Neanderthals mostly lived in in Europe and Southeast Asia. They were the first humans to bury their dead, lived in caves, and left behind cave drawings detailing their lives and stories.
Cro-Mangon, also known as Homo sapiens Sapiens, have similar bone structures to modern day humans. They had a spoken language between each other and were skilled toolmakers.
The Agricultural Revolution, also known as the Neolithic Revolution, occurred when people learned how to grow plants on their own. The cultivation of crops created a constant supply of food that allowed people to stay in one place and create civilizations.
Pastoralism developed in agricultural communities around Eurasia and Africa´s grasslands. Pastoralists herded animals that helped to grow the Neolithic population.
Çatal Hüyük, located in south central Anatolia, became a prominent village due to obsidian deposits being so close to it. Çatal Hüyük had a rapid development of specialization of labor. Many artifacts such as baskets, textiles, tools, and jewelry were found here.
This was discovered by Mesopotamians and helped to improve military equipment as well as tools for farming.
Sargon of Akkad was a talented warrior who created the Akkadian empire in Mesopotamia. At the apex of his empire, his capital city of Akkad into the most powerful city in the world.
The Epic of Gilgamesh was written on stone tablets in cuneiform during the Babylonian Empire. The epic detailed the adventures of Gilgamesh and his friend Enkidu as they explored the world around them.
Abraham was a well known Hebrew that led the Hebrews to Northern Mesopotamia (Canaan) after making a covenant to God and being granted the land as a gift.
Hammurabi a Babylonian conqueror who was know as the "King of the four corners of the world." Hammurabi created the Hammurabi's Laws, which established high standards of behavior and stern punishment for violators. It often showed a bias towards upper class citizens who were considered more important.
By 1,000 B.C.E, Mesopotamians craftsmen began to create new effective tools and weapons with iron. The Hittites had developed techniques of creating iron tools and weapons around 1,300 B.C.E. Iron soon became the ideal metal to use for tools and eqiupment.
Menes was a conqueror who created the city of Memphis. Here, he started a society where Pharaohs like himself would rule Egypt. He united the entire river valley, and was able to cause the civilization to flourish through trade.
The Bantu Migration in Africa began around 3,000 B.C.E as they slowly spread south. The Bantu Migrations were not mass movements of people, but instead intermittent processes that result in the gradual spread of Bantu culture. By 1,000 B.C.E, Bantu-speaking people took up most of southern Africa.
During this time period the pyramids were constructed.
During the Middle Kingdom in Egypt, Mentuhotep II began the reunification of Egypt.
In the New Kingdom, the Pharohs created a prosperous society. Agricultural surpluses helped support their population, as well as an army that helped protect and create trade routes.
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were two cities in the Harappan society. They served as centers for political and economic activity in the Indus River valley. They both created standardized currency which helped to make trade in this region easier and faster.
Still not known if this dynasty was real, the Xia Dynasty was supoosedly founded by Yu. He helped to create political authorities and ideas that paved the way for future Chinese dynastys.
The Shang were centered around the Yellow River Valley. They used food surpluses to maintain a large population and army to keep control of territory and the populus.
Oracle bones were used in Ancient China to try and see what their gods thought about current events. The bones were burned in an oven, and their remains interpreted by priests to see what the gods decreed.
The Vedas are the holy books containing Aryan hymns, songs, and rituals. These books detailed the worldly affairs that the adherents should follow.
The Zhou succeeded the Shang, and justified their rebellion with the Mandate of Heaven. They believed that as long as they ruled justly they would stay in power, which the did for 900 years.
This word refers to disciples gathering to discuss a stage to discuss religion. They had many extreme beliefs, such as the idea that humans were not unique creatures.
Towards the end of the Zhou Dynasty, there were many violent conflicts between different princes who ignored the centralized government. This caused was due to their desire to gain complete control over the neighboring territories to over throw the failing Zhou Dynasty.
The early humans who first migrated to Australia and New Guinea arrived in ships. Due to low sea levels they did not have to cross large, open bodies of water. These early people were hunter-gathers.
The early humans were able to take advantage of a land bridge that used to exsist between Alaska and Siberia.
The Olmecs were located in present day Mexico. The used irrigation to provide water to their crops, which resulted in food surpluses for their society. They also created the well known large heads made from rock.
The Chavín were a cult located in present day Peru, who were able to rise in power due to the harvesting of maize.
Popol Vuh was a well known Mayan myth that said humans were created when the gods mixed water and maize together.
Known for their incredibly accurate calendar, the Maya came directly after the Olmec, and were able to create a very famous society located in present day southern Mexico.
Was a very intelligent military strategist who was able to create a foundation that the Persian Empire could be founded on.
The Achaemenid Empire was a centralized the government that used hand picked local authorities known as satraps to govern the various territories in their empire. The roads they created for trade also helped ideas spread throughout their empire.
Daruis was a descendant of Cyprus and was the greatest conqueror of the Achaemenid (Persia) Empire. He created the largest empire of his era, using a centralized government with satraps to govern local areas across his empire.
Founder of Daoism.
Confucianism was created by Kung Fuzi, who taught his followers that it was based on practical and ethical character.
Confucius believed that education was power, and helped to advise political figures and teach students high moral standards.
Daoists devoted their energy to self reflection, and believed that worrying about problems in life was a frivolous task.
Promoted a practical approach on government and strengthening it and themselves, and did not worry about any morality or ethics with what they did.
He is considered the most authoritative Confucius supporter, and was a spokesperson for the Confucius school.
Qin Shihuangdi ruled during this time peroid, and was able to create of 6,000 km of roads that could be used for trade, as well as a series of walls built to keep invaders out.
Creator of the Qin Empire, Qin Shihuangdi was known for his brutality in conqueroring neighboring groups. He made standardized weights and currency, and was started the Great Wall. He had the terra-cotta army in his tomb.
The Han Dynasty was the longest dynasty in Chinese history, with many technological innovations taking place, like the invention of the wheel. Han Wudi was the first emperor of this dynasty.
Named after the turbans the peasants used during one of the more violent peasant uprisings.
He believed that people needed to be aware of the suffering that occurred around them, and created the Four Noble Truths that his adherents needed to follow.
Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, is a religion that developed in present day India and is based off the four Noble Truths.
The Mauryan Dynasty was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, and was brought to its highest point by Ashoka.
Grandson of Chandragupta and helped the empire reach its peak.
The Gupta was a bit smaller than the Mauryan Dynasty, but still brought lots of wealth and stability to the region due to its success with trade in the region of Magadha.
Chandra Gupta was able to establish his kingdom near the Ganges River by forming many military alliances with his neighbors.
Thought honesty was the best virtue, and questioned all of what was around him.
Plato was a student of Socrates, and continued to spread many of Socrates ideas after he died.
A student of Plato and believed that humans could rel on logic to answer alot of the worlds problems.
Son of Phillip of Macedon, Alexander was a skilled general who inherited a excellent army from his father and went on to conquer a large empire before being killed. He never lost a battle.
The society was patriarchal, and had a senate with elected representatives. They had the a code of laws with punishments known as the 12 Tables.
Was a very skilled general and loved by the people of Rome. Made himself the dictator of Rome, but was assassinated by the Senate when they feared he would become too powerful.
Nephew of Julius Caesar, Augustus took complete control of the Roman Empire after defeating Mark Antony and became Rome´s first emperor.
Time of peace for the Romans, when many technological innovations took place under Augustus Caesar.
During its reign in power, Rome became the center for trade and economic activity for the western word.
Preached to his followers about compassion for each other, was considered to be the Son of God. The Romans executed him, but he was resurrected 3 days later.
Jesus Christ founded Christianity, as he was the Savior; the Son of God. Become Rome´s official religion in 391 C.E.
Built Constantinople, which became the capital of Rome in 390 C.E. Had a vision and thus made Christianity the official religion of Rome.
Fell because of Germanic invasions and divisions in the empire
Sailors used monsoon winds to travel between countries to do trade with them.
Used by the Chinese and Eurasia civilizations to do trade with each other, specifically for China´s silk products.
Germanic tribes eventually caused the weak Roman Empire to fall in 500 C.E.
Tried to strengthen Rome by dividing it into two districts, but it did not really work.
Moved after the Roman Empire was starting to weaken because it had many strategical qualities to it.
Rome splits into western empire and Byzantine empire.