By Ahmed Hussein
Augusto Cesar Sandino was born in 1895 and murdered in 1934, by National Guardsmen acting on the orders of the dictator Anastasio Somoza Garcia, who later installed himself as president of Nicaragua. Somoza subsequently admitted to carrying out this crime with the backing of the US Ambassador.
The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand is widely believed to have started World War I. He and his wife were shot to death by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia on this day, the same day as their anniversary. Franz Ferdinand and Sophie, his wife, were touring Sarajevo in an open car with little security. Initially, Serbian nationalist Nedjelko Cabrinovic had thrown a bomb on the car, but it had rolled off the back and injured an officer. Later that day, the couple went to visit the officer, but took a wrong turn; this is where the assassin happened to catch them.
Unrestricted submarine warfare was first introduced in World War I when Germany attacked all merchant ships in the area around the British Isles. This type of naval warfare is when submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers. This type of warfare was first introduced in early 1915 when the German navy sent a string of attacks. These eventually lead to the sinking of the British ship Lusitania.
The battle of Gallipoli was the Allied Power's unsuccessful attempt to control the sea route from Europe to Russia (During WWI). It all began when the British and Fench ships failed to attack the Dardanelles Straits. The Turkish' resistance also helped hammer the success of the invasion. After their failure, the Allied Powers quickly retreated in January.
The Bolsheviks were formed by the Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, also known as Lenin. He was the one who decided that the conditions in Russia were just right to sprew a revolution. Also known as the most expensive political event of the twentieth century, the Bolshevik Revolution marked the end of the Romanov dynasty and centuries of Russian Imperial rule. The Bolshevik party was the leader of the revolution, and later became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Civil war started in Russia when many groups formed to oppose Lenin's Bolsheviks. These groups consisted of peoples like monarchists, militarists, and even foreign nations. The civil war ended through the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk and had exposed the weakness of the Bolsheviks. Lenin was desperate for peace and called for it at any price.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk brought an end to the war between Germany and Russia. Lenin wanted the war to end as quickly as possible in order to focus on more important things regarding Russia. This treaty completely ended Russia's participation in World War I.
The Paris Peace Conference took place at Versailles. It was about establishing the terms of the peace after World War I. The representatives of the United Kingdom, France, the United States, and Italy were mainly behind the preceding that led to the formulation of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended WWI.
Benito Mussolini fights with the Italian Socialists and establishes the nationalist Fasci di Combattimento, founding the Fascist party. He organized his party into squads known as Black Shirts, who terrorized and intimidated their opponents. The Fascist party sought to expand the Italian empire.
The league of nations had its first meeting in January 1920 in Geneva, Switzerland. The League of Nations was formed to provide a forum for resolving international disputes. It was created after World War I.
Lenin's Economic Policy, also known as The New Economic Policy, allowed peasants to sell some of their produce for profit and small traders were allowed to run businesses. The policy also helped the government establish itself securely in power. Its main goal was to help with progression towards "state capitalism" within the workers' state of the USSR.
The First Soviet Five-Year Plan of the USSR was a list of economic goals. Created by Joseph Stalin, these goals were based on his policy of Socialism in One Country. They developed a heavy industry, but at the cost of a drastic fall in consumer goods. It caused famines that lead to the death of millions of people, especially in Ukraine. The five-year plan was soon stopped by the Great Leap Forward, which conflicted with its goals and forced the withdrawal of the Soviet aid in 1960.
On October 29, 1929, investors traded in around 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day. It was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States and is also known as Black Tuesday. Historical stock charts show that it took 25 years for the market to recover from this crash.
Mohandas Gandhi began a march to the sea to protest the British monopoly on salt. Britain's Salt Acts prevented Indians from collecting and/or selling salt, which was a crucial part of the Indian diet. They then forced to have to buy their salt from the British, who exerted harsh taxes on it. Gandhi came up with a way to break the British law nonviolently. Gandhi was seen as a force to be reckoned with, but shortly after India gained its independence, Gandhi was assassinated.
Japan was desperate to invade China. So they found an excuse to do just so. They claimed that the Chinese soldiers had sabotaged the railway and directly attack the Chinese army. Knowing it was just an excuse to invade Manchuria, the Chinese did not fight back.
Adolf Hitler was elected as president of Germany in 1934. Hitler used false arrests to silence his political enemies. After Hindenburg's death, Hitler purged the Brown Shirts and was able to get Roem executed without a trial. This made Roem look bad and Hitler was able to further consolidate his power by merging the presidency and the chancellorship, making him commander of the army as well.
The Long March was when Chinese Communists broke through Nationalist enemy lines and began a huge fight from their headquarters. The march lasted a whole year and covered around 4,000 miles This march also marked the emergence of Mao Zedong as the leader of the Chinese Communists.
The Great Purge was also known as the Great Terror. It was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union where at least 600,000 people died at the hands of Stalin's Soviet government during the Purge. Stalin was paranoid of opposition, so he decided to execute millions of people, or send them to labor camps in Siberia.
The Mexican oil expropriation was the nationalism of all petroleum reserves, foreign oil companies, and facilities in Mexico. Mexican President Lazaro Cardenas was the one who announced the nationalization of all oil resources and facilities in Mexico. This way the government was able to receive control of all property of almost every oil company operating in Mexico.
This is when Hitler wanted all German-speaking parts of Europe to be a part of Germany. So, he wanted to re-unite German with Austria. However, due to the Treaty of Versailles, Germany and Austria were forbidden to be unified.
The Polish army was defeated on September 17th in 1939 within only weeks of the invasion. They were forced to surrender to the Germans after a heavy bombing. This lead Britain and France to declare war on Germany on September 3, 1939. Hitler's invasion was the primer of World War II.
Nazi Germany invaded the USSR under the codename operation "Barbarossa". In the end, the soviets were able to defeat the Germans, even after significant losses. After the invasion, the soviets ruled a divided Germany with a puppet government Until the Soviet Union fell in the early 1990's.
The battle of Stalingrad took place when the Nazi Army bombed the Soviet city of Stalingrad. It came to be known as one of the bloodiest battles in history. The Soviet Union was able to successfully defend the city of Stalingrad in the U.S.S.R during World War II. The Russians considered this battle to be the greatest of the entire conflict.
The Battle of Normandy lasted from July to August. The end result was the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany's control. The codename for this operation was "Overlord". The battle begun when 156,000 America, British, and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily guarded coast of France's Normandy region. Before D-Day the Allies carried out a deception campaign that was designed to mislead the Germans to throw them off target. By August, all of northern France had been liberated.
In August of 1945, the United States dropped two atomic bombs over Japan in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The world's first deployed atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, killing 80,000 people (without accounting for the deaths from radiation exposure) and wiping out 90 percent of the entire city. Only three days later, the U.S dropped another atomic bomb with a B-29 over Nagasaki. This one killed around 40,000 people. These bombings lead to Emperor Hirohito's unconditional surrender in World War II.
The Capture of Berlin, also known as the Fall of Berlin, resulted in the surrender of the German Army and the supposed death of Adolf Hitler. In what was known as one of the most intense battles in human history, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin set his two marshals in a race to capture Berlin. They succeeded; Meliton Kantaria and Mikhail Yegorov rose the flag of the Soviet Union on the top of the Reichstag building.
The United Nations was born on June 26, 1945. Its main purpose was to negotiate peace better than the old League of Nations. The main catalyst of the U.N was World War II. It pushed the U.S, Britain, and the Soviet Union to begin formulating the original U.N.
The Partition of India was when British India divided into two independent dominions. These dominions were India and Pakistan (Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan). Pakistan and India were separated when the British leaders had finally agreed that Pakistan was the best way to limit bloodshed between rivals. One of the first Vallabhbhai Patel was one of the first Congress leaders to accept the Partition of India.
Israel was created when its establishment was proclaimed the State of Israel by the head of the Jewish Agency -- David Ben-Gurion. U.S President Harry S. Truman had recognized the new nation on the same day. The exact day of Israel's creation is May 14, 1948.
Apartheid was a political and social system in South Africa. It involved racial segregation, coming from the name "apartness" in Afrikaa. This policy brought racial segregation to a whole new level, making it more strict and more systematic.
The Arab-Israeli War was a fighter between a military coalition of Arab states and the State of Israel over the control of Palestine. War broke out when five Arab nations invaded territory in the former Palestinian mandate immediately following the announcement of the independence of the state of Israel.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, or UHDR, is a document obtained by the National General Assembly on December 10, 1948. This was its third session and took place at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France. The UDHR was an important document that was closely linked with peace. It was seen as a landmark protecting the rights and dignity of people beginning of a system.
The People's Republic of China was established on October 1, 1949. It was proclaimed by Mao Zedong, who also named himself head of state. The proclamation was the outcome of years of conflict and battle between Mao's communist forces and the regime of Nationalist Chinese leader Chian Kai Shek. The American government was even supporting Shek.
NATO was founded in Washington, D.C, on April 4, 1949. Due to further communist expansion, the United States and 11 other Western nations were prompted to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Soviet Union and other Communist nations formed the Warsaw Pact. This division provided the framework for the military standoff that continues throughout the Cold War.
The Korean war was the spread of Communism in Korea that led to a battle that created a national divide that still exists today. Only very recently have the ties between northern and southern Korea started getting better. The North Korean People's army invaded first, and by July, American troops had entered the war on South Korea's behalf. They saw it as a war against the forces of international communism itself.
On March 18, 1962, a peace agreement was signed by the leaders of the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) and France in order to end the seven-year Algerian War. This signaled the end of 130 years of colonial French rule in Algeria. The FLN was originally created by a group of young Algerian Muslims as an organization whose only dedication was to win independence from France.
The French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu by Ho Chi Minh's Viet Minh forces. Dien Bien Phu is a French stronghold that was besieged by the Vietnamese communists for 57 days. The Viet Minh's victory brought an end to the colonial influence in Indochina and even cleared the way for the division of Vietnam along the 17th parallel at the conference of Geneva.
The Warsaw Pact was established on May 14, 1955, in Poland. The Pact was an alliance formed by the Soviet Union and its affiliated Communist nations in Eastern Europe in order to rival the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It came to be seen as quite a militaristic threat, as a sign of Communist dominance, and a definite opponent of American Capitalism. The signing of the pact became a symbol of Soviet dominance in Eastern Europe.
On October 29, 1956, armed Israeli forces forced their way into Egypt toward the Sueze Canal. This was right after the Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the canal in July of that same year. Nasser had siezed the Suez Canal from its French and British owners, which sparked an invasion by those nations and their ally, Israel. This is what has come to be known as the Suez Crisis.
Also known as the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, the uprising in Hungary was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies. This uprising is considered by many as the nations greatest tragedy. It was a spontaneous revolt by the Hungarian people who were against the ruling Communist Party and the Soviet policies. These together had crippled post-war Hungary.
The Great Leap Forward in China was an effort made by the Communist Party of China under the leadership of Mao Zedong to transform China into a society that was capable of challenging other Western industrialized nations within a five-year time period. The main goal of the Great Leap Forward was to organize its vast population, especially in large-scale rural communes, in an attempt to fi China's industrial and agricultural problems.
Castro came to power in Cuba when he established the first communist state in the Western Hemisphere after leading an overthrow of the military dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1959. For nearly five decades, he was able to rule over Cuba and later handed off his power to his brother.
The Sino-Soviet Split/Rift was a time when the relations between the People's republic of China and the Soviet Union weakened during the Cold War. Sooner or later, China's leader, Mao Zedong, decided to break the alliance with the Soviet Union.
The Berlin wall was constructed on August 13, 1961. Due to the Cold War, West Berlin was a geographical loophole where thousands of East Germans had to flee to. The Communist East German had to build a wall that totally surrounded Wester Berlin. It had a heavy amount of security and surveillance that went on 24/7. The wall itself soon came to symbolize the Cold War.
The U.S sent troops to fight in Vietnam when President Johnson had gained the support of the Congress to do so. He claimed that the troops were meant to stop the spread of communism. The U.S government had supported him because of his successful efforts in suppressing the communist victory in the South. On the same day, the president orders the start of the clandestine warfare against North Vietnam to be conducted by South Vietnamese agents under the direction and training of the CIA and U.S special forces.
Also known as the Islamic Revolution, the Iranian Revolution of 1978 was a popular uprising in Iran that resulted in the toppling of the monarchy and led to the establishment of an Islamic republic. The revolution involved events like the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty.
Iraq had invaded Iran on September 22, 1980. This triggered a bitter eight-year war which established the region and devastated both countries. Saddam Hussein claimed as a reason for the invasion a territorial dispute over the Shatt - al-Arab, the waterway which forms the boundary between two countries.
The Soviet withdrew from Afghanistan after more than eight years of supporting the pro-communist government. After that, the end to a long, bloody, and fruitless Soviet occupation of Afghanistan was coming to an end. The reason the Soviets withdrew was that they realized that their intervention proved extraordinarily costly in a number of ways.
The Persian Gulf War was an international conflict that was triggered by Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990. It was also known as Operation Desert Shield. Sadam Hussein's initial invasion and occupation of Kuwait led Arab powers such as Saudia Arabia and Egypt to call on the United States and other Western nations to intervene. Hussein even ignored the U.N's orders to withdraw from Kuwait. So, the U.S. responded by beginning the war with a massive air offensive known as Operation Desert Strom.
On December 25, 1991, the Soviet hammer and sickle flag was replaced by the Russian tricolor. Mikhail Gorbachev was forced to resign his post as president of the Soviet Union, and Boris Yeltsin took his place as president of the newly independent Russian state.
On July 1, 1997 at midnight, Hong Kong reverts back to Chinese rule in a ceremony attended by British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Prince Charles of Wales, Chinese President Jian Zemin, and U.S Secretary of State Madeleine Albright. Not many people were against the turnover.
The Guantanamo Bay camp in 2002 was a U.S detention facility on the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, located on the coast of the bay in southern Cuba. The camp was used to house Muslim militants and suspected terrorists captured by U.S forces in Afghanistan, Iraq, and elsewhere.
The sudden arrival of an internationally spreading outbreak of a newly identified infectious disease in early 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), provided an opportunity for a coordinated international response based on information and evidence obtained in real time through standard and electronic .
A homemade explosive set off a small fire on a train at a London subway station during rush hour Friday, injuring 29 people and prompting authorities to raise Britain's terrorism threat level to “critical,” meaning another attack may be imminent.