England was having a lot of internal issues --> why they weren't in 30 Years' War
Yet they were still quite powerful and had achievements and doing well economically with manufacture of woolens industry.
After Elizabeth had died, she had no children so Stuart Monarchs came into power. But Elizabeth was a tough act to follow, she did a lot. Also, the Stuarts were from Scotland so were always a little preoccupied with helping Scotland. England people also saw them as foreigners. Stuarts are catholic tho!!
It was a war between Puritans and Anglicans---Parliament vs King of England
Was a minority war.
Reasons behind war:
-Stuart monarchs, divine notion of Kingship, king has TOTAL power. They thought King > Parliament, but parliament was the legit way in England so --> issue
-At first King James had the power because he was the one who had to call Parliament into session. Yet, later he needed $ for uprising in Scotland so he could help them, he did this without consulting Parliament
-Religious issues because Stuarts were Catholic and started killing Protestants in Protestant England
-He dissolved Parliament (didn't call it to power 1604-1611)
Great Protestation 1621 - Parliament dissolved
-Parliament didn't like James' bishops so James kicked some Parliament people out - "No Bishop, No King"
King Charles I needed $ so he called Parliament to get the $ to fight. Parliament says no unless he signs the Petition of Right which says King cannot demand loan without consent of Parliament and that Parliament must be called more frequently --> He agrees yet nothing changes. He still needed $ but he refused to call Parliament into session so....extending tax for "ship money" to more cities. He thought entire country should pay for permanent navy. Showed conflict of parliament vs king.
-Still needs $ --> Long Parliament which met for 20 years
-Parliament passed stuff to help itself and limit King
-Able to impeach and execute royal advisers
-Abolish Star Chamber
-Triennial Act - Parliament meets every 3 years even if not called
-Grand Remonstrance - made the whole situation public
-19 Propositions which gave more power to Parliament generally
BOTH PARLIAMENT AND KING HAVE ABANDONED WHAT WAS LEGIT
1642 - Open warfare between Parliament (Nobles, Anglicans, Cavaliers) and Parliament (commercial areas, Puritans, Roundheads)
Cromwell creates New Model Army which lead Protestants (religious aspect) against King, it was a very successful force
=> Parliament won and Cromwell became the leader of the New Republic called a Common wealth. There is NO MONARCHY - Parliament is ruling -
-There is some religious tolerance and attack on Dutch shipping
Cromwell became like a dictator though. His son became ruler.
-They had to deal with conflicts among his own supporters and with radical political groups like Levellers and Diggers.
-He has issues w/Parliament too - he stepped into position of Lord Protector.
-Wanted reformed christianity
Both ruled like regular kings so England goes back to what they knew before as legit because this is the only way they knew, and Stuart Family as kings was legit. (STUART RESTORATION 1660) This whole thing was a conservative backlash.
Parliament wanted to go back to how it was with the Tudors where there was sharing of responsibility.
New Legislation by Parliament to put some restrictions and make things how they want.
-Test Act - all gov officials must take communion, legislation against dissenters, no Catholics in gov or military
-Income from taxes that are also controlled by Parliament
-Navigation acts to protect business interests
-Act of Settlement - help poor people in that specific area - immobilizes them which only helps upper classes
-King Charles II's Treaty of Dover - agreement with France
New battle lines: Torries (lesser aristocracy) vs Whips (anti French anti Catholic middle class upper arristocarcy)
Oh no - King James goes against Parliament's new laws by appointing catholics as gov officials, believes in ADRM that he can make and unmake laws. WORST OF ALL, Son is baptized as Catholic - showing a dangerous future for England who wants to be protestant.
=> this unites the whigs and torries
Parliament offered throne to Jame's other child Mary who was Protestant!
To ensure a successful transition, Parliament passes:
Bill of Rights - no law can superceed king, taxes need Parliament consent, etc.
Toleration Act - right of public worship
Act of Settlement - no catholic could ever be king
United Kingdom - Dealing w Scotland in that it becomes part of Parliamentary framework with England
-Monarchy was not ended but Parliament dominated politics
Wars of Religion came after the Civil War. Issues with Catholic Ireland.