Palmer Chapter 5

Events

Hapsbourgs Continuously Elected

1438 - Approx. 1700

Russian Expansion

Approx. 1450 - Approx. 1650

Turks Conquer Constantinople

1453

Ivan III

1462 - 1505

Duke of Muscovy

Suleiman the Magnificent's Army Turned Back from Vienna

1529

Turks Threaten to Break Through Main Centers of Germany

1529

Reign of Ivan the Terrible

1533 - 1584

Ivan the Terrible Conquers Kazan

1552

Richard Chancellor Arrives in Moscow

1553

Corrected Calendar Released by Pope Gregory XIII

1582

Russians Set Up Independent Religious Patriarch

1589

Russian Patriarchs

1589 - 1700

Elections of independent religious patriarchs in Russia

Time of Troubles

1604 - 1613

Gustavus Adolphus

1611 - 1632

Sweedish genius

Election of Michael Romanov

1613

In 1613 a national assembly, hoping to settle the trouble, elected a 17-year-old boy as tsar, believing him young enough to have no connection with any of the warring faactions. The new boy tsar was Michael Romanov, of a gentry family, related by married to the old line of Ivan the Terrible.

Rule of the Romanov Dynasty

1613 - 1917

Hohenzollerns Control New Areas

1614

The Hohenzollerns had earlier, in 1614, come to control the small state of Cleves on the Rhine at the Dutch border and a few other small terretories also in Western Germany

Elector of Brandenburg Inherits Duchy of Prussia

1618

Russians Establish Towns in Asian Siberia

Approx. 1630 - Approx. 1639

Queen Christina

1632 - 1654

Brilliant and erratic Sweedish queen

Fredrick William Develops Military In Prussia

1640 - 1688

Fredrick William, a.k.a. 'The Great Elector'

New Law of Peasant Registry

1646

By a law of 1646 landowners were required to enter the names of all their peasants in government registers; peasants once so entered, together with their descendants, were regarded as attached to the estate on which they were registered.

The Transformation of Eastern Europe

1648 - 1670

Germany Wins Recognition of Sovereignty

1648

Hapsbourg Power

1648 - 1740

Recovery & growth

Russian Patriarch Undertakes Church Reforms

Approx. 1650 - Approx. 1659

In the 1650s the Russian patriarch undertook certain church reforms, mainly to correct mistranslations in Russian versions of the Bible and other sacred writings.

1st Diet Exploded

1652

Great Elector Fights Battle at Warsaw

1657

E. Prussian Fief Independent of Poland

1660

Vienna & Constantinople Feud Flares Up

1663

Ottoman Empire Begins Expansion in Central Europe

1663

Janissaries Mobilizing in Hungary

1663

Turkish 20 Year Truce

1664 - 1684

Russia Regains Smolensk & Kiev

1667

Muscovites Reconquer Smolensk & Kiev

1667

Stephen Razin Leads Rebellion

1667 - 1671

Stephen Razin leads rebellion of rural population in Russia

New Law About Peasant Sales

1675

A law of 1675 allowed the lords to sell peasants without the land, and thus to move peasants like chattles at the will of the owner.

John Sobieski Leads Campaign Against the Ottomans

Approx. 1680 - Approx. 1689

Reign of Tsar Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Peter the Great Becomes Russian Tsar

1682

Ottoman Imperial Army Forced to Abandon Siege of Vienna

1683

Turkish Army Sets Up Siege in Vienna

1683

Guelphs Obtain an Electorate

1692

Peter Captures Azov

1696

Louis XIV Wins Battle of Zenta

1697

Drives Ottoman forces out of Hungary

Charles XII

1697 - 1718

Amazing Sweedish militarist

Peter Enters Into Alliance With Poland & Denmark

1697

In 1697, the Sweedish king having died, Peter entered into an alliance with Poland and Denmark to partition the overseas possessions of the Sweedish house

Peter the Great Visits Europe

1697 - 1698

Peter on his visit to Europe in 1697-1698 recreuited almost 1,000 experts for service in Russia

Peter the Great's European Reforms

1698 - 1725

Tsar Peter the Great introduces European reforms in Russia

Rebellion of Streltsi

1698

Streltsi: a king of Moscow gaurd, complsed of nobles & constantly active in politics

Peace of Karlowitz

1699

Turks yeild most of Hungary, plus Transylvania and Croatia, to Hapsbourgs; Ottoman empire pushed back permanently to Romania and the Balkans

Spain Passes to Bourbon Family of France

1700

Russians Reach the Bearing Sea

Approx. 1700

Battle of Narva

1700

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Fredrick William becomes King in Prussia

1701

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Charles VI Builds Austrian Empire

1711 - 1740

Reign of Fredrick William I in Prussia

1713 - 1740

1st Issue of Pragmatic Sanction

1713

King Fredrick William I Expands Army & Wealth of Prussia

1713 - 1740

Gulephs Inherit the Throne of Great Britain

1714

Treaty of Rastatt

1714

Annexation of the old Spanish Netherlands, Milan, and Naples to Hapsbourgs after the War of the Spanish Succession

Charles XII Dies

1718

Peter the Great Dies

1725

Peace of Belgrade

1739

Drew a new frontier that remained unchanged on the Austrian side until the 20th century

Charles VI Dies

1740

Bavarian Elected to Imperial Throne

1742

"In 1742 the French obtained the elevation of their Bavarian ally to the imperial throne."

Stock Exchange Established in Vienna

1771

Duchy of Prussia Joined With Pomerania

1772

Prussia Collapses During Napoleonic Wars

1806

Petrograd

1914

St. Petersburg is renamed Petrograd

Moscow As Russian Capital

1917

Replacing (or taking back) St. Petersburg

Russian Revolution

1917

Required all gentry to put their sons in school. He sent many abroad to study. He simplified the Russian alphabet. He edited the first newspaper to appear in Russia. He ordered the preparation of the first Russian book of ettiquete, teaching his subjects not to spit on the floor, scratch themselves, or gnaw bones at dinner, to mix socially with women, take off their hats, converse plesantly, and look at people while talking. The beard he took as a symbol of Muscovite backwardness; he forbade it in Russia, and himself shaved a number of men at his court. He forced people to attent evening parties to teach them manners. He had no respect for hereditary aristocracy, torturing or executing the higborn as readily as the peasants. As for religion, Peter was described as a pieous man who enjoued singing in church, but he was contemptous of ecclestical dignity, and in one wild revel paraded publicl with drunken companions in religious vestments and mocking the priests. Like many revolutionists of his time, he was aggressively secular.

Hohenzollern Empire Crashes

1918