AP European History

Culture and Science

Michel de Montaigne

1533 - 1592

-lived in France during a period of religious violence
- Motto was "que Sais-je?" (What do I know)
- big skeptic
- relativist- everything depends on the situation you're in
- famous for writing informal essays

"On The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" Published


-published after Copernicus's death in 1543
- theorized that the earth revolved around the sun
- believed planets' orbits were perfect circles

Andreas Vesalius Publishes "De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem"

  • Belgian biologists
  • stole corpses from graveyards to study them

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

-proved kepler's findings
- wrote for a larger audience, sometimes even in Italian
- tried for heresy by the Catholic Church during the Roman Inquisition
- Dominican Order of Friars
- forced to recant his ideas
- comes up with the concept of inertia
- invents the science of ballistics and the study of projectile motion
- invents the modern scientific method
- undermines Aristotle's physics

Tycho Brahe Discovers a Nova and Comet


-disproved the idea that the heavens were perfect
- believed that all planets bu the earth went around the sun
- the sun and planet revolved around the earth
- complied the best evidence of the night sky that Kepler used

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

-had mathematical proofs for Galileo's ideas
- rejected everything he could not prove beyond a doubt
- "Cogito ergo sum" I think therefore I am
- developed coordinate geometry
- has a mechanistic view of the universe
- fled France for the NEtherlands

Francis Bacon Publishes "The Advancement of Learning"

  • proposes a scientific method through experimentation
  • believes in empiricism- knowledge gained through the senses
  • Bacon was a pragmatist

Kepler Publishes his Laws of Planetary Motion


-discovered that planets orbit the sun in ellipses
- found the relationship b/w a planet's speed and distance from the sun
- disproves the idea that the heavens are perfect, so the church is not a fan

Galileo Publishes "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems"


-in 1610, he observed 4 moons of Jupiter, spots on the sun, craters on the moon, rings on Saturn WITH HIS TELESCOPE
- proved Kepler's findings with observation
- actually publishes his ideas

Isaac Newton

1643 - 1727
  • proves that white light is a combination of all other colors
  • invents the reflective telescope
  • basically invents calculus- I will never forgive him
  • finally provides a new model of the universe to replace the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic model
  • was knighted and buried in Westminster
  • shows the change in attitudes towards science
  • member and Pres. of the Royal Society

Thomas Hobbes Publishes "Leviathan"

  • believed in strong, authoritarian gov't
  • thought humanity without a gov't would dissolve into chaos
  • believed in a social contract in which people would accept a sovereign and yield their freedom to maintain order

Robert Boyle publishes "The Sceptical Chymist"

  • rejects the 4 elements idea (earth, air, water, fire)
  • has an atomic explanation of the worth
  • medical chemistry

Isaac Newton Publishes "Principia"


-theory of gravity
- 3 laws of motion
- uses Gaileo and Kepler's ideas

Baron de Montesquieu

1689 - 1755
  • believed in separation of powers
  • wrote the Spirit of the Laws (1748)
  • tried to find a balance between order and liberty
  • basically invents political science
  • advocated against capital punishment

John Locke Publishes "The Two Treatises on Civil Government"

  • believed that people had innate rights, and if the gov't did not respect them, then people had the right to overthrow the govt
  • believed in right of revolution
  • inalienable rights- life, liberty, and property
  • separation of powers
  • religious tolerance
  • father of classical liberalism
  • was a deist


1694 - 1778
  • French
  • believed in religious freedom and freedom of the press
  • believed in strong enlightened monarch
  • didn't have much confidence in the gen. public
  • was against organized religion, so the church was not a fan
  • thought everything should be open for debate
  • lived in Switzerland, buried in the Pantheon in Paris

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778
  • didn't consider himself to be part of the enlightenment
  • from Switzerland
  • came from a middle-class family
  • made his name through an essay contest
  • believed thatman is fundamentally good in nature, but that tech. is making people turn away from their good nature
  • romanticizes tribal people
  • didn't believe that more wealth made people better or happier
  • believed that gov't should follow the general will of he people
  • argues that emotions were more important than reason--> this really freaked out the other philosophes

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790
  • Scottish Economist
  • published "Wealth of Nations" in 1776
  • believed that the "invisible hand" of the economy governed supply and demand
  • attacked mercantilism as a zero-sum way of thinking
  • believed in laissez-faire capitalism (though he didn't use the c word)
  • classical liberal
  • most WEstern countries follow his beliefs, at least for a while

Cesare Beccaria

1738 - 1794

-influenced many eastern european absolutist rulers to change their legal sstems
- argues that laws need to be codified
- talked about abolishing torture and punishments that debilitate people for life
- wanted to improve treatment of the mentally ill
- against capital punishment

Johann Gottfried von Herder

25 August 1744 - 18 December 1803

- rooted national identity in folk culture
- volksgiest- spirit fo the people
- thought Germans needed to remain loyal to German nationalisty

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

1749 - 1832
  • German romantic author
  • wrote "The Sorrows of Young Werther" which was about unrequited love
  • wrote "Faust" which was about a scientist who made a deal with the devil in exchange for knowledge
  • shows that the German language can be beautiful (TAKE THAT FRENCH)

Mary Wollstonecraft

1759 - 1797
  • British woman
  • "mother of English Feminism"
  • wrote "A Vindication of the rights of women"
  • wanted equal rights for women
  • Mary Shelley's mom which is hella cool what a family

Thomas Malthus

1766 - 1834
  • believed that population will always grow too fast for resources
  • believed in "postitive" checks on population growth like disease, famine, war

Germaine de Stael

1766 - 1817
  • French romantic essayist
  • defended romanticism
  • of swiss origin
  • stressed emotion and individualism

James Watt Invents the Steam Engine


Richard Arkwright Invents the Water Frame

  • water-driven rollers stretched cotton before spinning
  • created stronger fibers that could be made into tread
  • cotton production could now be mechanized

Henri de Saint-Simon

1769 - 1825
  • father of French socialism
  • productive work would be the basis of all prestige and power
    • thought technocrats should run things
  • thought society should be organized on a secular form of Christianity (keep the morals, lose the Jesus)
  • thought that with new tech., poverty should go away since we can now exploit machines, not people

William Wordsworth

1770 - 1850

-English Romantic poet

- associated with lake country in GB

Ludwig Van Beethoven

1770 - 1827
  • classical era of music
  • lived in Germany but did a lot of work in Vienna
  • resented the idea that composers should be humble
  • composed in every form, but his piano sonatas and 9 symphonies are his best works
  • lost his hearing and came close to killing himself
  • was completely deaf in his last years

Robert Owen

1771 - 1858

- founded the factory of New Lanark
- prohibited children under 10 from working in his mills
- had only a 10 hr work day
- tried to eliminate drunkenness and sexual harassment
- started schools for children of his workers
- instituted old-age and disability pensions
- believed that you could make more profit by treating workers well

David Ricardo

1772 - 1823

-opposed to gov't intervention
- Iron Law of Wages: said that wages remained fairly constant at a minimum wage
- believed that most people would stay poor because we'll always have too many resources for the amount of people

Charles Fourier

1772 - 1837

-Utopian socialist
- would divide society into phalanxes made up of 1,620 people
- people would be paid according to their contributions
- thought that marriage should be abolished since it had become slavery

Romantic Era

1775 - 1850

John Constable

1776 - 1837
  • English romantic
  • painted landscapes
  • captures the countryside right before industrialization

Jeremy Bentham publishes "Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation"

  • founder of utilitarianism
  • believes in doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people
  • believed in limited gov't
  • supported prison and penal code reform

Percy Shelley

4 August 1792 - 8 July 1822
  • English romantic writer
  • married to Mary Shelley
  • left England for Switzerland
  • feminist
  • got kicked out of oxford for writing a pamphlet defending Atheism
  • had an obsessive fear of drowning. Guess how he died. Yup, drowning

Eugene Delacroix

1798 - 1863
  • French romantic painter
  • loved the exotic, so many paintings are set in the middle east
  • very liberal dude
  • famous of Liberty Leading the People

Alexander Pushkin

1799 - 1837
  • Russian arch-Romantic writer
  • first Russian to be taken seriously outside of Russia
  • his writing was personally censored by Tsar Alexander I and honestly goals
  • wrote about Pugachev's rebellion
  • died in a duel with an angry husband

Victor Hugo

1802 - 1885
  • French romantic writer
  • author of Les Miserables, Nortre Dame
  • great poet
  • wrote about love and lust and "not normal" people
  • had a giant funeral and is buried in the Pantheon in Paris

Flora Tristan

1803 - 1844
  • french socialist
  • thought women's rights and workers' rights went in tandem
  • didn't think that men and women should be pitted against each other since both were victimized by capitalism
  • believed in unionization
  • against slavery, capital punishment, the institution of marriage

George Sand

1804 - 1876

-French Romantic writer
- Pseydonym for Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin
- frequently dressed in male clothing to be taken more seriously
- had a relationship with Chopin

John Stuart Mill

1806 - 1873
  • criticized utilitarianism for ignoring human emotion and thought it would lead to a tyranny of the majority
  • liberal who didn't stick to strict capitalism
  • advocated for women's rights, even birth control
  • believed in a more equitable distribution of wealth

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

1809 - 1865
  • socialist/ anarchist
    -argued that property is theft
  • believed in mutualism
  • thought industrialization destroyed's workers' rights
  • limited possession: thought that people only should own that which they earned through their own work
  • hated government; did not want an organized state

Charles Darwin

1809 - 1882
  • sails around the world on the Beagle from 1831-1836
  • made his most important discoveries in the Galapagos
  • publishes "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" in 1859
  • argued for the idea of natural selection
  • thought life started in very simple forms and slowly developed
  • people twist his words- Social Darwinism
  • use Darwinism to justify imperialism, racism, sexism, etc.
  • became an agnostic because he concluded that traditional Christianity could not be true

Mikhail Bakunin

1814 - 1876

- believed that institutions needed to be swept away before production could be collectivized
- believed in a violent revolution
- does not believe in a political state
- arrested multiple times and was invovled in the 1848 revolutions

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883
  • thought of himself as the Darwin of society
  • son of a Prussian Jewish Lawyer, but he was an atheist
  • born in the Rhineland
  • became a radical at the Uniersity of Berlin
  • heavily influence by Hegel, but he rebels against Hegel's idealism
  • chased into France, where he meets Friedrich Engels
  • Marxism does not equal 20th century communism kids
  • publishes the Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital

Herbet Spencer

1820 - 1903
  • big social darwinist
  • argued that the wealthy are the "fittest" and the poor are evolutionary losers
  • leads to new arguments for laissez-faire economics
  • his ideas are used to justify imperialism

Louis Pasteur

1822 - 1895
  • develops the "germ theory of disease"- idea that disease is caused by bacteria and viruses
  • father of modern immunology
  • developed methods of inoculation to prevent anthrax, cholera, and rabies
  • developed process of pasteurization
  • disproved the idea of spontaneous generation- "all life comes from life"

Gregor Mendel

1822 - 1884
  • Augustinian friar from Austria
  • experimented on peas to breed peas with diff. traits
  • coined the terms "dominant and recessive traits"
  • nobody really cared about his findings in his lifetime
  • did not know about DNA that's 1953

First Modern Railway Opens

  • Manchester-Liverpool line
  • carried more than 400,000 people in the 1st year

Michael Faraday Discovers Electromagnetic Induction

  • Faraday was British
  • if you spin a metal coil in a magnetic field, the coil will become magnetized
  • built the first genator

James Clerk Maxwell

1831 - 1879
  • Scottish physicist -discovered the relationship b/w electricity and magnetism
  • showed that an oscillating electric charge produces an electromagnetic field
  • showed that different waves are all the same thing--> electromagnetic spectrum
  • his work is important for x rays and radio waves

Samuel Morse Sends First Telegram

  • Morse was an American scientist
  • sends first message from the basement of the capitol building of Baltimore
  • first telegram was "What hath God Wrought?"
  • this is the first time that messages can travel faster than a horse

Irish Potato Famine

1845 - 1852
  • the potato was really easy to farm even in hilly, bad soil
  • a fungus that originated in Maine got into the potato population of Europe
  • hit all of Europe, but no other country was so dependent on it
  • Irish say that it hit them so hard because the Anglo-Irish had all the good land
  • hundreds of thousands began dying of disease and hunger
  • about 1 million people died

  • parliament really abdicated its responsibility to help the Irish

  • economists had warned of the danger of reliance on the potato for years, but the english didn't listen

  • parliament took too long to bring in food relief, and even then, the infrastructure was so poor that it couldn't get to the people that needed it


Georges Sorel

1847 - 1922

-wrote "Reflections on Violence"
- anarchist
- argued that workers shouldn't collaborate with the exsisting system by accepting worker's comp and benefits
- anarcho-syndicalism: anarchists willing to work with unions
- believed in direct action: setting off bombs, assassinating people, etc.

Communist Manifesto Published

Feb. 1848
  • 2nd most translated work in human history
  • statement of communist belief and a call to arms
  • written in inspiring language
  • explicitly calls for violent revolution
  • does not inspire the revolutions of 1848
  • "Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all lands unite!"

Sigmund Freud

1856 - 1939
  • father of modern psychology
  • studied the unconscious mind
  • dealt with people with neurosis
  • felt that the unconscious mind drives human behavior
  • thought early childhood was crucial for development
  • decided there are three components to human psyche: superego, ego, and id
  • Oedipus complex
  • thought women had an innate inferiority
  • thought really highly of himself

Theodor Herzl

1860 - 1904

-father of Zionism
- published "The Jewish State" in 1896
- believed that Jews needed their own state for their safety
- cited the Dreyfus Affair, Pogroms, antisemitism in general
- Zionism is not a religious movement
- didn't say that the Jewish nation needed to be in Israel

Marie Curie

1867 - 1934
  • Marie and her husband Pierre discover radium and polonium
  • Marie is the only person to ever win a Nobel prize in both chem. and physics
  • they both died of radiation poisoning b/c they kept trying to refine radium

Das Kapital Published

  • by Karl Marx
  • believed in economic determinism (everything in society is based on economics)
  • believed that a society divided into classes was self destructing
  • argues that labor is the source of value, but employers deny the proletariat any of that value
  • believed he could predict human history timeline of human history: civilization-->slave society---> feudal society---> capitalist society---> revolution---> dictatorship of the proletariat---> classless society
  • believed that capitalism disrupted natural human communities
  • attacked nationalism as a means to divide the working class
  • communism starts to almost become a religion- based on bling trust
  • doesn't say much about a communist party- that's added by Lenin
  • most communist revolutions get stuck in the dictatorship of the proletariat
  • Marxist revisionists argues that Marx has the right idea about capitalism, but we don't need violent revolution -achieve socialism through the ballot, not the bullet

Great Britain Begins Buying Shares in the Suez


Nicolaus Otto Invents the Internal Combustion Engine

  • uses gasoline
  • basically uses a series of explosions to burn a mix of air and gas

Albert Einstein

1879 - 1955
  • born in Germany and fled the Nazis in the 1930s
  • formulated his special theory of relativity in 1905 -E=mc2
    • says that the speed of light is the only thing that isn't relative
  • in 1916, he publishes the general theory of relativity
    • says time is the 4th dimension
    • proves that gravity is a curved field and is a warping of time and space
  • shows that energy and matter are not different things
  • proves that energy travels in both particles and waves- "photons"

Maxim Gun Invented

  • could fire 11 bullets a second, 600 rounds/min

Max Planck Publishes the Quantum Theory


-argued that energy is distributed in parcels
- it's not a continuous flow, it's in little units
- energy levels are either at one level or another, never in between

Spanish Flu of 1918

1918 - 1919
  • kills b/w 20 and 40 million people
  • started among American soldiers from Kansas
  • influenza mutates quickly, which makes it difficult to treat
  • soldiers crammed in close quarters are a really good way to spread a respiratory disease
  • possible that every person on earth caught it


1932 - 1933
  • Stalin's focus on industry causes a massive famine
  • hit the hardest in the Ukraine, which was the food producing area of Russia
  • Stalin stopped all food relief from entering and took all their food
  • Ukrainians call it genocide, but the Russians never recognized it as such
  • killed about 4-7 million people total


Great Northern War

1700 - 1721
  • basically every northern european nation vs. Sweden
  • Sweden loses its German territories, areas on the Northern Sea, and Baltic sea
  • Peter the great fought for Russia to reclaim the Baltic territories

Declaration of Pillnitz

August 1791

-Austria and Prussia say that France needs to restore the king otherwise they will declare war
- will only intervene if all other major powers join them
- GB is unlikely to do so
- hoped that France would change without a war

French Revolutionary Wars

April 1792 - 1802

-France declares war on Austria
- involved Britain, Austria, Prussia
- France starts losing and Prussia warns the French not to kill the royal family, or else they will burn down Paris

Napoleonic Wars

1803 - 1815

-UK, Austria, Russia and Sweden form an allaince- Third Coalition
- Battle of Trafalgar (Oct. 1805)
- Battle of Austerlitz (Dec. 1805)- Napoleon defeats Austria and abolishes the HRE
- Battles of Auerstadt and Jena (1806)- Napoleon defeats Prussia
- invades Russia in 1807, Russians burn Moscow, Napoleon's troops starve and freeze
- Battle of Nations at Leipzig- Oct. 1813- Napoleon was forced to retreat
- in March 1814, the allies take Paris
- Napoleon returns for 100 days
- Battle of Waterloo- June, 18 1815; Napoleon finally defeated and exiled

Peace of Tilsit


Russia and Napoleon agree not to fight each other; Napoleon breaks the deal in 1812

Peninsular War

1808 - 1814
  • Napoleon vs. Spain
  • in 1808, Napoleon put his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne
  • Spanish respond with a revolt using guerrilla tactics

First Peace of Paris

May 1814
  • reestablished borders at the 1792 boundaries
  • included Avignon, Venaissin, parts of Savoy, and Flemish territories
  • did not want France to be resentful

Congress of Vienna

Sept. 1814 - June 1815
  • Big Questions: What do with France? How should we reassign borders? Who should rule what? How do we maintain peace?
  • Netherlands is set up as a military state ruled by House of Orang
  • unite Sardinia with Piedmont, Savoy, Nice, and part of Genoa
  • Austria gains Lombardy and Venetia
  • Papal States are returned to Pope Pius VII
  • Confederation of the Rhine is dissolved and is turned into the German Confederation
  • Russia gained Poland
  • Prussia expands into Saxony, the Rhine, and Swedish Pomerania
  • Sweden gains Norway
  • Britain gets Sri Lanka and South Africa
  • Switzerland is declared to be neutral

Second Peace of Paris

Nov. 1815

-reestablished borders at 1790 boundaries
- made France pay 700 million francs in reparations
-put 150,000 soldiers in France for 5 years; ended up removing them after 3
- still gets to keep most colonial possessions

Greek War of Independence

1821 - 1832
  • there had never been a Greek state prior to this
  • struggle captures the imaginations of liberals and romantics in Europe
  • Metternich told the great powers to let the revolution burn out
  • eventually, France, GB, and Russia all intervene to help the Greeks
  • the great powers force the greeks, who wanted a republic, to accept a king
  • put Otto (a Bavarian king) on the throne, followed by a Danish family

First Opium War

1839 - 1842
  • British had been selling opium to Chinese, which created a real issue with addiction
  • Qing dynasty starts cracking down on opium dens, which the Brits don't like
  • British/ Europeans win

Treaty of Nanjing


-Chinese are forced to open up 4 more trade ports in addition to Canton
- Extraterritoriality- European nationals had separate courts in China
- China lost Hong Kong to the British until 1997

Crimean War

1854 - 1856
  • biggest war in Europe since Napoleon
  • basically Russia wanted to benefit from Ottoman weakness in the Balkans and the rest of Europe said no
  • in 1853 Russia demanded the right to protect Greek christians in the Ottoman Empire
  • in response in 1853, Turkey delcared war on Russia, counting on support from GB and France
  • GB and France declare war on Russia in March. 1854
  • Piedmont- Sardinia joins on France's side in Jan. 1855
  • Russia lost at Sevastpool in 1855 and that was basically the end
  • high number of casualties
  • Russia expected Austria to help them out since Russia crushed the hungarian revolt

Peace of Paris of 1856


-ends the Crimean War
- the Black Sea is neutralized
- Ottomans get the Danube River back
- Danubian principalities are placed under joint control of the great powers
- DAnubian territories become Romania in 1861

Second Opium War

1856 - 1860
  • basically the same as the first opium war
  • after this, China is carved up into spheres of influence
  • literally eveyr european power and Japan had some control over China

The Seven Weeks' War

  • fighting over control of Schleswig and Holstein
  • crisis provoked by Bismarck
  • Prussia was better trained and more industrialized than Austria
  • when they made peace, Bismarck didn't seek retribution, just excluded Austria from Germany
  • forced Austria to deal with internal issues

Austria Splits into Austria-Hungary

  • dual monarchy of two independent states
  • now called Austria-Hungary
  • the 7 weeks war forced Austria to deal with their issues, of which there were many

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

-Southern German princes sided with Prussia
- Germany was much more prepared, even if their tech wasn't better
- Napoleon III proved to be an ineffective military leader
- like, he put his army in a low-lying area. Even I know not to do that
- when Prussians win, France has to pay war reparations and give up Alsace-Lorraine

Russo-Turkish War

1877 - 1878

-starts with Serbia declaring war on the Ottomans
- Ottomans commit some real atrocities
- Russia and Romania declare war on the Ottomans
- Russians were set to take Constantinople, but Gb interferes
- at the Congress of Berlin (1878), Bulgaria, Romania, and Serbia are recognized as independent, Russia gets territory in Armenia

Battle of Adowa

March 1, 1896

-Ethiopians beat the Italians
- Ethiopian leader Menelik II exploited European interests: gave concessions of land in exchange for weapons
- Ethiopia remains the only major uncolonized African country

Fashoda Crisis

  • Marchand (French) is trying to create a band of french territory from west to east
  • at the same time, Kitchener (GB) is trying to create a band of territory from Egypt to South Africa
  • they meet unexpectedly at Fashoda
  • both national gov'ts threaten war, but they don't want to spend the money
  • France eventually caved and gave Fashoda to GB; GB gives France Morocco

Boer War

1899 - 1902
  • Afrikaners/Boers were white settlers from the Netherlands who came to south Africa in the 1600s
  • during the Great Trek (1837-1844), many Afrikaners withdrew from the Cape Colony and GB recognized the Orange Free State and the TRansvaal
  • Afrikaners didn't like that the Brits told them they couldn't ensalve people
  • in 1899, war broke out
  • British had a hard time defeating the Afrikaners
  • in April 1902, Afrikaners surrendered
  • GB annexed the Afrikaner territory but couldn't make decisions about SA without them

Austria-Hungary Annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina


-Russia warned them not to but wasn't able to stop Austria
- start having a movement within Bosnia (led by Bosnian Serbs) to drive out the Austrians
- received weapons and funding from Serbian gov't

Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassinated

June 28, 1914

-killed by Gavrilo Princip, member of the Young Bosnian society
- killed Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie in Sarajevo
- Ferdinand was heir to the Austrian
- Austria-Hungary held Serbia responsible for the deaths
- on July 23, Austria depended that they be allowed to investigate the assassinations and that the Serbian gov't stop all anti-Austrian activities
- demanded an answer in 48 hours
- Serbian gov't wouldn't accept it, so Austria declared war on July 28, 1914
- by August 4, every major power is at war

World War I

July 28, 1914 - November 11, 1918
  • Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia, Unites States (1917)
  • Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

Battle of Tannenberg

August 26, 1914 - August 30, 1914
  • small German force, commanded by von Hindenburg and Ludendorff, defeated the entire Russian second army
  • Germany took about 100,000 prisoners
  • Russian general Samsonov committed suicide on the battlefield

First Battle of the Marne

September 6, 1914 - September 12, 1914

-Germany had invaded Belgium at the start of August 1914 and Brussels fell on August 20
- by the Schlieffen plan, the Germans hoped to come at Paris from the west
- Allied British and French troops met them at the MArne river and forced the Germans to retreat
- in the following months, each side tried to outflank each other in the "race to the sea"
- battle from the Marne to the town of Ypres were the end of the war of movement
- the trenches are dug
- Germany's fear of a war on two fronts is now a reality

Gallipoli Campaign

25 April 1915 - 9 January 1916
  • combined British and French fleet attacked Turkish forces at the Dardanelles
  • run by Winston Churchill, who wanted to open up a new line of supply with Russia
  • poorly planned and mismanaged
  • when the naval effort failed (b/c of Ottoman mines), they tried to land troops at Gallipoli
  • British troops were mostly from New Zealand and Australia
    • known as Anzacs, so now Anzac day is April 25th
  • got trapped on the rocks at Gallipoli and were forced to retreat

Battle of Verdun

February 1916 - December 1916

-Germans vs. French and some British
- Germans attacked first
- on the first day of the battle, 1 million shells were fired
- battle field was a living hell
- soldiers lived in trenches surrounded by corpses with shells firing day after day
- the French were commanded to remain at Verdun but General Joseph Joffre also refused to direct more resources there
- Germans quickly smashed through the first line, but they spent months trying to advance any farther
- Petain and General Robert Georges Nivelle said "they shall not pass"
- Erich bon Falkenhayn (chief of General staff of the army from 1914-1916) was fired
- French General Petain rotated his troops to give them a break- also meant that most of the French army fought there
- each side had about 500,000 casualties, with about 700,000 people dead total
- that's like if all of Nashville were just gone

Battle of Jutland

May 31, 1916 - June 1, 1916
  • only major surface naval battle of WWI
  • Germany wanted ot deal a decisive blow to the British navy to end the British blockade
  • each side inflicted damage, and more British ships were destroyed but the German fleet fled back t Germany

Battle of the Somme

July 1, 1916 - November 18, 1916
  • British attack at the Somme River
  • saw the first use of the plan and tank in battle
  • about 400,000 British and 200,000 French casualties to advance 7 miles
  • makes a huge impact on British consciousness

Nivelle Offensive

April 1, 1917 - April 25, 1917
  • run by French General Robert Nivelle
  • Launched an offensive in the Champagne region
  • promised that he would call off the attack if there wasn't success in 24 hours
    • but when the army failed, he didn't call it off
  • resulted in 40,000 deaths
  • Nivelle was fired
  • French start having issues with mutiny and revolts

Battle of Passchendaele

31 July 1917 - 6 November 1917
  • also known as the Third Battle of Ypres
  • battlefield was full of mud, and lots of men suffocated just trying to get to the battle
  • almost 400,000 British soldiers died for little territorial gain

Russian Civil War

November 1917 - October 1920
  • basically Bolsheviks vs. everyone else
  • the "reds" vs "whites"
  • Allies try to help the whites
  • Bolsheviks were more disciplined and the whites weren't really united
  • Bolsheviks were strong in Moscow and Petrograd, but weaker in rural areas
  • most peasants were afraid that the whites would bring back serfdom
  • there's never any formal treaty, it just kind of stops
  • Bolsheviks created the Cheka, which interrogated and tortured people
  • Bolsheviks kill the Romanov family on July 16, 1918

Spring Offensive/ Kaiserschlacht

March 1918 - July 1918
  • planned by Erich Ludendorff, who's trying to land a knockout blow against the allies
  • Germany begins to push the British and French lines back towards Paris
  • American start arriving by summer 1918
  • Germans start being pushed back in July
  • at this point, Germany is having a lot of issues with internal mutinies and men just surrendering
  • Ludendorgg and Von Hindenburg decided that the army couldn't win the war and told the civilian gov't to make peace
  • Armistice declared on Nov. 11, 1918

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

March 3, 1918
  • between Russia and Germany
  • Russia is totally out of the war
  • germany is supposed to gain a lot of land in Poland and the Baltics

Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919
  • exactly 5 years after Franz Ferdinand was shot
  • done at Versailles to piss of the Germans
  • Germany protested the treaty but the Allies forced them to sign
  • Germany was not alowed to have a draft, and only a 100,000 soldiers
  • not allowed machine guns, poison gas, submarines, airplanes
  • Treaty says that Germany is totally responsible for the war
  • Germany surrenders all colonies to the LEague of Nations- given as mandates to different winning powers
  • had to give away their main resource-producing regions: the Saar
  • forced to pay reparations but didn't really have the money
  • lost the land they were supposed to gain in the Treaty of Brest-Litvosk
  • lost Alsace-Lorraine
  • Rhineland is demilitarized
  • leaves Germany angry enough to want revenge and strong enough to get it

Treaty of Sevres

August 10, 1920
  • never becomes fully implemented
  • gave Greece, Armenia, and Kurds territory
  • Turks begin to fight int he Turkish War of Independence (1919-1923)
  • Mustafa Kemal is the leader of the Turks
  • eventually replaced with the treaty of Lausanne (1923)
  • republic of Turkey proclaimed in 1923
  • abolish the caliphate in 1924
  • move the Greeks to Greece
  • Kemal modernizes Turkey
    • secularizes gov't and society, creates a constitutional gov't, moves capital from Istabul to Ankara, adopts Western calendar, makes everybody take a last name

The Holocaust

1933 - 1945

-mass murder of Jews, physically disabled people, Gypsies, gay men, and more
- about 11 million people were killed total, 6 million of whom were Jewish
- more than 1 million people were in Auschwitz alone
- many died in one of the 5 main death camps ( Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Auschwitz), but many died in work camps or before they even reached the camps

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939
  • Republicans vs. Nationalists
  • Nationalists were led by General Francisco Franco
  • Nationalists were a coalition of Falange (fascists), Carlists (extreme Catholics) and anti-republicans
  • Germans used Spain as a testing ground for new equipment and tactics like aerial bombing
  • Britain stayed neutral and France was useless
  • nationalists win with a strong fascist influence
  • Franco restores the monarchy in his will in 1975

World War II

September 1, 1939 - September 2, 1945
  • begins with Hitler attacking Poland
    • Poles fought back but they didn't really have a chance, and by the end of September they had surrendered
  • GB and France declare war on Germany on September 3, 1939
  • for about 6 months, there was no real military action b/w the two sides
  • in April, Germany attacks Denmark and Norway
  • in May, Hitler invades the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg and begins marching towards France
  • on June 17, 1940, Marshal Petain petitioned the Germans for an armistice
    • 3/5 of France was occupied and under direct rule, the remaining part became Vichy France and collaborated with the Germans
  • Battle of Britain: Germans aerial bomb major British population centers from July to September 1940
    • killed about 15,000 people but the British stuck it out and Hitler eventually gave up on a direct invasion of Britain


Frederick the Great

1740 - 1786
  • a Hohenzollern
  • leader of Prussia
  • made some judicial reforms
  • had nearly universal education rates, even among the poor
  • believed in religious toleration
  • takes Silesia from Maria Theresa of Austria
    • starts the War of Spanish Succession and 7 years War
  • very interested in all things French
  • his dad was an abusive asshole and didn't let Frederick play music or do anything that wasn't military related
    • when he was 18, he and a friend ran away, and when they were caught, his father killed the friend in front of him

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796
  • kills her husband, Peter III, to become Tsarina
  • took a series of lovers throughout her life
  • established a legislative commission to review Russian laws
  • wrote "Instruction" (1767)
  • advocated the abolishment of capital punishment, torture, serfdom
  • expanded religious tolderation
  • tried to rationalize the state
  • after Pugachev's Revolt, she became more conservative
  • issues a Charter of the Nobility- gave nobles more power
  • gains land during the 3 partitions of Poland

Joseph II

1780 - 1790
  • ENLIGHTENED DESPOT -son of Maria Theresa, brother of Marie Antoinette
  • Holy Roman Emperor
  • abolished serfdom
  • required that people were able to keep half their income before taxes
  • issued the Edict of Tolerance in 1782--> complete religious toleration
    • even made jews nobles to prove it
  • wanted there to be one language in the empire- chose German
  • equality under the law
  • tried to take education out the hands of the church
  • Leopold II rescinds most of his reforms


1799 - 1814
  • consul from 1799-1804
  • emperor from 1804-1814

Alexander I of Russia

1801 - 1825

First Empire of France

1804 - 1814
  • imposes a blockade against British goods, but the rest of the continent won't go along with it
  • in almost constant war with the rest of Europe

Prince Klemens von Metternich

1809 - 1848
  • becomes chancellor of Austria
  • believed in a very conservative order
  • felt that revolutions were never a positive
  • believed in European unity


1814 - 1824
  • Bourbon king of France
  • very conservative

Charles X of France

1824 - 1830
  • last Bourbon king of France
  • a true reactionary
  • really hated the revolution
  • wanted to reimburse nobles for what they had lost in the revolution
  • censored the press
  • wanted to give the Catholic Church its privileges back
  • made sacrilege a federal crime punishable by death
  • overthrown by Louis Philippe and revolution of 1830

Nicholas I of Russia

1825 - 1855

Louis Philippe of France

1830 - 1848

-Orleanist Dynasty/July Monarchy
- known to be more liberal than the bourbons
- accepted a constitution
- doubles the number of people that can vote
- accepted a tricolor flag
- still very dictatorial and doesn't handle criticism well
- crushes the Les Mis revolution in 1832
- overthrown by Napoleon III in 1848

Queen Victoria

1837 - 1901
  • two big political parties: liberals and conservatives
  • William Gladstone was the liberal PM, Benjamin Disraeli was the conservative

Second Republic of France

1848 - 1852
  • has universal male suffrage
  • strong split between the bourgeois liberals and working class socialists
  • briefly experimented with national workshops, but the gov't designed them to fail
  • in June 1848, the gov't kills thousands of protestors
  • elect a president at the end of 1848, and Louis Napoleon Bonaparte wins

Louis Napoleon Bonaparte/ Napoleon III

1848 - 1870
  • first is elected pres. in 1848
  • extends his term by 10 years in 1851
  • declares himself emperor in 1852
  • see 2nd empire france for more

Second Empire France

1852 - 1870
  • Louis NApoleon stages a coup in 1851 and extends his presidency by 10 years
  • exactly a year later, he declared himself emperor
  • rebuilds paris -poor districts destroyed to make way for upper class ones, working class pushed to suburbs
    • widen the streets to make it easier for armies to move
    • put in gas lighting and a sewer system
  • Napoleon does a lot of public works projects like building railroads
  • start having public housing and public health projects
  • workers can now have labor unions and striking powers
  • limits liability so that people than only lose the money they've invested in a company in the first place, not more --> makes people more likely to invest
  • involves France in the Crimean War
  • Franco-Prussian war was a real disaster for Napoleon, and they've never really forgiven him for it

Alexander II of Russia

1855 - 1881
  • Tsar Liberator b/c he freed the serfs
  • does some reforms- judicial, military, etc.
  • becomes more conservative when crushing socialist sentiment
  • assassinated by the Narodniki in 1881

Otto von Bismarck

1862 - 1890
  • basically rules Prussia and Germany during this time, even though he's not the emperor
  • believed in Realpolitik- a ruthless politics
  • co-opted liberalism, nationalism, and socialism, but he is an authoritarian at heart -father of German unification

Third Republic of France

1870 - 1940
  • really start pushing the public education system
  • have real issues with executive instability- the premier would change someitmes 2x a year
  • this period is wracked by political scandals

2nd Reich/Imperial Germany

1871 - 1918

Kaiser Wilhelm I

1871 - 1888

-first Kaiser of a united Germany

Tsar Alexander III

1881 - 1894
  • Russification of Russia by driving off Jews and non-Russians
  • pogroms

Tsar Nicholas II

1894 - 1917
  • married to Alexandra, who was German
  • had a hemophiliac son
  • Rasputin started to have more influence b/c Alexandra really liked him
    • very dramatically killed by Russian nobles
  • overthown by the October revolution and killed by the Bolsheviks later

Edward VII of Great Britain

1901 - 1910

George V of Great Britain

1910 - 1936

Provisional Government (Russia)

March 1917 - November 7, 1917
  • Alexsandr Kerenski is "running" things--> moderate socialist
  • Kerenski wants an open democratic society
  • decides to stay in the war

- Germans send Lenin back to Russia to cause trouble and get Russia out of the war

Weimar Republic (Germany)

11 August 1919 - 23 March 1933
  • sign agreements with Russia to allow Germany to conduct military exercises in Russia
  • have a president w/ a 4 year term
  • major issues with a crisis of legitimacy
  • Spartacists League: hardline Marxists that later become the communist party
  • Freikorps: far right paramilitary group
  • Kapp Putsch (March 1920) : failed coup against the Weimar Republic
  • to pay the war reparations, they just print more money, which causes big issues with inflation
    • in Jan 1919, you needed 170 marks to buy an oz of gold, and in Nov. 1923, you needed 87 trillion to buy one oz
  • Ruhr Crisis (1923-124): France occupies the Ruhr valley until Germany will pay them
  • Dawes Plan (1924): US will loan Germany money

Benito Mussolini (Italy)

1922 - 1943
  • began his career as a socialist
  • after WWI, he became an intense nationalist
  • PM of Italy and then declared himself dictator
  • in 1922, he staged the March on Rome
  • becomes totally in control around 1926
  • never as totalitarian as he wanted to be
  • did kill people, but was never as violent as Hitler or Stalin
  • big on expansionism
  • gave families subsidies and tax breaks to have more children
  • Catholic Church was pretty chill overall with fascism

Joseph Stalin (USSR)

1924 - 1953
  • Lenin did not want him to be in charge
  • from Georgia
  • very classical bureaucrat
  • expelled Trotsky from the party in 1927
  • ends the NEP in 1928 and sets up the First Five Year Plan
  • holodomor
  • purged the party and Russia often
  • had the NKVD as his secret police

Adolf Hitler

1933 - 1945
  • born in Austria
  • volunteered in the German army during WWI
    • insisted that Germany hadn't lost the war
  • Beer Hall Putsch- failed coup in 1923
  • wrote "Mein Kampf"
  • Reichstag Fire- blame it o a Dutch immigrant and use it to justify the enabling acts
  • by 1934, Hitler is definitely in charge

Nazi Germany

1933 - 1945

Francisco Franco (Spain)

1939 - 1975


National Assembly Period France

1789 - 1791
  • starts with oath of Tennis court
  • ends with Constitution of 1791

Louis XVI Convenes the Estates General

May 1789
  • first time they had met since 1614
  • 1st estate- nobility
  • 2nd estate- clergy
  • 3rd estate- everybody else
  • members made a list of all their grievances- cahiers de doleances
  • third estate wanted to vote by numbers, not rank
  • they couldn't decide on how to vote, so they just refused to meet

Oath of the Tennis Court

June 20 1789
  • the third estate, with some clergy, rename themselves the National Assembly
  • write their own constitution
  • refuse to let the king adjourn the Estates General
  • Louis XVI orders 18,000 soldiers to march to Versailles and Paris, but he eventually caved to the national assembly

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789
  • Bastille was the royal armory
  • held some prisoners
  • symbol of royal power and oppression
  • over 100 people were killed on both sides

National Assembly Abolishes Privilege in France

August 4, 1789
  • abolished the obligatory tithes, banalites, hunting privileges, and right of eminent property
  • start taxing the nobles
  • equal opportunity for gov't jobs
  • equality before the law
  • King didn't openly oppose the changes, but he was not a fan
  • the reforms were extremely popular

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

  • dissolved monasteries and abbeys unless they helped the poor
  • sold many church lands
  • clergy became paid members of the bureaucracy
  • the Pope viewed this as an attack on the church
  • the Church is now anti-revolutionaries; now supporters of the revolution must be at the very least anticlerical
  • forced clergy to pledge their support to the revolution

Legislative Assembly Period France

1791 - Sept. 1792
  • starts with Constitution of 1791
  • ends with dissolvment of the monarchy in 1792

King Louis' Flight to Varennes

June 1791
  • the royal family tries to flee Versailles
  • intended to join royalist forces at Metz in Belgium
  • got to Varennes before the National Guard capturedthem
  • the family remains a prisoner until death

Constitution of 1791/ 1st Constitution of France

September 1791
  • constitutional monarchy
  • acknowledged the people's sovereignty as a source of political power
  • made voting rights dependent on property ownership
  • now have a legislative assembly with elected representatives
  • king only had the power to suspend the vote for one motn

National Convention Period France

1792 - 1794
  • starts with monarchy being dissolved
  • ends with Directory period after the reign of terror
  • contained the reign of terror
  • supposed to be in charge of creating a new constitution, but it eventually just becomes the gov't
  • first time France is a republic
  • have universal male suffrage

Louis XVI Killed

Jan. 1793
  • killed via guillotine
  • Marie Antoinette killed in Oct. 1793
  • France is now guilty of regicide, this is when other countries start declaring war
  • "We throw down as a gauntlet, the head of Louis"

Reign of Terror

July 1793 - July 1794
  • Robespierre becomes in charge of the Committee of Public Safety in July
    • designed to root out counterrevolutionaries
  • trials by revolutionary tribunal followed with swift execution
  • responsible for 40,000 executions in 9 months
  • Robespierre attacked critics on all sides, undermining his support
  • Danton lost faith in the revolution and was executed--> people start thinking that nobody was faith
  • in July 1794, Robespierre was guillotined

Directory Period France

1794 - November 9, 1799

-conservative stage of the revolution
- stable constitutional rule
- abolished the committee of public safety
- give the churches back their rights
- property and literacy qualifications for voting

Napoleon's Consulate Period

November 9, 1799 - December 2, 1804
  • first consul of a triumvirate
  • religiously tolerant
  • stabilized the currency
  • established the legion of honor
  • tax reforms
  • creates the National Bank of France-1800
  • starts a lot of schools
  • divides France into departements and appoints prefects to be the head of each one
  • creates the Civil and Criminal Code of Laws
  • Sold North American territories to US gov't

Benjamin Disraeli

1804 - 1881
  • conservative PM from 1866-1868, 1874-1880
  • son of a Jewish Venetian merchant, but he was baptized in the Anglican Church
  • founder of modern British party politcs: started having big speeches and rallies
  • a conservative
  • sponsored the Factory Act of 1875- set a max of 56 hr work week
  • passed public health laws, housing standards, and trade union acts
  • insisted on traditional institutions
  • Reform bill of 1867 extends vote to working class
  • believed in British Empire as an institution
  • bought half the Suez Canal

William Gladstone

1809 - 1898
  • PM from 1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886, 1892-1894
  • part of the evangelical wing of the anglican church
  • classical liberal who believed in laissez-faire economics
  • was a conservative but joined the liberals in 1846
  • abolished tariffs, cut defense expenses, lowered taxes, and sponsored low budgets
  • disestabllished the Anglican church in Ireland
  • reformed the army so that commission couldn't be purchased
    • now a merit system b/c they kept having nobles who didn't know what the hell they were doing as generals which was bad
  • started a bueraucracy for the civil service
  • allowed non-Anglicans to go to Oxford and Cambridge
  • started moving towards a public school system in England, which Scotland had
  • introduced a secret ballot
  • passed the reform bill of 1868, which gave vote to rural working class
  • not a fan of the British Empire as an institution

Holy Alliance

  • Alexander I's idea
  • rulers agreed to renounce war and protect Christian interests
  • every country in Europe (except UK) joined so they wouldn't offend Alex
  • Metternich thought it was all bullshit but he signed anyway
  • the Ottomans and the Pope still don't sign
  • use this to justify intervening in countries having liberal revolts

Quadruple Alliance

November 20, 1815

-made up of GB, Austria, Prussia, and Russia
- intended to preserve the status quo
- in 1818 France joins and it becomes the Quintuple Alliance

German Confederation Passes Carlsbad Decrees


-shuts down liberal or nationalist newspapers
- strongly enforced in university downs
- successfully suppresses revolts in Germany until 1848

Peterloo Massacre And the Six Acts

August 16, 1819
  • in August, 80,000 unarmed people who wanted universal suffrage demonstrated in a field outside Manchester
  • militia were called in and some people died

Six Acts
1. prevented people from meeting to train with weapons
2. gave local magistrates the power to search for and seize weapons
3. reduced opportunities for bail and made trials faster
4. required people to get permission before meeting with more than 50 people at a time
5. toughened exsistng sedition and libel laws
6. increased taxes for magezines/newspapers that published opinions

Congress of Troppau


-Metternich and Alexander I agree that Austria will go into Southern Italy and restore the monarchy
- successfully put down the revolt and restore the monarchy

Sicilian Revolt of 1820

  • try to get the King to accept a written constitution and a legislature
  • successful until Austria intervenes and restores the monarchy

Congress of Verona

  • the Great Powers as France to put down the rebellion in Spain against the Bourbon king
  • for a brief time, Ferdinand VII is a limited monarch
  • when France restores Ferdinand, they scrap the constitution
  • shows that the alliance system is working to keep revolts down

Belgian Revolution of 1830

  • there was a cultural split between french speakers (Walloons) and dutch (Flemings)
  • revolution is based on nationalism and liberalism
  • the monarch (William of Orange) wanted to crush the revolt, but sendig in troops only made people more angry
  • Metternich and Tsar Nicholas I say they're going to crush the rebellion, but the Poles start revolting too, so the Russians have to take care of that
  • Belgium promised to stay neutral and become a constitutional monarchy in exchange for statehood
  • Leopold of Saxe-Coburg is put on the throne

French Revolution of 1830

  • a mixture of classes
  • Charles flees the country
  • the Bourgeoisie want a better king, but the working class wants a republic
  • settle of Louis Philippe, who was indirectly related to the Bourbons

Factory Act of 1833 in UK

  • prohibited children younger than 9 from working in factories
  • provided 2 hours of daily education
  • created a 12 hr work day in mills

Zollverein Established

  • unified trading zone in Germany
  • excluded Austria
  • paves the way for German unification

Chartist Movement in Britain

1838 - 1848
  • working class movement
  • calls for 5 things
  • universal male suffrage
  • annual parliamentary elections
  • salaries for MPs
  • elimination of property requirements for serving in parliament
  • equal electoral districs
  • was taken to parliament 3 times and rejected 3 times
  • the gov't never gave into any of the demands until much late

Mines Act of 1842 Britain

  • prohibited women and children from working in mines

Austrian Revolt of 1848

  • there were so many diff. nationalities within the Austrian empire that wanted their own state -Hungarians, Croats, Italians, Czechs, etc.
  • Students in Vienna begin to revolt against the monarchy and Ferdinand makes concessions
  • in the end, liberals and socialists were too different and couldn't come together
  • Russia intervened to stop the Hungarian revolution for good
  • Ferdinand is forced to abdicate the throne

German Revolution of 1848

  • Germans were dissatisfied with the loose confederation of states, so they gathered at Frankfurt to attempt to unify
  • some believe in the Klein Deutschland (Germany minus Austria) and others believe in the Gross Deutschland (Germany + Austrians)
  • can't decide on the system of gov't either
  • there were socialist revolts in Frankfurt around the same time, and Frederick William IV (a prussian) crushes them

French Revolution of 1848

Feb. 1848
  • Louis Philippe was very thin-skinned and didn't like that people called him "The pear"
  • in Feb., revolution breaks out
  • Louis Bland was a moderate socialist leader
  • Louis Philippe flees pretty quickly and they end up with a provisional government

Italian Unification

1858 - 1870
  • Camillo Benso di Cavour provokes Austria into war by stirring up rebellions in Lombardy and Venetia
  • plebiscite in 1859 unites Tuscany, Parma, and Modena under Victor Emmanuel II
  • Garibaldi returns from exile to lead an army of Red Shirts to liberate Sicily
  • in 1860, Garibaldi yileds his territories to Victor Emmanuel II
  • officially united in 1861
  • in 1866, Italy gains Venetia
  • the Pope remains opposed to Italy
  • Victor Emmanuel seizes Rome when Napoleon III pulls his troops out in the Franco-Prussian War
  • Pope continues to say that the Italian State is illegitimate

British Formally Take Control of India

  • prompted by the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857-1858
  • British foreign policy becomes very dependent on protecting India

Russia Abolishes Serfdom

March 1861

-gave land to the freed peasants, but they have to pay redemption payments spread out over 49 years
- peasants paid the Mir (village commune) in installments, and the state repaid landowners
- since the debt took so long to pay off, it was passed on to sons, which kept peasants tied to their land
- people resented being forced to pay for land they considered to be theirs
- Mir prevented social mobility, which is what the ruling class wanted
- abolition didn't solve Russia's issues- farming methods were still bad, people are still mad at the gov't
- redemption payments weren't abolished until 1907 after revolts

German Unification

Approx. 1864 - 1871

-in 1864, Germany and Austria jointly invaded Schelswig and Holstein in Denmark
- Bismarck provoked a crisis with Austria over the ruling of the territories
- Germany and Russia go to war in June 1866 and Germany wins
- in spring of 1870, Bismarck provokes a crisis with France
- France declares war on Prussia in July 1870
- southern Germany sides with Prussia, which effectively unites Germany
- Germany is proclaimed a state on Jan. 21, 1871 at Versailles

Alexander II introduces Zemstvos in Russia

  • Zemstovs= local elected assemblies
  • zemstovs govern local affairs, and there's a hierarchy of them
  • each class elected officials
  • still don't have a national assembly

Vatican I

1869 - 1870
  • a council of all bishops and archbishops
  • under rule of Pope Pius IX
  • say that when the Pope is speaking "Ex cathedra" (from the throne), God will not allow him to make a mistake
  • drives a deeper wedge between catholics and protestants

Paris Commune

March 18, 1871 - May 28, 1871
  • after the siege of Paris, the national army attemtped to disarm Paris, but they were driven from the city
  • established the paris commune
  • hoped to drag the rest of France in Paris's direction
  • communards= people who supported the commune
  • Paris and the rest of France are not basically in civil war
  • most of the bourgeoisie either shut up or were taken as hostages
  • shot the archbishop of Paris and lots of generals
  • in May 1871, the gov't entered the city and crushed the revolt
  • gov't kileld 25,000 people and arrested 40,000 others
  • the commune becomes a rallying cry for revolutionary movements everywhere
  • later communists treat the communards as martyrs
  • the anthem of communism was written by the communardes

Kulterkampf in Germany

1872 - 1878
  • Bismarck creates a rivalry between protestants and catholics that wasn't really a big deal
  • he's afraid of southern Catholicism and wants to weaken the church
  • kicks the Jesuits out og Germany, bans CAtholic schools
  • only makes Catholics grow closer to the papacy
  • Bismarck backs off b/c he's found a new enemy- the socialists

Alexander II Orders Russian Students to Return Home


-between 1860 and 1870, the intelligentsia (radical intellectuals) started criicizing the gov't
- went around the countryside trying to educate peasants and stir up revolt
- peasants weren't really down with the new ideas and would turn in the students to the authorities
- in the late 1870s, there were mass trials and repression of the press
- the Narodniki, a subset of the intelligentsia, turned to violence in response
- terrorists called the Narodnaya Volva (People's will) tried to assassinate the tsar to prove that the monarchy was not invincible
- they tried several times to assasinate him and finally succeeded in 1881
- shows that Russia is changing socially, but the gov't is not

Three Emperor's League


-Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia ally

Alexander II reforms the Russian military


-required that all young men 20 and older were eleigible for conscription
- expected 15 years of service in the military, 6 on active duty
- reduced time from te 25 years of active duty required for peasants previously
- for a while they stopped having a secret police, but it's Russia so that didn't last long

Triple Alliance Formed

  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy

Fabian Society Founded


-founded by Beatrice and Sidney Webbs
- named themselves for the Roman dictator Fabius
- believed in gradual socialist reform, not in revolution--> revisionist socialism
- believed in a strong welfare state
- made up of intellectuals
- didn't believe in complete gov't control of industries
- supported Labour Party candidates
- form the intellectual platform for the Labour Party

Berlin Conference of 1884


-yielded the Congo Basin to Belgium
- laid down rules for all other colonization in Africa
- no African leaders present

Boulanger Affiar

1889 - 1891
  • Georges Boulanger was a general and minister of war
  • he was planning to stage a coup in 1889, but lost his nerve
    • his mistress was afraid of him dying, so she begged him not to do it
  • he flees in shame to Belgium
  • the mistress dies of tuberculosis in 1891 and he committed suicide literally on her grave

James Keir Hardie Founds the Independent Labour Party

  • Hardie was a Scottish Miner
  • Hardie was the first independent working man to serve in parliament
  • Hardie and his party got trade unions on his side and officially founded the Labour Party in 1900
  • explicitly socialist party
  • new labour party pushed conservatives and liberals to develop more social welfare programs

Dreyfus Affair

1894 - 1906
  • Alfred Dreyfus was a Jewish army officer falsely tried and convicted of selling secrets to the Germans
  • convicted Dreyfus based on his handwriting which is not forensic science kids
  • he maintained his innocence through the whole thing
  • sent to Devil's Island for life
  • secrets kept being revealed, but the army maintained that they had the right guy
  • Zola writes "J'Accuse" in defense of Dreyfus
  • White france backs the army, red france backs Dreyfus
  • finally relented and pardoned him in 1899 and cleared of crimes in 1906
  • there was a lot of antisemitism involved- crowds chanted "death to the jews"

Russia Formally Allies with France

  • Wilhelm II allowed the Three-Emperor's agreement to lapse, so Russia turns to France

Boxer Rebellion

  • in China
  • there were a bunch of scoieties like the Society of Rebellious and Harmonious Fists
  • started small revolt and killed a bunhc of Chinese Christians
  • every major power sends troops to crush the revolt
  • China was forced to pay reparations and execute many boxers

Women's Social and Political Union Founded

Oct. 1903
  • WSPU
  • British suffragists
  • start "direct action" in 1910 when they realize they're not going to win the vote by asking politely
  • start doing big, public things and going on hunger strikes when they got arrested
  • force fed by the police in really violent ways
  • one woman was trampled at a derby

Sinn Fein Founded

  • Irish nationalist group dedicated to an independent Ireland
  • made up mostly of catholics

Triple Entente Established


-Russia, France, and GB ally
- by 1904, France and GB are having joint military exercises

Herbert Asquith

1908 - 1916
  • British liberal party PM
  • sponsored the National Insurance Act of 1911
  • doesn't want to lose the working class vote to the labour party
  • has David Lloyd George as his Chancellor of the Exchequer

The People's Budget

1909 - 1911

-written by David Lloyd George
- created a social welfare state
- accident insurance, old age pensions, employment bureaus, minimum wage, salaries for MPs
- raised income taxes to pay for it
- House of Commons passed it, but it was vetoed by the house of Lords
- under pressure by the king, the house of lords passes it in 1911

Parliament Bill of 1911


-strips the House of Lords of their veto power

Irish Home Rule Passes


-allows the Irish to control their domestic politics
- still under British foreign policy
- put on hold because of WWI

February Revolution (Russia)

March 8, 1917 - March 16, 1917
  • started about the bread lines being too long b/c of the ar
  • many women rioted b/c it was international women's day
  • Tsar calls out the Cossack soldiers but they refuse to shoot the women and many join the riots
  • Tsar abdicates on March 15, 1917

October Revolution of 1917

November 7, 1917
  • starts in Petrograd
  • Red Guard (Soviet militia) seize the city
  • Leon Trotsky planned a lot of military sides of thigs
  • Kerensky regime is overthrown quickly

Women Win Suffrage in Britain

  • Reform bill of 1918
  • women over the age of 30 could vote, whereas men only had to be 21
  • proved themselves in the war and kept the economy afloat

New Economic Policy

1921 - 1928

-Lenin and Bukharin didn't that the Russian economy could survive with straight up communism
- supposed to be a temporary thing
- allowed some parts of capitalism to survive
- nationalized the major industries but didn't collectivize land and allowed small businesses to be private
- worked in the short term- kept the peasants happy and stabilized Russia

First Five-Year Plan

1928 - 1932

-Stalin ends the NEP
- Five year plans set goals and quotas for the Russian economy
- emphasized rapid industrialization
- industrializes at the expense of agriculture, which causes a famine
- nationalizes every part of the economy and collectivizes land

Kellogg-Briand Pact

August 27, 1928
  • renounce war as an instrument of policy
  • at first only 15 countries signed on, but then almost every independent country signed
  • UN charter is based on this

National Government (Great Britain)

1931 - 1935
  • let Ramsay MacDonald (Labour party) stay PM
  • National gov't was a centrist coalition
  • followed Keynesian economics and expanded the welfare state
  • outlawed the British Union of Fascists in 1939, led by Sir Oswald Mosley

Enabling Act (Germany)

March 23, 1933
  • established the Nazis in power
  • outlawed freedom of the press and public meetings
  • approved the use of violence against political enemies
  • outlawed other political parties
  • passed with limited opposition
  • big turning point in Hitler's rise to power

The Great Purge (Russia)

1934 - 1938

-Sergei Kirov, the head of the Leningrad communist party was murdered
- Stalin claims that there's a conspiracy and uses that to start murdering people
- starts killing anybody he sees as an enemy
- killed about 700,000 people during this period
- of 139 Central Committee members in 1934, 110 were killed
- attacked the Old Bolsheviks first
- left the USSR vulnerable to attack since they had decimated their officer corps

Night of the Long Knives

June 30, 1934

-Hitler and the SS purge the SA
- executed Ernst Rohm (head of the SA)

Nuremberg Laws

September 1935

-Laws were passed to identify Jews
- never really about religion; it was about fucked up ideas about race
- excluded them from various professions
- eventually banned from going to public events
- never physically segregated Jews in Germany in ghettos (they did everywhere else)

Popular Front (France)

1936 - 1937
  • coalition of Left and Center parties
  • led by Leon Blum, a Jewish socialist
  • promised wage increases, paid vacations, and collective bargaining
  • concessions to workers backfired b/c some people just didn't work and the wealthy got freaked out and sent their money to Switzerland

- gov't couldn't afford to arm

Hitler Remilitarizes the Rhineland

March 1936
  • not supposed to do this under the treaty of versailles
  • Rhineland borders France and Belgium
  • France and GB don't do anything, which only encourages Hitler

Anschluss: Hitler Annexes Austria

March 1938

-there's no fighting involved, the Germans just kind of declare that Austria is Germany
- held a plebiscite in which the Austrians voted to be part of the German Reich

Munich Conference

September 29, 1938
  • British, French, and Italians agree to let Hitler take the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia)
  • Chamberlain was the British PM
  • Hitler promises not to invade the rest of Czechoslovakia, but then he does in March 1939
  • Chamberlain said that he "had achieved peace in our time"; Churchill said "we have suffered a defeat without a war"


November 9, 1938
  • "night of broken glass"
  • synagogues and Jewish businesses were set on fire and destroyed
  • about 91 Jews were killed, and 20-30,000 were imprisoned
  • gov't claimed it was an uprising of the German people
  • finally convinced some Jews to leave Germany

Non-Aggression Pact of 1939

  • USSR and Germany agree not to attack each other
  • Stalin had tried to ally with GB and France but eventually gave up on that
  • Hitler thought an alliance with Russia would force GB and France to remain neutral
  • Germany promised Russia the eastern third of Poland and all the Baltic states in the event of war

Pact of Steel

May 22, 1939
  • Germany and Italy formally ally themselves

Wannsee Conference and the Final Solution

January 20, 1942
  • leader of the SD, Reinhard Heydrich, organized a meeting of top Nazi officials
  • developed the plan for the "Final Solution" there
  • the final solution= total murder of all Jews
  • involved mass executions via firing squads but mostly gas chambers
  • Himmler started making portable vans that they could fill with poison gas
  • in Poland, the portable chambers became permanent structures
  • first death camps start being built in 1941: main ones are Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Auschwitz

- many died in work camps as they were starved and beaten