Catalyst to World War I. He was the hear to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and was shot to death along with his wife by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
Advocated Italian nationalism, had black shirts for uniforms, and launched a program of terrorism and intimidation against its leftist opponents.
A campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire. The campaign began with a failed naval attack by British and French ships on the Dardanelles Straits in February-March 1915 and continued with a major land invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula on April 25, involving British and French troops as well as divisions of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC).
Unrestricted submarine warfare was first introduced in World War I in early 1915, when Germany declared the area around the British Isles a war zone, in which all merchant ships, including those from neutral countries, would be attacked by the German navy.
The Bolsheviks were formed and led by the Vladimir Ilyich Ulianov - known simply as Lenin. Ruthless and single-minded, Lenin decided that the conditions in Russia in 1917 were ripe for revolution. At the beginning of 1917, however, the Bolsheviks were still a minority organisation within Russia.
The causes of Russia's Civil War were the failure of the provisional government of Kerensky, the growing power of the Soviets, the treaty of Brest-Litovsk angered Russians, and the Bolsheviks wanted to wipe out all their enemies. The outcome was the Bolshevik victory over the Whites and 14,000,000 dead.
Between Bolshevik gov. of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire). Ended Russia's participation in World War I.
Also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
It was held in Geneva six days after the Treaty of Paris. They incorporated new members and successfully mediated minor international disputes but was often disregarded by the major powers.
Peasants were allowed to sell some of their produce for profit and small traders were allowed to run businesses.
Implemented by Joseph Stalin, concentrated on developing heavy industry and collectivizing agriculture, at the cost of a drastic fall in consumer goods.
Black Tuesday hit Wall Street as investors traded some 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day. Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors. In the aftermath of Black Tuesday, America and the rest of the industrialized world spiraled downward into the Great Depression (1929-39), the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world up to that time.
Indian independence leader Mohandas Gandhi begins a defiant march to the sea in protest of the British monopoly on salt, his boldest act of civil disobedience yet against British rule in India.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
In September 1931, they claimed that Chinese soldiers had sabotaged the railway, and attacked the Chinese army (which had just executed a Japanese spy). The Chinese army did not fight back because it knew that the Japanese were just wanting an excuse to invade Manchuria.
Nicaraguan guerrilla leader Cesar Augusto Sandino was killed by members of the country's national guard.
Adolf Hitler, already chancellor, is also elected president of Germany in an unprecedented consolidation of power in the short history of the republic.
A military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army.
The leader of Communist Russia, Joseph Stalin, was paranoid of opposition. It was this paranoia that led to the Great Purge where millions of people were executed or sent to labor camps in Siberia.
Refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany. Hitler wanted all German-speaking nations in Europe to be a part of Germany. To this end, he had designs on re-uniting Germany with his native homeland, Austria. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, however, Germany and Austria were forbidden to be unified.
The Mexican oil expropriation (Spanish: expropiación petrolera) was the nationalization of all petroleum reserves, facilities, and foreign oil companies in Mexico.
After heavy shelling and bombing, Warsaw surrendered to the Germans. Britain and France, standing by their guarantee of Poland's border, had declared war on Germany. The Soviet Union invaded eastern Poland.
Original name Operation Fritz, during World War II, code name for the German invasion of the Soviet Union, which was launched on June 22, 1941. The failure of German troops to defeat Soviet forces in the campaign signaled a crucial turning point in the war.
General Paulus surrendered what remained of his army-some 91,000 men. About 150,000 Germans had died in the fighting. The Soviet victory at Stalingrad was a great humiliation for Hitler, who had elevated the battle's importance in German opinion.
The day in World War II on which Allied forces invaded northern France by means of beach landings in Normandy.
The final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II. On 23 April General Helmuth Weidling assumed command of the forces within Berlin.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
An international organization committed to maintaining international peace and security; developing friendly relations among nations; promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.
The British leaders finally agreed that the partition was the best way to limit bloodshed between Hindus and Muslims within India. It was decided that India would be split into two independent nations. Pakistan would contain the mainly Muslim regions of India, and India would retain the regions of Hindu majority.
Apartheid was a political and social system in South Africa while it was under white minority rule. Strategists in the National Party invented apartheid as a means to cement their control over the economic and social system. With the enactment of apartheid laws in 1948, racial discrimination was institutionalized.
Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, the British assumed control of Palestine. In November 1917, the British government issued the Balfour Declaration, announcing its intention to facilitate the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people."
Fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
A historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France. Motivated by the experiences of the preceding world wars, the Universal Declaration was the first time that countries agreed on a comprehensive statement of inalienable human rights.
A formal alliance between the territories of North American and Europe. Its main purpose was to defend each other from the possibility of the communist Soviet Union taking control of their nation.
The Communists eventually won the war. The Nationalists (led by Chiang Kai-shek) fled to the island of Taiwan and set up their new capital city in Taipei. After the Chinese Civil War, the Communist leader Mao Zedong declared a new country, the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border.
In northwest Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh's Viet Minh forces decisively defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu, a French stronghold besieged by the Vietnamese communists for 57 days. The Viet Minh victory at Dien Bien Phu signaled the end of French colonial influence in Indochina and cleared the way for the division of Vietnam.
A war between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France.
The Soviet Union formed this alliance as a counterbalance to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Break in political relations between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Happened because of rebellion of Russia's working class under Marxism but the Chinese people didn't. This divide in fundamental ideology led them to split.
A nationwide revolt against the communist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies.
Egypt Invasion by Israeli forces, who pushed into the country through the Suez Canal after it was nationalized by the Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser.
As a result of the successful economic reconstruction that had taken place in the early 1950s under the First Five Year Plan, the Party leadership headed by Mao Zedong considered the conditions ripe for a Great Leap Forward
Established the first communist state in the Western Hemisphere after leading an overthrow of the military dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1959. He ruled over Cuba for nearly five decades, until handing off power to his younger brother Raúl in 2008.
In an effort to stem the tide of refugees attempting to leave East Berlin, the communist government of East Germany begins building the Berlin Wall to divide East and West Berlin. Construction of the wall caused a short-term crisis in U.S.-Soviet bloc relations, and the wall itself came to symbolize the Cold War.
In one year's time, President Johnson had gained the support of the congress to send troops to Vietnam. He claimed that those troops were meant to stop the spread of communism. 2,709,918 Americans served in Vietnam.
Violently ended the monarchy of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi (1919–1980) and replaced it with an Islamic republic, the theocracy of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (1901–1989).
Iraqi president Saddam Hussein claimed as the reason for his attack on Iran a territorial dispute over the Shatt al Arab, a waterway that empties into the Persian Gulf and forms the boundary between Iran and Iraq. The war was inconsequential: having won Iranian recognition of exclusive Iraqi sovereignty over the Shatt-el-Arab River (into which the Tigris and Euphrates combine, forming Iraq’s best outlet to the sea), in 1988 Saddam Hussein surrendered that gain when in need of Iran’s neutrality in anticipation of the 1991 Gulf War.
The final and complete withdrawal of Soviet combatant forces from Afghanistan under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov.
An international conflict that was triggered by Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990. Egypt and several other Arab nations joined the anti-Iraq coalition and contributed forces to the military buildup, known as Operation Desert Shield.
The Soviet Union disintegrated into fifteen separate countries. When the Soviet Union’s oil and gas revenue dropped dramatically, the USSR began to lose its hold on Eastern Europe. Meanwhile, Gorbachev’s reforms were slow to bear fruit and did more to hasten the collapse of the Soviet Union than to help it. On December 25, Gorbachev resigned as leader of the USSR. The Soviet Union ceased to exist on December 31, 1991.
The agreement stipulated that under Chinese rule the HKSAR would enjoy a high degree of autonomy, except in matters of foreign relations and defense, and that the social and economic systems as well as the lifestyle in Hong Kong would remain unchanged for 50 years after 1997.
A United States military prison located in Cuba. Since the inmates have been detained indefinitely without trial and several inmates were allegedly severely tortured, the operations of this camp are considered to be a major breach of human rights by Amnesty International.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus. SARS was first reported in Asia in February 2003. Over the next few months, the illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before the SARS global outbreak of 2003 was contained.
Bombers: Mohammad Sidique Khan, Shehzad Tanweer, Germaine Lindsay, Hasib Hussain. Three bombs were detonated at the same time by four terrorists on the London Underground trains. There were 56 deaths including the 4 bombers.