AP World Timeline

Events

Prehistory, Agricultural Revolution, & Ancient Mesopotamia

8,000 BCE - 3,000 BCE

-Neanderthals create communities, weapons, fire, etc. They eventually become agriculture centered rather than hunting/scavenging-oriented by learning how to farm.
-Cro-Magnon = Oldest known modern humans linked to the Lascaux cave paintings in Europe.
-Pastoralists started up shortly after, further domesticating animals for human usage.
-Sargon = First ruler of the Akkadian empire. He was known for conquering the Sumerian city-states.
-Abraham = Figure revered in Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
-Bronze is acquired later on, leading to the creations of various weapons, armor, and et cetera of which are used to protect civilizations.

Bronze Age Begins - Early Civilizations

3000 B.C.E

-Using bronze, the world is thrust into a position of increasing military power and territorial battles.
-Developed smelting and blacksmithing
-Bronze swords, shields, spears, helmets, chest plates, and more are taken into battle as protection from opposing forces.
-Pharoah Menes of Egypt leads his men into battle, therefore solidifying their loyalty to him. First time an authoritative figure rides into the heat of battle in the front.

King Hammurabi & His Code

1,800 BCE - 1,750 BCE

-Hammurabi = 6th king of the first Babylonian Empire who wrote the Hammurabi Code
-Hammurabi's code is the first set of written laws
-Punishments varied depending on social class

Early Alphabet and Script

1500 B.C.E

-Phoenecians create first alphabet
-Egyptians have the first number system with 0

Iron Age

1300 B.C. - 500 B.C.

-Most used material was iron
-Bronze weapons were replaced with iron weapons
-Followed Bronze Age as iron was used more

The Olmec

1200 BCE - 400 BCE

-Gigantic heads made of basalt
-Language, beliefs, art, and athletics influenced later civilizations
-Traded with regions as far as 250 miles away,obtaining jade & obsidian
-Built large earthen pyramids under which they buried valuable items
-Developed a calendar, a numbering system that included zero
-System used glyphs

Zhou Dynasty

Approx. 1122 BCE - 356 BCE

-Mandate of Heaven
-Longest lasting dynasty

Assyrian Empire

1000 BC - 700 BC

-Assyria = major Mesopotamian kingdom
-Assyria had powerful and capable rulers such as Sargon II. These leaders built the empire into one of the most powerful empires in the world.
-They conquered much of the Middle East and Egypt.
- Babylonians brought down the Assyrian Empire in 612 BC.

The Chavin

1000 BCE - 200 BCE

-Along coast of what is now Peru
- Step pyramids
- Also developed Irrigation systems
-Most Chavin people lived in valleys growing cotton
-Developed impressive techniques in gold, silver, & copper metallurgy
-Religion united the people but their political structure was weak

Beginnings of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism

600 B.C.E

-Buddhism -
-Developed from the teachings of the Buddha
-Spread from India to Central and Southeast Asia, China, Korea, and Japan.
-Confucianism-
-Ideas of Confucius became the foundation of Confucianism, his disciples gathered his teachings and added their own thoughts to create the Analects.
-Appealed to many people because he argued for respecting social hierarchies and traditions
-Daoism -
-Founder = Laozi
-Followers gathered Laozi (old master)'s ideas together in the Dao De Jing (The Classic Way and the Virtue)
-Followers seek happiness and wisdom by way of the Dao (path) To follow the dao is to renounce worldly ambitions & society and seek harmony with nature instead.

Achaemenid Empire

550 BCE - 330 BCE

-Cyrus and Darius
-Centralized government
- Satraps: governors under the king who ruled over provinces; bureaucratic system
- Used royal roads as communication system
-Persepolis is the capital
-Zoroastroanism-
-Monotheistic
-First good v. bad ideology & judgement day

Greek Golden Age

500 B.C. - 400 B.C.

-Athens and Sparta were the most well known city-states; however, they were rivals
-Both societies contributed to bringing the world to its peaks in art, culture, and warfare.
-Defeated the Persians
-Peloponnesian wars lasted 30 years and left both city-states useless.

Alexander the Great

336 BCE - 323 BCE

-Succeeded his father Philip II to the throne
-Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until age 16.
- he invaded the Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire) and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years.
-Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles.
-He overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety.

Mauryan Empire

250 BC

-Traded with middle east
-Ashoka was violent & bloody but converted to Buddhism; he spread it
-Unified with Gupta in 400 BC

-Gupta Empire-
-Hinduism reemerged
-Golden Age: created Arabic numerals, had concept of 0, predicted eclipses, medical breakthroughs
-Patriarchal society

Qin Unifies China

221 B.C.E

-Followed the Zhou dynasty
-China became involved in a seemingly endless conflict between the various regions for control of the country.
-The period that follows after is the Warring States Period

Han Dynasty

206 BC - 220 CE

-"Golden Age"
-Science, art, culture, etc. flourished
-Silk road: Silk is the most desired product for trade
-Civil service exam: People could study Confucius' texts and be tested on it; if passed, they could get a government job
- Sun dials, paper, compass, rudders, seismographs, etc. were created
-Centralized rule
-Han Wudi
-Bureaucracy, legalist principles, built roads & canals, taxes
-Invaded Vietnam & Korea = spread of Confucian ideas
-Filial Piety
- Yellow Turban Rebellion = Peasant uprising

Pax Romana

27 BCE - 180 CE

-During Roman empire with Augustus Caesar
-Long period of relative peacefulness and minimal expansion
-The Pax Romana began when Octavian (Augustus) defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra and became the Roman emperor

Beginnings of Christianity

32 C.E

-Jesus was prosecuted by Roman government
-Built on a basis of Judaism
-He began accumulating followers during the rule of the Roman Empire in the Middle East.
-The religion began spreading through monks, preachers, and missionaries.

Roman Capital: Constantinople

333 C.E

-Constantine the Great, the founder and emperor of the Byzantine empire had the Roman capital moved to the Byzantium city
-Constantine renamed the capital as Constantinople
-Christianity was legalized

Fall of Rome

476 CE

-Devastating epidemics transported through Silk Road: plagues of smallpox and measles
-Decline in population= decline in trade =downward spiral of empire's power and wealth
-Increasing demand for lumber and fuel led to deforestation and soil erosion

Justinian Rule of Byzantine Empire

527 CE

-Justinian I was the Byzantine emperor
-Justinian Code was created: it said the emperor made all of the laws and interpreted the laws as well. Justinian Code = Law
-Justinian attempted to revitalize the Roman empire and regain power and wealth