Unit 2/ Chapters 14+15 Timeline/ Chapter 17+18

Unit 4 Mostly Enlightenment

Scientific Revolution

Approx. 1543 - Approx. 1789

There is a new focus on reason, rationality, logic, order.
-->There was the discovery of things called natural laws (see slide)
Its all about supreme achievement, human potential, practical applications of science.

After Newton died in 1727, there was a sort in shift in science in that it was organized and that scientists actually started to communicate and share ideas. This was crucial. More people were becoming interested in science and it was starting to have more widespread applications than just agriculture and mining.

Intro to Unit 4

Approx. 1600

Unit 4 starts after the treaty of Utrecht in 1713.
At this point, Russia, Austria, Prussia, England, and France are all playing the same game now of trying to get power and expand externally while also trying to organize internally.

This is all basically happening at similar times. It's all about the transition to the modern world and modern/new conceptions of things.

Science before 17th century

1680 - 1699

Science before the 17th century wasn't obviously not as advanced. It was about alchemy instead of chemistry, astrology instead of astronomy. It was headed in the right direction and helped to lead to the scientific revolution and enlightenment.

It started mainly with Thomas Aquinas and scholasticism - which was about mixing logic and religious concepts. Science was basically inconceivable in Middle Ages, but that was okay because science wasn't needed at that time. It didn't develop because that's not how they were living and there was no place (like the nation states) for enlightenment or even the Renaissance to occur in. The closest thing to science was alchemy.
It was about Leonardo Da Vinci, who despite being undoubtedly genius and others like Montaigne. But Da Vinci couldn't exactly be considered a scientist because he didn't share his work.

People were more skeptical about science and there was still some focus on supernatural powers. They still were't too advanced, after all, there was still concerns about witchcraft in 1650. Bad events were still sometimes blamed on witches.

Natural Laws

Approx. 1690 - Approx. 1710

Natural Laws were universal concepts that were not created by man, but realized by man. They varied from very abstract to extremely concrete, but they all explained something.


Approx. 1700 - Approx. 1789

-A period of time that started towards the end of 17th most of the 18th century in which there was a major shift in perspective where the focus was now upon reason, science, humans, optimism, and toleration. It would ultimately help with government, universities, armies, hospitals.

------Ultimately, the enlightenment laid the foundations for democratic institutions.
-Using reason and tolerance, there was more acceptance of ideas opening the way for rational discussion and even sometimes peaceful negotiations between countries.

In the earlier times of the enlightenment, the focus was science and more concrete knowledge, as time progressed however, ideas became a little bit more abstract too.

-This need to discover and invent was also because of human curiosity.

Role of Religion in Enlightenment

Approx. 1705 - Approx. 1750

Because of the more logical and rational ways of thinking, religion was being question even more so than before.

Unit 4 Important people - check supplement in notebook


1473 - 1543

Said sun was in the center of the universe


1564 - 1642

used one of the first telescope to make many astrological discoveries and also discovered law of inertia.


1571 - 1630

used math to prove planets moved in elliptical circles


1642 - 1727

discovered gravity invented calculus

Overall Periods - Super Important Events

Unit 2 Intro


**This is still the Renaissance
Secular authority determine outcome within a geographic entity (a nation state)
The social reality, eco reality, and political reality all affect eachother

The more internal consolidation, the more power to the head ruler, allowing for external expansion --- if you are organized on the inside, you will be organized and able to expand on the outside.
=> This effort was really helped by the development of the middle class in that they helped create stability, they payed the brunt of the taxes. The middle class were also the people doing well looking for outside sources to trade to.

Read article: Overseas expansion is a function of the nationalism concept of sovereignty.
Eco. and commercial expansion is the result of
-Nation/State - the institutional structures, systems, leadership
-Nationalism - the feeling and sense of identity/pride
-Nation - the geographic boundary/area
-System - the presence of other nations all of which recognize eachother

HRE really won't be able to keep up and do this

Monarchical States: Large unified nation states developed in Europe
-From city states in Renaissance
-Monarchical ruler has all power - a god given power


Commercial Revolution

Approx. 1495 - Approx. 1776

Period of European colonization and mercantilism.
-Opening of ocean routes
-General rise in prices + inflation
-Eco is nation centered and international looking not just town centered
-Growth of population

New + increasing commercial activities like mining, writing, printing, ship building

Middle class and ruling elite benefit most. More customers --> more merchants --> more taxes --> more soldiers --> more power --> more expansion --> more colonies --> more commercial activity --> rise of nations --> rise of middle class to help do all this

New mercantilism ideas oppose guilds which are confined to towns.

Impact on social classes;
-nobles aren't quite as aristocratic as before - many have jobs
-middle class - urban elites, ship owners, some clergy, bankers, merchants, etc. also called bourgeoisie in France.
-Urban poor
-agricultural peasantry - they kept losing stuff like land

Clergy drawn from all classes. Mass of the population was unemployed.
---> English Poor Law - each town must take care of its own poor + begging is a nuisance. However this immobilized them. Can't move around to possibly get a job.

Wider access to education. + New demands of it too

Helped nobles in the East and helped middle class and peasants in the west because it created stability.

Expansion of Europe population allowed for more consumers to buy

The Portuguese and Spanish Empires

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1560

Portuguese and Spanish were ahead in the game because:
-Used technology like compass
-searched beyond for trade and settlements
-Super secular: King>pop, nation>church, politics>religion
-Created empires

Power at this time was reflected by a country's ability to expand.
-Portugal look to the nearby sea for wealth since agriculture wasn't cutting it. They were able to do this in North Africa and coast of India with the help of powerful fleets.
-Spain was able to send Christopher Columbus to explore in 1492 showing they were one of the main powers of this time. Created haciendas/plantations and encomienda systems. Opening of mines in new world.

Treaty of Tordesillas - Pope made agreement to split the newly discovered lands outside of Europe between Spain and Portugal. Shows that government status is more important than religious status because they are both catholic (secularization).

Opening of the Atlantic


The Atlantic is now seen to have new opportunities not as an obstacle anymore

New trade routes, which were only used by Spain and Portugal at first --> cheaper prices --> more demand, more consumption helping with commercial revolution.

Slaves brought to Americas by 1560 to use for work.

Wars of Religion (and power)

1560 - 1648

France, England, Holy Roman Empire, Netherlands all deal with internal and international issues - including religious ones
This is the era where modern global system begins to develop

Wars of Religion for Spain

1560 - 1610

Charles V, who was King of Spain and Holy Roman emperor, retired and gave some of Europe to his brother Ferdinand and the other part including Spain to his son Philip who became Philip II of Spain. --> Split of Hapsburgs to Austrian and Spanish branches. Philip II was considered a foreigner to many. He gets control of Portugal

Catholic offensive - attempt for religious consolidation under Catholocism. He forced catholic principles on everyone but opponents quickly recovered.

Revolt of the Netherlands:
Netherlans provinces under Phillip II of Spain's control. There were Protestant ideas here bc the area was a kind of cross roads.
------They revolt against Spain because they want to be independent without Spanish and catholic influence.
Philip sent the inquisition and troops. Many people in Netherlands died.
-------England stepped in to help the Netherlands. Spanish plan to use defeat of Netherlands as foothold to invade England. England and Netherlands officially in alliance. They were able to defeat the Spanish Armada reflecting Spain is starting to go down and England is starting to rise. Netherlands were partitioned and split.

Spain starts going down:
Inflation of Price Revolution and Commercial Revolution.
Defeat of Armada by Elizabeth Queen of England
Sent other religions (moriscos) out which hurt them because they lost work force --> have to depend on silver and gold which they needed to expand to get - overall, they overdid it.

Wars of Religion in France

1562 - 1598

Wars of Religion were also political.

All starts out with a struggle over central and local power.

Overall causes that inhibited consolidation:
-France is super huge making it that much harder to consolidate w/ many princes who want their own power and own legal systems
-Trapped between Hapsburg empire
-Catholics sought to get rid of French Protestants - religion wasn't going to work as a unifying factor like in Spain. The Guises family work to get only catholicism.

Calvinism was spreading quickly through France. Catholicism in France was independent of Rome (which actually weakened it).
-French Calvinists - Huguenots - consisted of a little under half of the noble population because they opposed the royal family and wanted to keep their own power instead of a lot of consolidation w/ Catholicism. They wanted to be able to decide the religion of their own territories. Peasants also sometimes Calvinist bc of lord encouragement

-Unskilled laborers least touched by calvinism
-Opposed by King Francis I then after also by King Henry II, it threatened monarchy + national churches. After Henry II died no strong gov so things fall apart.

CIVIL WARS of 16th century
-Chaos, peasants forming leagues
-Fighting with no organized armies
-Group Politiques say this is all isn't worth it

Killing of Huguenots began in 1550s
-1572: St. Bartholomew Day Massacre - Huguenots slaughtered.
=> there is no sense of legitimacy right now - chaos, people are killing eachother

-Huguenots lead by Henry of Navarre who becomes the King Henry IV beginning the Bourbon dynasty
Not the end tho bc Catholics refuse to recognize him.
**For the good of France, King converts to Catholicism to be able to consolidate and create more stability (religion not as important, more for politics)

Edict of Nantes still to help Protestants.

Foundations for absolutism because no one would ever want chaos like this again.


Renewed threat of Civil War - Huguenot rebellion
France becomes Absolute divine right monarchy to refrain from more chaos.

General life trends (of people)

Approx. 1570 - Approx. 1700

The middle class wasn't stuff on the middle class anymore, it wasn't only that the aristocracy were born into it. Rich middle class could be aristocrats too

Price Revolution helped with emmergance of wealthy class of individuals located below aristocracy called teh gentry in England. Were against monarchy in English Civil War

Rural poverty worsened. Small farmers often became beggars. In Catholic lands, church provided social services. In Protestant countries, task not for church. England passed English Poor law which had to do with "putting out" and getting the poor to work and help the economy and be useful.

Small villages - most don't travel too far beyond the village

Some new scientific methods of farming but in 1800 farming was basically the same as in High Middle Ages
-Three field system of rotating crops
-Greater emphasis on specialization - GUILDS continued to play a role in production of commodities until around the end of the French Revolution. But guilds used different methods. Things could be produced on a much larger scale. Increasingly rare for journeymen + apprentices to becomes masters. These dissatisfied people would be involved in revolts.

Towns and cities only held 10% of the population, most lived in more rural areas. Urban poor were better off than the rural poor

Family life: Smaller families with 3- 4 children bc of later marriages. Weddings were their entrance to society
Men in the family had to make sure to keep the wealth to pass on first born sun (primogeniture)
Women only had claims on parental estates with dowry they receive upon marriage. But during their lives their husbands manage it.
-Families as economic units. Man had public jobs like plowing planting commerce. Women's jobs were at home. In agricultural communities, everyone was expected to work.
Wealthy woman could reproduce more often bc of use of wetnurses + more sanitary conditions

Changes from Reformation
-Protestant Lands, household center was Christian life not church
-Paternalism increased
-Marriage for woman couldn't be avoided through a life in the covenant
- Divorce was more commonly allowed which it wasn't in Catholic church
-Protestant woman were more free, they could communicate directly with god without a male priest. YET the women who wanted to take more action and lead congregations or preach (like Anabaptists did) were persecuted.

Edict of Nantes


King Henry made this because he knew Protestants felt betrayed so he gave them some degree of tolerance.

-you can be protestant if your town is already protestant

Wars of Religion in HRE - Thirty Year' War

1618 - 1648

HRE is mainly in Germany. Ferdinand II is emperor. Emperor elected by council by members of both religions --> separate leagues and Unions

HRE was too close to domination so powers like France and Sweden step to enforce BOP.

England not involved bc of its internal troubles at the time

German Decline + Disintegration:
-Commerce in Germany decreasing
-No religious minority or majority of Catholics or Protestants and some Calvinists, maybe more P
-300 separate different states with different leaders who want to rule separately --> hard to consolidate
-German bankers (Fuggers) don't matter as much and $ is made from maritime trade

Causes of Thirty Years' War:
-Spain wanted to have access to the Netherlands (more land) again, able because their treaty with them was going to end.
-Austrian Hapsburgs try to get rid of Protestantism to try to make Germany stronger
-France doesn’t want Germany to be strong, bc they in middle of HRE and would benefit from Germany being messy on inside so unable to expand
-Issues between Protestants and Catholics in Germany - Protestant Union vs. Catholic League
-Issues between central power (emperor) or independence of states/princes in Germany.
International conflict - Spain vs Dutch, France vs Hapsburgs, Denmark vs Sweden.

Four Phases:
1.) Bohemia (1618-1625)- their new king was Catholic even though most Bohemians were Protestant ------ War didn't end now because there were still private armies that wanted to keep fighting to get $.
2.) Danish (1625-1629)
3.) Swedish (1630-1635)
-Hapsburgs winning at this point - Edict of Restitution (See slide for it)
It also outlawed Calvinism getting King of Sweden Gustavus Adolphus to enter war triggering the third phase. He was a great military leader and ultimately wanted more land along the Baltic. He is super Lutheran. Got financial help from France.
4.) Swedish-French (1635-1648) - More of an international phase of the war
-Richelieu's actions (see slide) - France supported Swedes in fighting Austrian Hapsburgs and Spanish Allies
-Most destructive phase - Germany destroyed and France was ravaged and attacked by Spain

-Germany was weakened, cities destroyed and population loss. Spain also basically lost so they went down in power.
-The 300 separate states, fragmented still, localized power, no absolute power
-Peace of Westphalia (see slide)
-France + Sweden got some new territory
-Dissolution of HRE, borders fell away though still technically the emperor and the empire
-Counter Reformation stopped
-Religion is never again an important cause of conflict in political affair

France ends as the dominant power --> become power hungry and have to be shut down by rest of Europe

Edict of Restitution


All lands prior Catholic will go back to being catholic
=> starts the third phase of war in which France is involved

**Showed Hapsburgs were winning the war

It also outlawed Calvinism getting King of Sweden Gustavus Adolphus to enter war triggering the third phase.

Dutch Republic/Netherlands + Civilization

1640 - 1665

Growing as an eco power, lots of nationalism and pride

Since they small, they rely more on wealth and eco power/abilities instead of brute force. Center of commerce is in Amsterdam (capital of Netherlands).

-Bank of Amserdam used to issue currency.
-Dutch East India Company for more $
-Advanced art and new style of paintings in Netherlands + science
Dutch War for independence from Spain.
-Some religious toleration
-Explore around world too

Wealth distributed very evenly - high standard of living in this "Golden Age"

Large merchant fleet, don't really make their own products but because of good location they help ship other products places. Hurt by England's Navigation Acts.

Religious controversy here too.

Balance of Power

Approx. 1640 - Approx. 1700

Idea that no one nation or state could have total domination and infringe on the sovereignty of other nations.
It was okay if a nation was the most powerful just not trying to take others' land

This idea was long time coming and still used. Crucial people like Montesque and Rosseau

-idea is only relevant to nation states
-when equilibrium is disturbed, other nations form a coalition against the threat
-NOT to preserve peace, its to preserve sovereignty

It is not sovereign for one country to have all the power, not in their best interests in regard to sov.
Stop HRE from becoming too big and consolidating under catholicism
england stop spain in Netherlands

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

England was having a lot of internal issues --> why they weren't in 30 Years' War
Yet they were still quite powerful and had achievements and doing well economically with manufacture of woolens industry.

After Elizabeth had died, she had no children so Stuart Monarchs came into power. But Elizabeth was a tough act to follow, she did a lot. Also, the Stuarts were from Scotland so were always a little preoccupied with helping Scotland. England people also saw them as foreigners. Stuarts are catholic tho!!

It was a war between Puritans and Anglicans---Parliament vs King of England
Was a minority war.
Reasons behind war:
-Stuart monarchs, divine notion of Kingship, king has TOTAL power. They thought King > Parliament, but parliament was the legit way in England so --> issue
-At first King James had the power because he was the one who had to call Parliament into session. Yet, later he needed $ for uprising in Scotland so he could help them, he did this without consulting Parliament
-Religious issues because Stuarts were Catholic and started killing Protestants in Protestant England
-He dissolved Parliament (didn't call it to power 1604-1611)
Great Protestation 1621 - Parliament dissolved
-Parliament didn't like James' bishops so James kicked some Parliament people out - "No Bishop, No King"
King Charles I needed $ so he called Parliament to get the $ to fight. Parliament says no unless he signs the Petition of Right which says King cannot demand loan without consent of Parliament and that Parliament must be called more frequently --> He agrees yet nothing changes. He still needed $ but he refused to call Parliament into session so....extending tax for "ship money" to more cities. He thought entire country should pay for permanent navy. Showed conflict of parliament vs king.
-Still needs $ --> Long Parliament which met for 20 years
-Parliament passed stuff to help itself and limit King
-Able to impeach and execute royal advisers
-Abolish Star Chamber
-Triennial Act - Parliament meets every 3 years even if not called
-Grand Remonstrance - made the whole situation public
-19 Propositions which gave more power to Parliament generally


1642 - Open warfare between Parliament (Nobles, Anglicans, Cavaliers) and Parliament (commercial areas, Puritans, Roundheads)

Cromwell creates New Model Army which lead Protestants (religious aspect) against King, it was a very successful force
=> Parliament won and Cromwell became the leader of the New Republic called a Common wealth. There is NO MONARCHY - Parliament is ruling -
-There is some religious tolerance and attack on Dutch shipping
Cromwell became like a dictator though. His son became ruler.
-They had to deal with conflicts among his own supporters and with radical political groups like Levellers and Diggers.
-He has issues w/Parliament too - he stepped into position of Lord Protector.
-Wanted reformed christianity

Both ruled like regular kings so England goes back to what they knew before as legit because this is the only way they knew, and Stuart Family as kings was legit. (STUART RESTORATION 1660) This whole thing was a conservative backlash.

Parliament wanted to go back to how it was with the Tudors where there was sharing of responsibility.

New Legislation by Parliament to put some restrictions and make things how they want.
-Test Act - all gov officials must take communion, legislation against dissenters, no Catholics in gov or military
-Income from taxes that are also controlled by Parliament
-Navigation acts to protect business interests
-Act of Settlement - help poor people in that specific area - immobilizes them which only helps upper classes

-King Charles II's Treaty of Dover - agreement with France

New battle lines: Torries (lesser aristocracy) vs Whips (anti French anti Catholic middle class upper arristocarcy)

Oh no - King James goes against Parliament's new laws by appointing catholics as gov officials, believes in ADRM that he can make and unmake laws. WORST OF ALL, Son is baptized as Catholic - showing a dangerous future for England who wants to be protestant.
=> this unites the whigs and torries
Parliament offered throne to Jame's other child Mary who was Protestant!

To ensure a successful transition, Parliament passes:
Bill of Rights - no law can superceed king, taxes need Parliament consent, etc.
Toleration Act - right of public worship
Act of Settlement - no catholic could ever be king
United Kingdom - Dealing w Scotland in that it becomes part of Parliamentary framework with England

-Monarchy was not ended but Parliament dominated politics

Wars of Religion came after the Civil War. Issues with Catholic Ireland.

French Power/Seeds of Revolution

1643 - 1715

Louis XIV benefited from Charles II dying because through marriage he gets into that family and he says the Pyrenees (mountains between Spain and France) no longer exist because he could get Spanish throne.

After wars of Religion - France became absolute divine right monarchy in order to prevent chaos.

------France was a bundle of territories held together by a king
Paris is a center for modern western civilization. Super secular society + ADRM
Louis referred to as Grand Monarch.
-King Louis XIV wanted to push French border East into Netherland and French Comte + wanted whole Spanish inheritance, made steps by marrying into Spanish ruling family. And one single faith/religion.
Great power shown but trying to be too dominant, his want for a universal monarchy was not going to work.
-After Renaissance, France became the center of all things sophisticated art, science, literature. All of this is possible because there is great wealth, unfortunately there is also great poverty.
-Contradictions/confusion - France reffered to as old regime but its becoming more modern, which is it? French thought or French Armies.
-Fear of disorder so they are okay with monarchy, they remember what happened in the past, including Louis XIV who learned to have tight control on everything like military.
-Rebellions like the Fronde, nobles + parlements rebel about should have right to declare edicts unconstitutional.
-Sovereignty =independence = monopoly of power, yet monopoly and independence contradict eachother.
-Absolutism supported by Bishop Bousset since power comes from God.
-Louis XIV said "the state is myself" meaning he has monopoly over it all
-Organization of administration
-beautiful palace in Versailles to show French power and wealth, allows Louis XIV to keep an eye on the nobles and dominate them
-He made Parlements obey his orders

----ARMY-Specifically, King Louis XIV took strict control over armies ( +increased size) unlike the private enterprises they were before which couldn't be controlled well. Louis says all armies fight only under him. Army wasn't an internal threat anymore and could be used more effectively in external places.

Specific policies:
Used Mercantilism to earn gold supply by selling goods - factories organized
commercial code, free trade zones - colbert's attempt to abolish internal tarrifs creating five great farms which were large custom free regions
revoked edict of nantes

France had messed up tax system: super inefficient + mostly on poor people (since he had made deals w/ nobles to not tax them if they let him rule)
In order to raise $, he sold gov offices, sold patents of nobility to middle class, annulled town charters then sold back the rights. Didn't make lots of $. All this shows still weakness of absolute gov

-Louis XIV +
-He wanted to make it self sufficient, mostly in regards to economics
-Managed to lower internal tariffs in large parts of central France - some free trade areas
-He worked w guilds to only make super quality products so other countries would want to buy
-Gave subsidies, tax exemptions, helped businesses expand
-Established East India Company
-Increased exports while decreasing imports (mercantilism)

Louis XIV brought advantages to middle + lower class. He was least favored by nobles for helping these "lower classes". Yet also not bc lower classes payed most taxes.

Peace of Westphalia


Powers met without Germany/HRE who really wanted to end the war already

France and Sweden get land
Calcinists included in Peace of Augsburg arrangement
Holland and Switzerland now recognized as independent
Nation state system is here to stay

Wars of Louis XIV

1660 - 1713

1660 - Hapsburgs are so weak they are not a problem anymore --> temptation for Louis XIV to be more powerful w/ more land

1667 - Louis XIV wants to expand more so he tries in Spanish Netherlands but is blocked by the Triple alliance of English, Dutch, Swedes (who were helped by Spain even though Spain was defeated by these powers in 30 years' war - BOP!!)

1672 - Louis tried again in War against the Dutch. Stopped again and had to take no for an answer in Treaty of Nimwegen.

1679 - French power got land territory of French Comte, he further helped to dissolve border of HRE by occupying territories like Lorraine and Alsace. Easy because HRE too weak

French Protestants still super mad as Louis XIV, they are almost more supportive of William
1688=Catholics (of countries like Spain) come together with Protestants (like from Dutch) in League of Augsburg which included Holy Roman Emperor, Kings of Spain, Sweden, Dutch, later England to keep France in check

- Correspond w/ Glorious Revolution - England is finally where it needs to be so it can do what it needs to do on the outside.
--> War of League of Augsburg, France can't keep up, it was struggling. It was at this point Louis XIV started to tax the nobles for revenue
Famine in France!

1702-1713: Wars of Spanish Succession - Fight for inheritance of Spain, Both France + HRE had married into the Spanish Family and were contendors - they agree to split it to keep BOP
=> issue because in Charles II King of Spain will it says leave it intact, ALL given to France!!
"The pyrenees no longer exist" meaning no more division between France and Spain
=> political balance threatened + want to keep French merchants out of Spanish America --> Great Alliance of 1701 (consisted of other powers) against France
-Less destructive than 30 years' war because armies are more organized
Keep in mind France lost strength - Peasant famines + uprisings
Spain stayed loyal to France + Bavarian ally
Long war - no one wants to compromise
-Whigs (high aristocrats + middle class) want war, Torries (lesser aristocracy) want peace

1714-1714: Peace of Utrecht and Rastatt - split Spain territories
conflirms nation states system like Westphalia did

Louis XIV grandson Philip V of Spain becomes king. Rule that no same kin gin Spain and France bc BOP. The only reason the other powers accept this is because of the hereditary dynasty reality.

France lost conquest of Belgium, England gets Newfoundland + Novascotia, recognition of England bontrol on Hudson bay

ENGLAND AS NUMBER 1 POWER - United Kingdom Act BUT france is also #1??
Wealth from asiento, slave trade

Glorious Revolution


A phase of the English Civil War
Principles of parliamentary gov upheld
right of rebellion (like Parliament against King)

England has reached where is needs to be so it can go out and be a powerful power now.

Important People

Portuguese + Spanish Sailors

1485 - 1510

Prince Henry the Navigator - conquered in Northern Africa
Bartholomew Dias - sailed around Cape of Good at tip of Africa
Vasco de Gama - sailed reaching the coast of India
Ferdinand Magellan - Circumnavigated the globe

Christopher Columbus - discovered the Americas

Hernan Cortes


Landed on the coast of Mexico at the Aztec Empire. Aztecs viewed Spanish as Gods which is what allowed Cortes to seize the capital and benefit economically from this. He declared this to be New Spain.

Francisco Pizarro


Conquered Inca Empire of Peru

Cardinal Richelieu

1585 - 1642

In France during Wars of Religion.

He consolidated power and helped develop absolutism.
-Prohibited private warfare and dueling

Thirty Years' War:
-He temporarily went into war to continue it but then stepped back when the Protestants were doing well.

(Secularization) Catholic nation helping Protestants but it doesn't matter for them because its all to help politics.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

This is the period in which he ruled. He was king of France, the first beginning the Bourbon dynasty.
He limited power of French nobility.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Ruled Europe after Louis XIII who came after Henry IV. He was the ruler during the time of the seeds planted for the French Revolution. He really helped France become super powerful.

William of Orange

1650 - 1702

From Netherlands. Lead Protestants
Eventually became king of England after


Chapter 14 +15

Intro to Chapter 14 + 15

Approx. 1871

Basically right now there is a lot of industrial growth. Great global progress and ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. This industrial growth leads to some gilded realities. --> Second Industrial Revolution
Starting out pretty good with international peace, internal stability, movements towards more democracy, and rationality. (hidden bad stuff too but there really truly are some good things).

Europe is considered civilized and looks down upon Africa, Asia, etc. --> wave of imperialism for economic opportunities to get new markets to sell to and new investment opportunities. (this is generally a bad thing at this time that they looked down on others like this) => furthermore there were zones, inner zone called "europe of steam" as it was more advanced with RR, industry,
wealth, science, more constitutional gov, some humanitarian + reform movements (England, Germany, France, northern Italy). Outer less advanced zones (Austrian empire, Ireland, Italian peninsula - basically just more eastern europe) They were less advanced and still were dealing with agriculture. Anything else that wasn't Europe was the 3rd zone.

Ideas of "western" civilization in Europe that we are better + its more materialistic. Generally good things like higher living standards, death rate decreases, less infant mortality, higher life expectancy, higher literacy, more productive labor.
Organized nation states in Europe meant there was less chaos and wars.

Population had been increasing for a while ever since 1650s

Chapter 17+18

Russian Peasants

1861 - 1914

Few Russian government attempts help the peasants yet the peasants are still unhappy, still issues.
Alexander the II even emancipated the serfs.
Peasants play an important role in the economy and therefore this is why they were trying to improve conditions a bit.
Russian gov blames the condition of peasants on the famines instead of taking responsibility. Obviously they don't really care cause they make them pay high taxes. --> Peasants petition the tsar, they want more land and better conditions

Intro to Chapters 17+18/ Causes of War

Approx. 1905 - 1910

Coming from Chapter 16, out of a time of new imperialism. LOOK AT CAUSES OF WWI ESSAY!

At beginning of 1900s, people were not expecting war nor did they want it, they were expecting this great age, a plateau in times with science, invention, and competition.
At this time, Germany is the strongest.
Militant Patriotism - nationalism as cause of the war - each nation had large military force even though no threats at the time (showing nations are doing what is in their best interests, not in the best interests of the alliance) - nations had never held such large armies during peacetime and fighting reserves among the population (peacetime conscription laws)

Other causes:
-Secret entangling alliances, no one feels safe, they want some kind of security and reassurance that someone has their back to they create lots of secret alliance with lots of different countries --> when one country does this they all do this --> thus only creating even more chaos and insecurity because everyone is scrambling around for alliances
-Germany wants to have a greater role in world affairs - thus threatening balance of power, especially England - people will turn to violence to uphold it
-Germany's industry begins to be even more powerful than France and England's as its producing more steel (by 1900) than England and France combined. Plus it built a navy that challenged the infallible navy of England. Germany was desperate to be more recognized as a powerful country. Germans were competitors in the markets and even competitors with imperialism in Africa, Middle East.
YET - Bismark didn't want war, it might tear united germany apart, made Triple Alliance w/ Austira-Hungary and Italy (against russia) (1882) - this said that if any one of them got involved w war, the others would come to its aid.
In the spirit of all the entangling alliances, and sneaky treaties, Germany, just in case goes to Russia and has a reinsurance treaty. But Austria and Russia were enemies thus showing how these alliances weren't all really true, it was just to try to make yourself feel safe.
Another secret alliance, Franco Russian Alliance (1894) - just FYI the french republic was radical at the time
Britain planned on having isolation and not getting involved with the alliances. British relations with Russia and France were a little rough but even worse with Germany like in 1989 when Germany built a navy (wanted it for safety, to secure foreign trade, and for greatness) --> British Alliance with France and Russia. 1902 British alliance w Japan against Russia. (they broke apart before actual war i think though) 1904 British/France peace and respect each other's land and stuff. A close understanding between the two but no official alliance yet. 1907 - Triple Entente - Britain, Russia, France acting together in an alliance. (at first in it though british refused formal military commitments) (the alliance called entente cordiale)

-Imperialism played a role in all of this because countries created resentment by competing with each other for different areas. And also resentment with the area trying to be imperialized upon. Germany and France compete for Morocco, here Germany pushes the new relationship between England and France. France wants Morocco but Germany pushes for its independence. Germany pushing only made France and England closer and more distrustful of Germany. This conflict in Morocco showed the imperialistic rivalry and how Germany was late to this whole game. Russia pushes for influence in the Balkins. General chaos in that area, Ottoman empire is super unorganized but still trying to hold together. Austria and Serbia both want control of the Balkins. Ethnic religious and geographic division here. Balkins revolution for indep. Two wars in Balkans. Russia + serbs against Austria

Russia loses in war in Japan and is weakened.

Bosnian Revolutionary assasinated heir to Habsburg empire in Sarajevo. Most were shocked and supported the Austrians. --> Austria retaliates by crushing Serbia but asks Germany how much to crush, Germany supports Austria and gives the blank check to Austria saying Austria needs to be firm. The blank check reassured Austria that Germany had their back. --> Austria says Serbia let Austrian officials be allowed to help in the investigation and punishing the wrong doers. Serbia gets Russia on its side and Russia gets France on its side.Serbia says no because Austria begins to mobilize just in case to show its serious. Austria declared war and Russia mobilizes just in case. Germany was like oh no stop mobilizing but Russia doesn't stop so Germany declares war on Russia, and France bc they are allies. The Germans were kind the first to really start the chain of reaction to declare war and thus were largely blamed in the end. Germany hopes England doesn't join and England tries to stay out of it. England is mad at France so wasn't going to join war with them but Germany declared war on france and invaded belgium even though Germany and england had neutrality in belgium to england joins war against germany. Germany only did this because their original war plans (as in teh Schlieffen Plan) said this was how to fight France, but they stuck to their plans and it backfired.
Austria declares war on Russia. It was these alliances that they joined for one another that helped cause the war. They made these alliances bc they were afraid that if war came they wouldn't have protection, but it was these alliances that helped the war come. People dragged their allies into the war. Germany mad bc they have to fight on both fronts since they in the middle of France and Russia. France stuck to Russia bc fear of germany that had surpassed them.
Internal german disagreement, anti war social democrats vs but ruling gov supported war. more global eco to import and export certain things. But there was no world state to police or oversee teh system. Each state just going by what is best for them. This was also why alliances were created, to help w economy and stable trading.

WWI itself

1914 - 1918

Lased 4 years, ended in a stalemate. Us entered during the last year on side of France and England.
Central powers included Germany while the Entente powers were the others like France/England.
More men killed in WWI than WWII.
Germany fighting France and Russia on both sides and gets overextended.
Sides entered war and people were happy about going into war because each side thought they could just quickly win.

Battle of the Marne - pivotal battle - showed this wasn't going to be an easy win
The trench style warefare didn't start at the beginning of the war, it came later. Immobile war in the west. Most soldiers on foot, machine gun was new technology for this war, it helped start stalemate/trench war.

Outcomes of War


Europe's wealth largely decreased, many men dead, Europe's power and influence around the world decreased.