Foundational Period (up to 600 BCE)

Events

Neanderthal

200,000 B.C.E - 35,000 B.C.E

Neanderthals mostly lived in in Europe and Southeast Asia. They were the first humans to bury their dead, lived in caves, and left behind cave drawings detailing their lives and stories.

Cro-Mangon

140,000 B.C.E - 10,000 B.C.E

Cro-Mangon, also known as Homo sapiens Sapiens, have similar bone structures to modern day humans. They had a spoken language between each other and were skilled toolmakers.

Agricultural Revolution

8,000 B.C.E - 3,000 B.C.E

The Agricultural Revolution, also known as the Neolithic Revolution, occurred when people learned how to grow plants on their own. The cultivation of crops created a constant supply of food that allowed people to stay in one place and create civilizations.

Pastoralists

8,000 B.C.E

Pastoralism developed in agricultural communities around Eurasia and Africa´s grasslands. Pastoralists herded animals that helped to grow the Neolithic population.

Çatal Hüyük

7,250 B.C.E - 5,400 B.C.E

Çatal Hüyük, located in south central Anatolia, became a prominent village due to obsidian deposits being so close to it. Çatal Hüyük had a rapid development of specialization of labor. Many artifacts such as baskets, textiles, tools, and jewelry were found here.

Bronze

4,000 BC

This was discovered by Mesopotamians and helped to improve military equipment as well as tools for farming.

Sargon

2,370 B.C.E - 2,315 B.C.E

Sargon of Akkad was a talented warrior who created the Akkadian empire in Mesopotamia. At the apex of his empire, his capital city of Akkad into the most powerful city in the world.

The Epic of Gilgamesh

2000 BCE

The Epic of Gilgamesh was written on stone tablets in cuneiform during the Babylonian Empire. The epic detailed the adventures of Gilgamesh and his friend Enkidu as they explored the world around them.

Abraham

1,800 B.C.E

Abraham was a well known Hebrew that led the Hebrews to Northern Mesopotamia (Canaan) after making a covenant to God and being granted the land as a gift.

Hammurabi

1792 BCE - 1750 BCE

Hammurabi a Babylonian conqueror who was know as the "King of the four corners of the world." Hammurabi created the Hammurabi's Laws, which established high standards of behavior and stern punishment for violators. It often showed a bias towards upper class citizens who were considered more important.

Iron

1,300 B.C.E

By 1,000 B.C.E, Mesopotamians craftsmen began to create new effective tools and weapons with iron. The Hittites had developed techniques of creating iron tools and weapons around 1,300 B.C.E. Iron soon became the ideal metal to use for tools and eqiupment.

Chapter 2

Menes

3,100 B.C.E

Menes was a conqueror who created the city of Memphis. Here, he started a society where Pharaohs like himself would rule Egypt. He united the entire river valley, and was able to cause the civilization to flourish through trade.

Bantu Migration

3,000 B.C.E - 1,000 B.C.E

The Bantu Migration in Africa began around 3,000 B.C.E as they slowly spread south. The Bantu Migrations were not mass movements of people, but instead intermittent processes that result in the gradual spread of Bantu culture. By 1,000 B.C.E, Bantu-speaking people took up most of southern Africa.

Old Kingdom

2575 BC - 2134 BC

During this time period the pyramids were constructed.

Middle Kingdom

2,050 B.C.E - 1,800 B.C.E

During the Middle Kingdom in Egypt, Mentuhotep II began the reunification of Egypt.

New Kingdom

1,550 B.C.E - 1,070 B.C.E

In the New Kingdom, the Pharohs created a prosperous society. Agricultural surpluses helped support their population, as well as an army that helped protect and create trade routes.

Chapter 3

Harappa Mohenjo-Daro

2500 BCE - 1900 BCE

Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were two cities in the Harappan society. They served as centers for political and economic activity in the Indus River valley. They both created standardized currency which helped to make trade in this region easier and faster.

Xia Dynasty

2,070 B.C.E - 1,766 B.C.E

Still not known if this dynasty was real, the Xia Dynasty was supoosedly founded by Yu. He helped to create political authorities and ideas that paved the way for future Chinese dynastys.

Shang Dynasty

1765 B.C.E. - 1027 B.C.E.

The Shang were centered around the Yellow River Valley. They used food surpluses to maintain a large population and army to keep control of territory and the populus.

Oracle bones

1500 BCE

Oracle bones were used in Ancient China to try and see what their gods thought about current events. The bones were burned in an oven, and their remains interpreted by priests to see what the gods decreed.

Vedas

1,500 B.C.E - 500 B.C.E

The Vedas are the holy books containing Aryan hymns, songs, and rituals. These books detailed the worldly affairs that the adherents should follow.

Zhou Dynasty

1,122 B.C.E - 256 B.C.E

The Zhou succeeded the Shang, and justified their rebellion with the Mandate of Heaven. They believed that as long as they ruled justly they would stay in power, which the did for 900 years.

Upanishads

800 B.C.E - 400 B.C.E

This word refers to disciples gathering to discuss a stage to discuss religion. They had many extreme beliefs, such as the idea that humans were not unique creatures.

Era of Warring States

403 B.C.E - 221 B.C.E

Towards the end of the Zhou Dynasty, there were many violent conflicts between different princes who ignored the centralized government. This caused was due to their desire to gain complete control over the neighboring territories to over throw the failing Zhou Dynasty.

Chapter 4

Settlement of Islands throughout Oceania

58,000 B.C.E - 1,000 C.E

The early humans who first migrated to Australia and New Guinea arrived in ships. Due to low sea levels they did not have to cross large, open bodies of water. These early people were hunter-gathers.

Land Bridge Migration to Americas

8000 b.c.e.

The early humans were able to take advantage of a land bridge that used to exsist between Alaska and Siberia.

Olmecs

1,500 B.C.E - 400 B.C.E

The Olmecs were located in present day Mexico. The used irrigation to provide water to their crops, which resulted in food surpluses for their society. They also created the well known large heads made from rock.

Chavín

900 B.C.E - 200 B.C.E

The Chavín were a cult located in present day Peru, who were able to rise in power due to the harvesting of maize.

Popol Vuh

300 C.E - 1,100 C.E

Popol Vuh was a well known Mayan myth that said humans were created when the gods mixed water and maize together.

Mayan

300 C.E - 1,100 C.E

Known for their incredibly accurate calendar, the Maya came directly after the Olmec, and were able to create a very famous society located in present day southern Mexico.

Chapter 7

Cyrus

558 B.C.E - 530 B.C.E

Was a very intelligent military strategist who was able to create a foundation that the Persian Empire could be founded on.

Achaemenid Empire

558 B.C.E - 330 B.C.E

The Achaemenid Empire was a centralized the government that used hand picked local authorities known as satraps to govern the various territories in their empire. The roads they created for trade also helped ideas spread throughout their empire.

Daruis

522 B.C.E - 486 B.C.E

Daruis was a descendant of Cyprus and was the greatest conqueror of the Achaemenid (Persia) Empire. He created the largest empire of his era, using a centralized government with satraps to govern local areas across his empire.

Chapter 8

Laozi

600 B.C.E - 500 B.C.E

Founder of Daoism.

Confucianism

551 B.C.E

Confucianism was created by Kung Fuzi, who taught his followers that it was based on practical and ethical character.

Confucius

551 B.C.E - 479 B.C.E

Confucius believed that education was power, and helped to advise political figures and teach students high moral standards.

Daoism

500 B.C.E

Daoists devoted their energy to self reflection, and believed that worrying about problems in life was a frivolous task.

Legalism

400 B.C.E - 225 B.C.E

Promoted a practical approach on government and strengthening it and themselves, and did not worry about any morality or ethics with what they did.

Mencius

372 B.C.E - 289 B.C.E

He is considered the most authoritative Confucius supporter, and was a spokesperson for the Confucius school.

Qin Dynasty

221 B.C.E - 206 B.C.E

Qin Shihuangdi ruled during this time peroid, and was able to create of 6,000 km of roads that could be used for trade, as well as a series of walls built to keep invaders out.

Qin Shihuangdi

221 B.C.E - 210 B.C.E

Creator of the Qin Empire, Qin Shihuangdi was known for his brutality in conqueroring neighboring groups. He made standardized weights and currency, and was started the Great Wall. He had the terra-cotta army in his tomb.

Han Dynasty

206 B.C.E - 220 C.E

The Han Dynasty was the longest dynasty in Chinese history, with many technological innovations taking place, like the invention of the wheel. Han Wudi was the first emperor of this dynasty.

Yellow Turban Rebellion

260 C.E - 299 C.E

Named after the turbans the peasants used during one of the more violent peasant uprisings.

Chapter 9

Siddhartha Gautama

563 B.C.E - 483 B.C.E

He believed that people needed to be aware of the suffering that occurred around them, and created the Four Noble Truths that his adherents needed to follow.

Buddhism

500 B.C.E

Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, is a religion that developed in present day India and is based off the four Noble Truths.

Mauryan Dynasty

321 B.C.E - 185 B.C.E

The Mauryan Dynasty was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, and was brought to its highest point by Ashoka.

Ashoka Maurya

268 B.C.E - 232 B.C.E

Grandson of Chandragupta and helped the empire reach its peak.

Gupta Dynasty

320 C.E - 550 C.E

The Gupta was a bit smaller than the Mauryan Dynasty, but still brought lots of wealth and stability to the region due to its success with trade in the region of Magadha.

Chandra Gupta

335 C.E - 375 C.E

Chandra Gupta was able to establish his kingdom near the Ganges River by forming many military alliances with his neighbors.

Chapter 10

Socrates

470 B.C.E - 399 B.C.E

Thought honesty was the best virtue, and questioned all of what was around him.

Plato

428 B.C.E - 348 B.C.E

Plato was a student of Socrates, and continued to spread many of Socrates ideas after he died.

Aristotle

384 B.C.E - 322 B.C.E

A student of Plato and believed that humans could rel on logic to answer alot of the worlds problems.

Alexander the Great

336 B.C.E - 323 B.C.E

Son of Phillip of Macedon, Alexander was a skilled general who inherited a excellent army from his father and went on to conquer a large empire before being killed. He never lost a battle.

Chapter 11

The Roman Republic

509 B.C.E - 31 B.C.E

The society was patriarchal, and had a senate with elected representatives. They had the a code of laws with punishments known as the 12 Tables.

Julius Caesar

100 B.C.E - 44 B.C.E

Was a very skilled general and loved by the people of Rome. Made himself the dictator of Rome, but was assassinated by the Senate when they feared he would become too powerful.

Augustus Caesar

31 B.C.E - 14 B.C.E

Nephew of Julius Caesar, Augustus took complete control of the Roman Empire after defeating Mark Antony and became Rome´s first emperor.

Pax Romana

27 B.C.E - 180 C.E

Time of peace for the Romans, when many technological innovations took place under Augustus Caesar.

Roman Empire

27 B.C.E - 476 C.E

During its reign in power, Rome became the center for trade and economic activity for the western word.

Jesus of Nazareth

4 B.C.E - 30 C.E

Preached to his followers about compassion for each other, was considered to be the Son of God. The Romans executed him, but he was resurrected 3 days later.

Christianity

30 C.E

Jesus Christ founded Christianity, as he was the Savior; the Son of God. Become Rome´s official religion in 391 C.E.

Constantine

272 C.E - 337 C.E

Built Constantinople, which became the capital of Rome in 390 C.E. Had a vision and thus made Christianity the official religion of Rome.

Fall of Rome

476 C.E

Fell because of Germanic invasions and divisions in the empire

Chapter 12

Indian Ocean Trade Routes

200 B.C.E - 300 C.E

Sailors used monsoon winds to travel between countries to do trade with them.

Silk Road [130 BCE - 1453 CE]

130 B.C.E - 1453 C.E

Used by the Chinese and Eurasia civilizations to do trade with each other, specifically for China´s silk products.

Germanic Invasions

200 C.E - 500 C.E

Germanic tribes eventually caused the weak Roman Empire to fall in 500 C.E.

Diocletian

284 C.E - 305 C.E

Tried to strengthen Rome by dividing it into two districts, but it did not really work.

Rome Moves to Constantinople

306 C.E

Moved after the Roman Empire was starting to weaken because it had many strategical qualities to it.

Split in Roman Empire

476 C.E

Rome splits into western empire and Byzantine empire.