Chemistry

Events

Democritus

460 BC - 370 BC

He was a Greek philosopher born in Thrace who is mostly responsible for coming up with the atomic theory of the universe.

Aristotle

384 BC - 322 BC

He was a Greek philosopher born in the city of Stagira who refuted Democritus and believed in four elements which were water, air, fire, and earth. He also tutored Alexander the Great and because of his theory it led to 2000 years of bogus science.

Alchemy part 1

300 BC - 500

In 332 BC Alexander the Great had conquered Egypt and Greek philosophers became interested in Egyptian religion and their views on the four element and then merged their views.

Alchemy part 2

600 - 700

600 AD Arabs then occupied Egypt and further merged their views and then spread it to the west in 700s. Metals were made up of mercury and sulfur and gold was known as the perfect metal and the others known as baser metals that could be turned into gold by a philosophers stone. Alchemists then tried to use this concept to obtain spiritual purification and immortality.

Alchemy part 3

1500 - 1590

The alchemists in Europe eventually split into two different groups, one that studied new compounds, reactions, and chemical processes, as well as inventing distillation, percolation, extraction, rudimentary, and chromatography and their studies are now known as modern day chemistry. The other group decided to look into the spiritual side of alchemy to try and achieve immortality. This is now known as modern day alchemy.

Vitalism

1600 - 1700

Vitalism states that living organisms are different from non living entities because the entities contain a vital spirit. Living things are then said to be controlled by different things then inanimate things.

The phlogiston theory

1667 - 1700

The phlogiston theory is a scientific theory that stated that a fire like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and realeased during combustion. The theory was first stated by Johann Joachim and the theory attempted to explain combustion and rusting which are now known as oxidation.

Anton Laurent de la Voisier

1743 - 1794

He is known as the father of modern chemistry. He also dispelled the phlogiston theory by proving that oxygen causes combustion. He also discovered the law of conservation of mass.

Benjamin Franklin

1752

He was one of the founding fathers as well as an inventor who made many contributions to life. He invented bifocals, the Franklin stove, as well as figuring out that electrical charges can be negative and positive.

Joseph Louis Proust

1754 - 1826

He is a French chemist who is best known for coming up with the law of definite proportions which states that chemical compounds always combine in constant proportions.

John Dalton

1766 - 1844

He is an English chemist who is known for coming up with the modern atomic theory.

William Crookes et. al

1861 - 1880

He was an English chemist who invented what is known as the crookes tube. Also the cathode ray tube which is just a tube that would glow up from a fluorescent paint which was also connected to a battery and the glowing paint indicated there was radiation in the battery.

Sir John Joseph Thompson

1898

An English physicist who earned the Nobel prize and continued working on William Crookes CRT and found out about electrons as well as isotopes.

Ernest Rutherford

1900 - 1905

Responsible for his famous gold foil experiment which let him know in the end that atoms are mostly empty space, there must be a solid core in the center of the atom, and the core must be positively charged.

Curies (Marie and Pierre)

1903

They discovered and isolated polonium and radium from uranium ores.

Becquerel

1903

This man discovered radioactivity in uranium ore.

Millikan

1910

This man calculated the mass and charge of an electron

James Chadwick

1935

An English physicist who proved the existence of the neutron. Was also awarded the Nobel Prize and because of his final draft of the MAUD report it inspired the US government to begin serious atomic bomb research efforts. He was also head of the British team that worked on the Manhattan project.