-The start of the first Agricultural Revolution around 8000 B.C.E.
-The creation of Catal Huyuk which was an ancient city around 75000 B.C.E.
-The Epic of Gilgamesh was written known as the oldest piece of writing as Ancient Sumer and Babylon rose around 2000 B.C.E.
-Bronze Age: 4000 B.C.E. to 1500 B.C.E. - creation and use of bronze tools
-Iron Age: around 1000 B.C.E. - creation and use of iron tools
Neanderthals - very first humans who came before the Neolithic Period
Sargon - Emperor of Akkadian/famous for conquest of Sumerian city States
Abraham- Leader of the Hebrews who lead these people to northern Mesopotamia
Hammurabi- Creator of the "Code of Hammurabi" as well as Sumers most powerful King
*Most of these people came over the land bridge connecting present day Russia and Alaska
- Olmec's: earliest known Mexican civilization, developed different calender's,
- Chavin: first major urban civilization in South America,
Mochica (200-700 C.E.) created a military chiefdom that was supported by extensive irrigated agriculture
Mayan- calenders were also made, created a mathematical system that include zero and place rotation
King Menes- United the North and South Kingdoms and established the capital as Memphis around 3100 B.C.E.
Old Kingdom (2660-2160)- First time Egypt was centralized, a noble class bean to develop, first pharaohs were called theocrats, large pyramids were built for the theocrats as burial sites
Middle Kingdom (2040-1786 B.C.E)- Temples for gods were built, expanded borders, huge irrigation projects, the Hyksos invaded with better war technology resulting in the end of the Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom (1570-1070) - Egyptians defeated the Hyksos with the same technology but upgraded versions, Ramses the Great took throne in 1290 B.C.E., he built more temples and statues, after his death there was a long period of decline and a lot more invasions from enemies
The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro thrived between 2500 and 2000 B.C.E. in the Indus River Valley, there was also a caste system ( Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras, and the Untouchables)
Vedas- a collection of religious hymns, poems, songs, and an outline of Bragmin
Upanishads- a set of religious beliefs
Xia- Began around 2100 B.C.E.
Shang- Associated with Oracle bones and ancestor variation as well as the use of Bronze Weapons
Zhou- Associated with the Mandate of Heaven
Era of Warring States- provinces fighting until Shihuande united them through consequences and Legalism, Confucianism and Dadaism came out of it
Decentralized City States
Homer - wrote The Iliad and The Odyssey
Socrates- was a Greek philosopher and is considered the father of western philosophy. Plato was his most famous student and would teach Aristotle who would then tutor Alexander the Great.
Plato- ancient Greek philosopher Plato was a student of Socrates and a teacher of Aristotle. His writings explored justice, beauty and equality, and also contained discussions in aesthetics, political philosophy, theology, cosmology, epistemology and the philosophy of language
Aristotle- student of Plato and taught Alexander the Great
Pericles- was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age
Ashoka Maurya - ruled a tightly organized bureaucracy, environmental regulations popped up in his rule, he built many roads and irrigation systems to increase trade
Chandra Gupta- established a dynamic Kingdom and was the emperor of it and the Gupta Dynasty
Mauryan Dynasty - was founded by Chandragupta Muarya, unified with the Indian Subcontinent
Buddhism- based on the 4 noble truths and focuses on how to avoid and eradicate human suffereing
-Was a trade route between China and Rome
-Was very dangerous because of the amount of thieves
Julius Caesar- roman statesmen who became a general emperor who was stabbed and ended the republic
Augustus Caesar- first emperor of Rome who made it an empire. Was Julius's adopted son
Jesus- Jewish teacher who started a new religion called Christianity wanted peace between the Jews and the Romans but was betrayed
Pax Romana - Roman peace and thriving
Darius- Grandson to Cyrus as well as the the third and greatest of the Persian and Achaemenid Empires. Built the biggest empire of his time and didn't lose a single war
Fought against Greece but had to retreat.
Confucius (Kung Fuzi) was born around 551 B.C.E. his ideology became the set beliefs
Daoism (Loazi) introduced the idea of Dao De Jing and YIng and Yang
Qin Shihuangdi (221 B.C.E.) defeated the remaining Zhou leaders and united China under one ruled known as the Qin Dynasty. His Empire lasted from 221 to 207 B.C.E. and improved trade, expanded China's borders south and west
-Han Wudi began the act of taking the Civil Service Exam that placed you based on your test taking skills rather your family;however, Han Wudi was over thrown in 220 C.E.