insurrection
1948 elections. Singapore Progressive Party (SPP) wins 3 of 6 seats (hint hint favoured by british) and the other 3 are won by independents. Only Singapore-born people allowed to vote and only around 13800 voted.
Three British plantation members are killed by MCP
Emergency declared throughout Malaya; MCP and various left-leaning parties banned.
Many local Chinese are inspired by the rise of Communist China. At the same time, China creates the Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission; it also asks Nanyang Chinese schools and newspapers to establish links with CCP, and asks people to send children for Chinese education and send remittance back. In response, Singapore authorities clamp communications with China, while also instating a ban on returning visitors from China in 1950. This angers the Chinese Chamber of Commerce.
General Sir Harold Briggs is appointed to Malaya. Briggs plans the Briggs Plan. Starts relocating villagers to “New Villages”.
Maria Hertogh found by her mother Adeline, who wants to claim her back. (this incites the Maria Hertogh riots later on)
毛泽东主席 proclaims People’s Republic of China as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) defeats Kuomintang. China is now a Communist state.
Court rules that Maria Hertogh be returned to her biological parents
Nadra gets married to a Malay teacher at the age of 13
Che Aminah appeals and courts rules Maria to be given back to Che Aminah.
Court does not recognise Nadra's marriage, Nadra is returned to her biological parents. Che Aminah sends in yet another appeal
Court rejects Che Aminah's appeal, much to the dismay of the large number of Malay-Muslims outside the courthouse, who begin rioting
Curfew imposed, military police is called in to manage situation
British High Commissioner in Malaya Sir Henry Gurney is killed in an ambush by Communist insurgents. Replaced by Field Marshal Gerald Templer.
Rendel Commission recommends increase in number of Legislative Council seats to 32, 25 of which would be elected by people, basic requirements for citizenship, etc.
The Rendel Commission was appointed by Governor John Nicoll (Sir) in July 1953 to undertake a comprehensive review of the constitution of the Singapore colony.
Legislative Assembly General Election (GE) was held to elect 25 out of 32 seats in Legislative Assembly. On 28 February, nomination day, a total of 79 candidates submitted their names to contest for the 25 available seats. Ten of the candidates were independents while the remaining 69 were from six political parties. The contesting parties were the Progressive Party (22 candidates), Democratic Party (20), Labour Front (17), PAP (4), Singapore Alliance (5), Labour Party (1).
National Service Ordinance implemented by the British. This triggers demonstrations by Chinese students.
All areas in Malaya are declared "White Areas" other than Johore and Penang
Anti-National Service Riots: violence erupts when hundreds of students clash with the police as they demonstrate against the mandatory registration for military service.
David Marshall tries and fails to get Malaya to merge with SG
Singapore general elections held with strong anti-colonialist feelings. Rendel Constitution implemented, limited self-government granted to Singapore (education, healthcare, housing, trade and industry, transport and communication). LF win 10 seats and PAP win 3 seats (out of 25). British shock at SPP loss (LF was not favoured by British). David Marshall becomes Chief Minister.
Singapore Bus Workers’ Union puts up notice to go on strike. This leads to the company firing more than 200 workers who were related to the SBWU.
Hock Lee Bus Riots: workers of Hock Lee Amalgamated Bus Co., members of the pro-Communist Singapore Bus Workers’ Union (SBWU), go on strike. They paralyse the transport system and students support them with song and dance. Students also provided food and money to the strikers and set up donation drives for them. Two police officers and an American press correspondent, Gene Symonds, are killed by rioters. The police kill a student and 11 were injured. Marshall not willing to arrest Communist instigators of the riots or open fire, believing the workers to have genuine grievances and being unable to let himself attack students.
Emergency Meeting of the Legislative Assembly held to reinstate certain powers to the Commissioner of Police so that he could control the internal security of the state. Marshall is criticized.
Singapore and Malayan governments announce amnesty for Communist insurgents: all MCP members who surrendered would be granted immunity from prosecution for Communist-related affairs
Baling Talks held between Malayan Government led by Tunku Abdul Rahman and MCP led by Chin Peng. However, Chin Peng refuses to agree to the terms of the MCP not being involved in politics in the future.
Tunku ends amnesty for MCP members and ignores all further appeals for peace.
Marshall leads a delegation to London to discuss internal self-government for Singapore. (First Merdeka Talks)
Talks reach a deadlock.
Lim Yew Hock succeeds him to be the next Chief Minister
Singapore Chinese Middle School Students’ Union, Chinese Musical Gong Society (because Musical Gongs are clearly communist), and Singapore Women’s Association is closed down by Lim Yew Hock’s government. Students protest by camping at Chung Cheng High School and Chinese High School for 2 weeks.
Government issues an ultimatum that the two Chinese schools be vacated
Police cleared schools of students with tear gas
13 deaths, 100 injured
British allow Singapore full-internal self government in Second Merdeka Talks to Lim Yew Hock, who was more willing to suppress strikes and riots. Full internal self-government in Singapore after an election in 1959.
PKI membership in Indonesia reaches 1.5 million. This, in conjunction with CCP takeover of China in 1949, causes the British to fear Singapore and Malaya falling to external Communist influence (Domino Theory).
PAP wins 43 of 51 seats. LF wins 0.
PAP loses Hong Lim by-election to Ong Eng Guan
Merger is proposed by Tunku Abdul Rahman, first Chief Minister of Malaya.
PAP loses Anson by-election to David Marshall
Pro-communists led by Lim Chin Siong attempted to capture the leadership of the PAP so that they could reject merger. However, they were not successful and 13 PAP Assemblymen who supported Lim were expelled.
Lee Siew Choh and Lim Chin Siong found Barisan Sosialis. BS established on instructions of Fong Chong Pik, chief representative of the Communist Party of Malaya in Singapore.
Singaporean integration referendum held, with 3 options. No option to reject merger altogether available, so BS calls BS and calls on its supporters to cast blank votes. PAP responds that all blank votes will just be counted as being for the winning vote. About 25% of votes are blank votes anyway. 96% choose Option A (merger with reserved powers, autonomy over labour and education, automatic of Singapore citizenship to Malayan citizenship, 15 seats in Central Parliament, retention of multi-lingualism)
The left-wing Brunei People's Party stages a rebellion against the British Governor and the Sultan. This rebellion is crushed in less than a month and impacts Brunei's decision to not join Malaysia
Operation Coldstore captures a confederacy of colluding Communists, including Lim Chin Siong. Armchair philosophers debate ethics of this for years to come.
Merger occurs. Federation of Malaya comes into existence, comprising Malaya, Singapore, Sabah, and Sarawak.
Months after their political opponents are removed by Operation Coldstore, Lee Kuan Yew calls for a full elections. PAP wins 37 out of 51 (BS 13, UPP 1).
MCP returns to Malaya; “Second Malayan Emergency”
After MCP fails to pull off another insurgency, they finally sign the Hat Yai Peace accords in 1989, ending all violence and conflict.