AP World History

Ancient Mesopotamia


200,000 BC - 30,000 BC

Neanderthals flourished in Southeast Asia and in Europe. They were the first humans to bury their dead, fashioned clothing from animal skins, lived in caves, and created cave drawing.


140,000 BC - 10,000 BC

Cro-Magnon had a similar bone structure to the modern human and are also known as Homo sapiens Sapiens. They were skillful toolmakers and used spoken language.

Agricultural Revolution

8,000 BCE - 3,000 BCE

The Agricultural Revolution also known as the Neolithic Revolution occurred when people figured out how to cultivate plants. The cultivation of crops created a constant supply of food and allowed people to stay in one place.


8000 BC

Pastoralism developed in the grasslands of Africa and Eurasia as agricultural communities arose. Pastoralists or herders contributed meat and other animals to the overall food supply, Further enlarging Neolithic human populations. At times their overgrazing of livestock led to soil erosion.

Çatal Hüyük

7250 BCE - 5400 BCE

Çatal Hüyük, located in south central Anatolia, became a prominent village due to its close proximity to obsidian deposits. Çatal Hüyük had a rapid development of specialization and artifacts such as baskets, textiles, leather, tools, beads, jewelry, etc have circulated through this town


4000 BCE

Mesopotamians discovered that when you mixed copper with tin they could create a much harder and stronger implements which led to the creation of bronze. Bronze had an immediate effect on military affairs and later had an effect on Agriculture.


2370 BC - 2315 BC

Sargon of Akkad was a talented administrator and brilliant warrior who created the Akkadian empire in Mesopotamia. At the high point of his reign his empire embraced all of Mesopotamia and he transformed his capital city of Akkad into the most powerful city in the world.

The Epic of Gilgamesh

2000 BCE

The Epic of Gilgamesh was the work of compilers living during the Babylonian Empire. The experiences of Gilgamesh and Enkidu explored the themes of friendship, relations between humans and gods and especially the meaning of life and death. It was the principle vehicles for Mesopotamian reflections in moral issues.


1850 BCE

Abraham was the Hebrew Patriarch that was from Sumerian city of Ur, but later led Hebrews to Northern Mesopotamia (Canaan) due to the disorder in Sumer.


1792 BCE - 1750 BCE

Hammurabi was the most prominent Babylonian conquer who was know as the "King of the four corners of the world." Hammurabi created the Hammurabi's Laws which established high standards of behavior and stern punishment for violators.


1300 BCE

By 1000 BCE Mesopotamians craftsmen began to manufacture effective tools and weapons with iron. Although the Hittites had developed techniques of foraging exceptionally strong iron tools and weapons around 1300 BCE. Iron quickly became the metal of choice for weapons and tools.



3100 BC

Menes was a conquer who established the city of Memphis and started to build a society in which Pharaohs much like himself would rule Egypt. The entire river valley was united under King Menes and as result the civilization became wealthy and powerful.

Old Kingdom

2600 BC - 2160 BC

The most enduring symbols of their authority and divine status are the massive pyramids constructed during the Old Kingdom. The enormous pyramids show the Pharaohs ability to marshal Egyptian resources.

Middle Kingdom

2040 BC - 1786 BC

Menthuhotep II took power; he moved the capital of Thebes farther south down the Nile, and reunited Egypt under a centralized government, reducing the power of the provincial governors. Pharaohs used their powers to build large irrigation systems so Egypt could farm more.

New Kingdom

1550 BC - 1070 BC

The Pharaohs of the New Kingdom presided over a prosperous and productive society. Agricultural surpluses supported a population of perhaps four million people as well as an army and an elaborate bureaucracy that divided responsibilities among different offices. Pharaohs of the New Kingdoms did not build enormous pyramids.

Ancient China and India

Oracle Bones

11000 BC - 1600 BC

Oracle bones were the principal instrument used by fortunetellers in Ancient China. Oracle Bones were used during the Shang Dynasty and Oracle Bones give us an insight into the Shang Dynasty's political and social order.

Harappa Mohenjo-Daro

2500 BCE - 1900 BCE

Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were two prominent cities in the Harappa society that were political and economic centers for their own regions in the Indus River valley. The two cities represented a considerable investment of human labor and other resources. They both a high degree of standardization which was possible because the Indus Valley facilitated trade, travel, and communications among the far-flung regions of Harappan society.

Xia Dynasty

2200 BCE - 1766 BCE

Xia Dynasty made one of the first efforts to organize public life in China on a large scale. Yu was the founder of the Xia and helped establish recognized authorities and formal political institutions. The Xia Dynasty was located along the Yellow River.

Shang Dynasty

1766 BCE - 1122 BCE

Shang Dynasty was centered around the Yellow River Valley. The Shang were a warrior people who moved their capital several times. They used its agricultural surplus to build a trade centered civilization. At its height Shang controlled large parts of northern China and was militarily quite powerful.

"Solidification" of Caste System

1500 BC

The origins of the caste system in India and Nepal are shrouded, but it seems to have originated more than two thousand years ago. Under this system, which is associated with Hinduism, people were categorized by their occupations.Although originally caste depended upon a person's work, it soon became hereditary. Each person was born into a unalterable social status. The four primary castes are: Brahmin, the priests; Kshatriya, warriors and nobility; Vaisya, farmers, traders and artisans; and Shudra, tenant farmers and servants.
Some people were born outside of (and below) the caste system. They were called "untouchables."


1500 BCE - 500 BCE

Vedas are composed of hymns, songs, prayers and rituals honoring the various gods of Aryans. The Vedas represent a priestly perspective on affairs. The word Veda means "wisdom" or "knowledge". In view of their importance as historical sources scholars refer to Indian history during the millennium between 1500 and 500 B.C.E. as the Vedic age.

Zhou Dynasty

1122 BCE - 256 BCE

The Zhou Dynasty replaced the Shang Dynasty as the administrator of Northeastern China, but the Zhou Dynasty keep most of the Shang traditions and customs. The Zhou Dynasty lasted for nearly 900 years. The Zhou Dynasty believed in the Mandate of Heaven, meaning that heaven would grant the Zhou power only as long as its ruler governed justly and wisely.


800 BCE - 400 BCE

The word Upanishad means "a sitting in front of," and it refers to the practice of disciples gathering before a stage for discussion of religious issues. The Upanishads developed several specific doctrines to explain their line of thought which was appearances are deceiving, that individual human beings are not separate and autonomous creatures.

Era of Warring States

403 BCE - 221 BCE

The last centuries of the Zhou Dynasty were so violent they are known as the Period of Warring States. Territorial princes ignored the central government and used their resources to build strength and expand their states. They fought ferociously with one another in hopes of establishing themselves as new leaders of a new political order.

Ancient Americas and Oceania

Settlement of Islands throughout Oceania

58000 BCE - 100 BCE

The humans who first migrated to Australia and New Guinea arrived in water-crafts, but because of the low sea levels the migrants did not have to cross large stretches of open ocean. By the first millennium CE they had established human community is all habitable islands of the Pacific ocean. The first human migrants to reach Australia and New Guinea were hunter-gatherers

"Land Bridge" Migration to Americas

23000 BCE

Homo Sapiens took advantage of land bridges linking Siberia to Alaska and established human societies in North America.


12000 BCE - 100 BCE

The Olmecs or the "Rubber People" were an urban society supported by surpluses of food. Olmecs were located in modern Mexico. They mastered Irrigation techniques and constructive large-scale building, they were polytheistic and developed a writing system and a calendar. They are known for their trade in jade and obsedian as well as their colossal Olmec heads made from basalt rock.


1000 BCE - 300 BCE

The Chavín cult spread through most of the territory occupied by the modern Peru. The cult arose when maize became an important crop in South America.


100 CE - 700 CE

The Moche civilization flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru.

Popul Vuh

300 CE - 1100 CE

Popol Vuh was a mayan myth that the gods created humans with water and maize.


300 CE - 1100 CE

The earliest heirs of the Olmecs was the Maya, who created a remarkable society in the region now occupied by southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador. The Maya built the states of Tikal and Chichén Itzá. The Mayan are known for their elaborate calendar.



558 BCE - 530 BCE

Cyrus was from a mountainous region on southwestern Iran. He was known to be a tough, wily leader and an outstanding military strategist. He laid the foundation for the first Persian empire known as the Achaemenid empire.

Achaemenid Empire

558 BCE - 330 BCE

The Achaemenid empire relied on a balance between central initiative and local administration. The Achaemenid Empire organized their administration by Satrapies. The Achaemenids' roads and administrative machinery enabled them to govern a vast empire and extend Persian influences throughout their territories.


521 BCE - 486 BCE

Darius was the greatest emperor of Achaemenid empire.His armies conquered lands as far as the Indus Valley.He centralized his administration and built the capital Persepolis. He built the biggest empire of his time.

Classical China


551 BCE

The fundamental ideas and values of Confucianism were moral, ethical, and political in character, but thoroughly practical. Confucianism has three main qualities; which are ren, li, and xiao. Ren is an attitude of kindness and benevolence.


551 BCE - 479 BCE

Confucius believed education was part of the preparation for an ideal government. Confucius believed in three main qualities; which are ren, li, and xiao. He served as an educator and a political advisor. He encouraged his students to cultivate high ethical standards and to hone their faculties of analysis and judgment.


500 BCE

Laozi is the supposed founder of Daoism. He was a sage that contributed to the basic exposition of Daoist beliefs, Daodejing (Classic of the Way and of Virtue).


500 BCE

Daoists believed it was pointless to waste time and energy on problems that defied a solution. Daoist devoted their energy towards reflection and introspection. Daoist believed that harmony would be reached when people ceased to meddle in affairs that they could not understand or control


400 BCE - 300 BCE

Legalism was based on the fundamental principles which promoted a practical and ruthlessly efficient approach to statecraft. Legalist did not concern themselves with morality, ethics, or propriety. Legalists didn't concern themselves with the principles governing the world or the place of human beings in nature. Legalists concerned themselves with their state in which they were devoted to strengthening and expanding at all costs.


372 BCE - 289 BCE

Mencius was the most learned man of his age and the principal spokesperson for the Confucian school. He was a big advocate for the virtue of ren. He is considered to be the most authoritative of Confucius's early expositors.

Qin Dynasty

221 BCE - 210 BCE

The Qin Dynasty was a period in time when Qin Shihuangdi reigned. He created a dynasty that was highly centralized with a uniform coinage, legal standards, and a standardized script. Qin reigned form his Capitol of Xianyang. Under the Qin Dynasty defensive walls were built and linked together as well as 6,800 km long of roads. The Qin are also famous for their terra-cotta army.

Qin Shihuangdi

221 BCE - 210 BCE

Qin Shihuangdi was the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty and greatly influenced Chinese history. He linked walls that became the precursor to the Great Wall of China. To add he pointed China in the direction of cultural and political unity. Qin Shihuangdi governed from his capital of Xianyang. He was known to have standardized life in China.

Ban Zhao

45 CE - 116 CE

Bān Zhāo, courtesy name Huiban, was the first known female Chinese historian. She completed her brother Ban Gu's work on the history of the Western Han, the Book of Han. She also wrote Lessons for Women, an influential work on women's conduct.

Han Empire

206 CE - 221 CE

206 - 9 CE (Former Han Dynasty) 25-220 CE (Later Han Dynasty)
The Han Dynasty was the longest empire in China's history. Han Dynasty was unified under a centralized imperial rule by emperor Liu Bang. Technological advancements and inventions of the Han included Paper, collar harness, plow, wheelbarrow, and waterwheel. The social classes under the Han included the emperor. Governors and kings, nobles, scholars and state officials, peasants, artisans, merchants, soldiers, and slaves. Agriculture was vital to the Han Dynasty. Han Wudi set up a Confucianism based imperial university. The taxes collected by the Han dynasty supported the government and the military.

Yellow Turban Rebellion

260 CE - 299 CE

The Yellow Turban uprisings- so named because of the distinctive headgear worn by rebels- was a particularly serious revolt that raged throughout China and tested the resilience of Han state.

Classical India

Siddhartha Gautama

563 BCE - 483 BCE

Chandra Gupta forged alliances with powerful families in the Ganges region and established a dynamic kingdom about the year 320 BCE. He is not related to Chandragupta Maurya. Chandra Gupta was the emperor of the Gupta Dynasty.


563 BCE

Buddhism is a religion based on the four Noble truths and is associated with Buddha. It's adherents desired to eliminate all distracting passion and reach nirvana. Buddhism focuses on human suffering and how to eliminate it.

Mauryan Dynasty

321 BCE - 185 BCE

The Mauryan Dynasty was an Indian dynasty that was founded by Chandragupta Maurya and reached its peak with Ashoka. The Mauryan Dynasty unified the Indian subcontinent and left a lasting impression on India.

Ashoka Maurya

268 BCE - 232 BCE

Ashoka Maurya is the grandson of Chandragupta. Under Ashoka's rule the Mauryan empire reached its peak. He began his rule as a conquerer and conquered Kalinga. He also known as a governor that ruled a tightly organized bureaucracy.

Gupta Dynasty

320 CE - 550 CE

The Gupta Dynasty based their state in Magadha, a crucial region because of its wealth and its dominance of the Ganges valley. The Gupta Dynasty was somewhat smaller in size to the Mauryan. The Gupta dynasty brought stability and prosperity to the subcontinent. Gupta's prosperity sustained the work of scholars and enabled them to lay the foundations for sophisticated studies and natural sciences and mathematics.

Chandra Gupta

335 CE - 375 CE

Chandra Gupta forged alliances with powerful families in the Ganges region and established a dynamic kingdom about the year 320 BCE. He is not related to Chandragupta Maurya. Chandra Gupta was the emperor of the Gupta Dynasty.



494 BCE - 429 BCE

a brilliant general, orator, patron of the arts and politician—”the first citizen” of democratic Athens, according to the historian Thucydides. Pericles transformed his city’s alliances into an empire and graced its Acropolis with the famous Parthenon. His policies and strategies also set the stage for the devastating Peloponnesian War, which would embroil all Greece in the decades following his death.


470 BCE - 399 BCE

Socrates did not commit his thought to writing and he also didn't assertively expound his views. He believed that humans could be honest and honesty should be more value then wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes. Socrates subjected traditional ethnically teachings to critical scrutiny. Due to this very reason he was convicted of corrupting the youth and condemned him to death.


430 BCE - 347 BCE

Plato composed dialogues of Socrates views. Plato was Socrates disciple and in his earliest dialogues he largely represented his mentors views. Plato was disturbed by that fact that he could not gain satisfactory intellectual control over the world. Plato developed his belief that the world in which we live was not the only world. Plato skewed an ideal state that reflected his philosophical views.


384 BCE - 322 BCE

Aristotle was the student of Plato. He elaborated a systematic philosophy that equaled Plato's work in its long term influence. Aristotle believed that philosophers could rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world and then depend on a reasons to sort out the mystery. He wrote on biology, physics, astronomy, psychology, politics, ethics, and literature.

Alexander the Great

336 BCE - 323 BCE

Alexander of Macedon was the son of Phillip of Macedon. Alexander assembled an army of about forty-eight thousand men to invade the Persian empire. He was a brilliant strategist and an inspired leader who inherited a well equipped, well disciplined, highly spirited veteran force. Alexander had conquered Anatolia, Palestine, Egypt, Syria, and part of India. Although he accomplished much he died at the age of thirty-three.


Roman Republic

509 BCE - 476 CE

The Roman Republic consisted of patriarchs ( land owning noble-men), Plebeians (all free men), and slaves. The Roman government was organized as a representative republic governed by two distinct groups including the Senate and the Assembly. Consuls had veto power over decisions made by the assembly. The Roman Republic's codified laws were the Twelve Tables. The social structure of Roman family centered on the pater familia. The Punic Wars occurred during this time

Julius Caesar

46 BCE - 44 BCE

Julius Caesar favored liberal policies and social reform. He spent an enormous amount of money to sponsor public spectacles which helped him build his reputation and win the election to posts of the republican government. Caesar conquered Gaul which resulted in his popularity. By 46 BCE Caesar had made himself dictator of Rome. He then centralized the military and political functions and brought them under his control. He confiscated property from conservatives and distributed it to veterans and supporters. He also extended Roman citizenship to people in imperial provinces. Caesar was attacked and stab to death by the senate.

Augustus Caesar

31 BCE - 14 BCE

Augustus (Octavian) was the nephew, adopted son, and protégé of Julius Caesar. In 31 BCE Augustus defeated his principal rival Mark Antony, the last of Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt. In 27 BCE the senate bestowed him a title of Augustus, a term with strong religious connotations suggesting the divine or semi divine nature of its holder, Augustus fashioned an imperial government that guided Rome into the next three centuries. He disguised his monarchy as a republic and took control of all government functions.

Pax Romana

31 BCE - 180 CE

Pax Romana is a term used to describe Roman Peace. It relates to the time when a there was political stability, cultural brilliance, and economic prosperity. Roman Peace began with the unification under Augustus and lasting through the first two centuries CE.

Roman Empire

27 BCE - 476 CE

The Roman Republic eventually collapses and the first triumvirate took control. Caesar was on of the three and he pushed his other two partners out of the way, so he could become emperor for life. Caesar marks the beginning of the Roman Empire and after his death the second triumvirate takes control. Power shifted again to one person, Octavious who becomes emperor. Under Augustus Rome became the capital of the western world. he established the rule of law, a coomon coinage, civil service, and secure travel for merchants. The Roman Empire expanded across Southern Europe and Northern Africa. Rome fluorished and they reached new heights in arts, science, and astronomy.

Jesus of Nazareth

4 CE - 30 CE

Jesus of Nazareth was a charismatic Jewish teacher who, Christians recognize as their savior. Jesus was born around 4BCE and grew up at a time of high tension between Roman overlords and their Jewish subjects. Jesus was a peaceful man who taught devotion to God and live for fellow human beings. Romans were alarmed by Jesus and in efforts to forestall a new round of rebellion, executed Jesus. Jesus is considered the savior of the Christian faith and his life is compiled in a body of writings known as the New Testament.


30 CE

Christianity's founder was Jesus Christ and the religion grew out of Judaism. Christianity became widely accepted in the Roman Empire after the reign of Augustus. The apostles of Jesus and missionaries extended the influence of Christianity throughout the empire. In 391 CE Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire and since then it continues to be one of the most influential religions in the world.


98 CE - 117 CE

Trajan or Marcus Ulpius Traianus, was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117 CE. Known as a benevolent ruler, his reign was noted for public projects which benefitted the populace such as improving the dilapidated road system, constructing aqueducts, building public baths and extending the port of Ostia. Trajan was also a highly successful general and won three major conflicts against the Dacians and in the East, resulting in the Roman Empire reaching its greatest size up to that date.


313 CE - 337 CE

Constantine was son of Constantius, the co-ruler of Diocletian. In 306 CE Constantine built the city of Constantinople and by 330 CE it became the capital of the united Roman empire. Constantine was an able emperor who had faced the same sort of administrative difficulties as his successors had. Constantine experienced a vision that impressed upon him the power of the Christian God and for that very reason he let Christians practice their faith openly in the Roman Empire .

Split of Roman Empire


Rome splits into western rome and the Byzantine empire (eastern europe).

Silk Road


202 BC

Led the huns into gaul

Germanic Invasions

200 CE - 500 CE

Germanic invasions placed immediate and serious military threat to the Roman Empire. Indeed during the fifth century CE, Germanic invasions brought an end to Roman authority in the western half of the empire, although imperial rule survived for an additional millennium in the eastern Mediterranean.


284 CE - 305 CE

Diocletian attempted to deal with the Roman empires problem by dividing it into two administrative districts. Diocletian hoped by creating the four officials known as the Tetrarchs would be able to minister the vast empire more efficiently than a individual. His efforts on strengthening his crumbling economy were less successful than his administrative reforms but they help stabilize the economy.

Fall of Rome


Western Rome fell in 476 CE because...
-Tax revoluts by uppper class and church exempt from taxes
-decrease in trade
-25 out of 26 emperors died violently
-divison of empire
-germanic invasions.