Unit V Timeline

Events

Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand

Approx. June 28, 1914

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand is widely known as the trigger for WWI. Archduke Franz Ferdinand, nephew of Emperor Franz Josef and heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was shot to death with his wife by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia, in 1914.

Gallipoli Campaign

1915 - 1916

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Battle of Gallipoli, was an unsuccessful attempt by the Allied Powers to control the sea route from Europe to Russia during World War I. The campaign began with a failed naval attack by British and French ships on the Dardanelles Straits.

Bolshevik Revolution

1917

The Bolshevik Revolution was one of the most violent revolutions that ended the Romanov dynasty and centuries of Russian Imperial rule. The Bolsheviks, led by leftist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, seized power and destroyed the tradition of csarist rule. They would later become the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

German Resumption of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

February 1, 1917

Unrestricted submarine warfare was first introduced in World War I in early 1915, when Germany declared the area around the British Isles a war zone, in which all merchant ships, including those from neutral countries, would be attacked by the German navy.

Civil War in Russia

1918 - 1920

The Russian Civil War was a conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I. Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. The Red Army eventually got a victory.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

March 3, 1918

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers, like Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire, that ended Russia's participation in World War I.

Paris Peace Conference

January 18, 1919

The conference was called to establish the terms of the peace after World War I. Though nearly thirty nations participated, the representatives of the United Kingdom, France, the United States, and Italy became known as the “Big Four.”

Mussolini Launches Fascist Movement

March 23, 1919

Commonly known as the Fascist Party, Mussolini’s new right-wing organization advocated Italian nationalism, had black shirts for uniforms, and launched a program of terrorism and intimidation against its leftist opponents.

First Meeting of the League of Nations

January 16, 1920

The League held its first council meeting in Paris on 16 January 1920, six days after the Versailles Treaty and the Covenant of the League of Nations came into force. On 1 November 1920, the headquarters of the League was moved from London to Geneva, where the first General Assembly was held on 15 November 1920.

Lenin’s Economic Policy

1922

This policy is known as an economic system that would include a "free market" and capitalism, but while the socialized state still had a profit basis.

First Soviet Five-Year Plan

1928 - 1932

The first five-year plan of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a list of economic goals, created by General Secretary Joseph Stalin and based on his policy of Socialism in One Country. It was implemented between 1928 and 1932.

US Stock Market Crash

1929

Black Tuesday hit Wall Street as investors traded some 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day. Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors. In the aftermath of Black Tuesday, America and the rest of the industrialized world spiraled downward into the Great Depression.

Civil Disobedience Movement in India

March 12, 1930

Gandhi lead a civil disobedience movement in India against the British on March 12, 1930. Britain’s Salt Acts prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt, a staple in the Indian diet. Citizens were forced to buy the vital mineral from the British, who, in addition to exercising a monopoly over the manufacture and sale of salt, also exerted a heavy salt tax. Gadhi successfully led a march to the sea in protest of these taxes.

Invasion of China by Japan

1931

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.

Japanese invasion of Manchuria

September 18, 1931

The invasion of Manchuria began when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident. The Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo, and their occupation lasted until Soviet Union and Mongolia launched the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation in 1945.

Long March by Chinese Communists

Approx. 1934

During a civil war, Chinese Communists broke through Nationalist enemy lines and began a flight from their encircled headquarters in southwest China. Known as the Long March, the trek lasted a year and covered some 4,000 miles, and it marked the emergence of Mao Zedong as the leader of the Chinese Communists.

Sandino is Murdered in Nicaragua

February 23, 1934

He was a Nicaraguan guerrilla leader, one of the most controversial figures of 20th-century Central American history. He became a popular hero and gave his name to the Sandinistas, a revolutionary group that formed the government from 1979 to 1990.

Hitler is Ruler in Germany

August 19, 1934 - 1945

Adolf Hitler, already chancellor, is also elected president of Germany in an unprecedented consolidation of power in the short history of the republic.

Stalin’s “Great Purge” in USSR

1936 - 1938

The Great Purge or the Great Terror was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union. It has been estimated that at least 600,000 people died at the hands of the Stalin-led Soviet government during the Purge.

Cardenas Nationalizes Oil Industry in Mexico

1938

On March 18, 1938, Mexican President Lazaro Cardenas signed an order that expropriated the assets of nearly all of the foreign oil companies operating in Mexico. He later created Petroleos Mexicanos, a state-owned firm that held a monopoly over the Mexican oil industry, and barred all foreign oil companies from operating in Mexico.

German Anschluss with Austria

March 12, 1938

Adolf Hitler announces an “Anschluss” between Germany and Austria, annexing the smaller nation into a greater Germany. The idea of an Anschluss was a united Austria and Germany that would form a "Greater Germany".

Invasion of Poland by Germany

September 17, 1939

German troops invaded Poland all along its border with German-controlled territory. The German Luftwaffe bombed Polish airfields, and German warships and U-boats attacked Polish naval forces in the Baltic Sea. Hitler said that the massive invasion was a defensive action, but Britain and France were not convinced. On September 3, they declared war on Germany, initiating World War II.

German Invasion of USSR

1941

Under the codename Operation "Barbarossa," Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, in the largest German military operation of World War II.

Establishment of United Nations

1 January 1942

Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers. In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter.

Soviet Victory at Stalingrad

1942 - 2 February 1943

In July 1942, the Nazi Army bombs the Soviet city of Stalingrad, launching one of the bloodiest battles in history. The Battle of Stalingrad, was the successful Soviet defense of the city of Stalingrad in the U.S.S.R. during World War II.

D-Day

June 6, 1944

On D-Day, some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France’s Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults in history and required extensive planning.

Capture of Berlin

May 2, 1945

The fall of Berlin resulted in Hitlers suicide and the end of the Nazi Party as we know it. Stalin's attempt to take Berlin ahead of his allies in 1945, led to the death of 70,000 Russian soldiers, but it also defeated the Nazi's and help end WWII

Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

August 6, 1945 - August 9, 1945

During the end of WWII, the US dropped two atomic bombs over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These bombings wiped out almost 90 percent of the cities and they later affected more people from radiation. Eventually Japan’s Emperor Hirohito announced his country’s unconditional surrender in World War II in a radio address on August 15.

Partition of India

1947

In 1947, British India divided into two: India and Pakistan. It was based on a wide Hindu or muslim majority difference. The boundary demarcating India and Pakistan became known as the Radcliffe Line.

Apartheid

1948 - Approx. 1990

Apartheid was a political and social system in South Africa, and it was under white minority rule. In the system, the people of South Africa were divided by their race and the races were forced to live apart from each other. There were laws in place that kept the racial separation. The system of apartheid in South Africa was banned in 1994.

Arab-Israeli War

1948

The Arab-Israeli War broke out when five Arab nations invaded territory in the former Palestinian mandate immediately following the announcement of the independence of the state of Israel on May 14, 1948. In 1947, and again on May 14, 1948, the United States had offered de facto recognition of the Israeli Provisional Government, but during the war, the United States maintained an arms embargo against all belligerents.

Creation of Israel

1948

On May 14, 1948, David Ben-Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel. The British mandate over Palestine officially terminated at midnight, May 14, 1948. Earlier in the day, at 4:00 p.m., David proclaimed the creation of the State of Israel and became its first prime minister.

Human Rights Declaratation Adopted

1948

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.

Establishment of NATO

April 4, 1949

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was established by 12 Western nations: the United States, Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Iceland, Canada, and Portugal. The military alliance, which provided for a collective self-defense against Soviet aggression, greatly increased American influence in Europe.

Establishment of People’s Republic of China

October 1, 1949

Mao Zedong officially proclaims the existence of the People’s Republic of China. The proclamation was the climax of years of battle between Mao’s communist forces and the regime of Nationalist Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek, who had been supported with money and arms from the American government.

Korean War

June 25, 1950

The Korean War began when some 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean People’s Army poured across the 38th parallel, the boundary between the Soviet-backed Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to the north and the pro-Western Republic of Korea to the south. This invasion was the first military action of the Cold War.

Algerian War of Liberation

1954 - 1962

The Algerian War was fought for independence from France. The movement began in WWI and it got more popular after the French promised them self-rule and that promise went unfulfilled. it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture by both sides. The conflict also became a civil war between the different communities.

French Defeat at Dien Bien Phu

Approx. 1954

In northwest Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh forces decisively defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu, a French stronghold besieged by the Vietnamese communists for 57 days. The Viet Minh victory at Dien Bien Phu signaled the end of French colonial influence in Indochina and cleared the way for the division of Vietnam along the 17th parallel at the conference of Geneva.

Establishment of Warsaw Pact

May 14, 1955

The Soviet Union and seven of its European satellites sign a treaty establishing the Warsaw Pact, a mutual defense organization that put the Soviets in command of the armed forces of the member states. The Warsaw Pact included the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria as members.

Sino-Soviet Rift

1956 - 1966

The Sino-Soviet split was the breaking of political relations between the PRC and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. It was caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each's different interpretation of Marxism Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.

Uprising in Hungary

1956

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.

Suez Crisis

29 October 1956 - Approx. 1957

Egypt's President Nasser, with the support of the Soviet Union, seized the canal from the British in 1956, causing an international crisis. And President Eisenhower intervened to help restore order.

Great Leap Forward in China

Approx. 1958

The Great Leap Forward was intended to modernize the Chinese economy following the communist revolution. Mao had toured China after coming to power in 1949 and concluded that the Chinese people were capable of anything. The two primary tasks that he felt his government should target were to modernize industry and agriculture.

Castro comes to power in Cuba

1959

Castro ruled over Cuba for nearly five decades. During that time, Castro’s regime was successful in reducing illiteracy, stamping out racism and improving public health care, but he was widely criticized for stifling economic and political freedoms. But Cuba's relationship with the US was also hostile resulting in the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Construction of Berlin Wall

August 13, 1961

The wall was built overnight in 1961. During the early years of the Cold War, West Berlin was a geographical loophole through which thousands of East Germans fled to the democratic West. In response, the Communist East German authorities built a wall that totally encircled West Berlin.

US Troops in Vietnam

Approx. 1965 - Approx. 1973

The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began after World War II and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War from 1955 to 1975. The U.S. involvement in South Vietnam stemmed from 20 long years of political and economic action.

Revolution in Iran

1978 - 1979

Also known as the Islamic revolution, it was a popular uprising in Iraq that led to the defeat of the monarchy on April in 1979 and it allowed for the Islamic republic to thrive.

Iran-Iraq War

1980 - 1988

It was an eight-year war between Iran and Iraq that cost billions of dollars in damages and claimed millions of lives, but resulted in no real benefit to either side. It got started by Iraq dictator Saddam Hussein in September 1980, the war was marked by indiscriminate ballistic-missile attacks, extensive use of chemical weapons and attacks on third-country oil tankers in the Persian Gulf.

Soviet Withdrawl from Afghanistan

May 15, 1988 - Feb 15, 1989

More than eight years after they intervened in Afghanistan to support the pro-communist government, Soviet troops begin their withdrawal. The event marked the beginning of the end to a long, bloody, and fruitless Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.

Persian Gulf War

1990 - 1991

Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait set off a brief but consequential conflict involving an international coalition of forces led by the United States.

Collapse of USSR

December 25, 1991

The collapse of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.

Transfer of Hong Kong to China

July 1, 1997

Hong Kong reverted back to Chinese rule in a ceremony attended by British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Prince Charles of Wales, Chinese President Jiang Zemin, and U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright. A few thousand Hong Kongers protested the turnover, which was otherwise celebratory and peaceful.

Guantanamo Bay detention camp

2002

The Guantanamo Bay detention camp was a US military prison on the coast of Cuba. it was used to house Muslim militants and suspected terrorists captured by the U.S. force. The camp is considered to be a huge breach of human rights because the inmates never got a trial and most of them were supposedly tortured. The camp was established by President Bush and his administration during the War on Terror.

International Outbreak of SARS

2003

SARS is an acute respiratory disease that suddenly spread internationally in 2003. This provided an opportunity for a coordinated international response based on information and evidence obtained in real time through standard and electronic communications.

Terrorist Attack on London Subway

2005

This was a series of coordinated terrorist suicide attacks in London, United Kingdom, which targeted commuters travelling on the city's public transport system during the morning rush hour.