Palmer Chapter 4

The Growing Power of Western Europe, 1640-1714

Events

Peter Paul Rubens

1577 - 1640

Dutch Own Most Ships in N. Europe

Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1699

Starting with 10,000 ships around 1600
Carriers between Spain, France, England, & the Baltic

The Dutch Reach Japan

Approx. 1601

Rembrant van Rijn

1606 - 1669

Anna Maria van Schurman

1607 - 1678

Extraordinary learned scholar and artist. Developed important seventeenth-century argument for the education of woman

Amsterdam as European Financial Capital

1609 - Approx. 1789

Bank of Amsterdam Founded

1609

The Dutch Found 1st Settlement on Manhattan Island

1612

Armenius' Ideas Condemned at an International Calvinist Synod

1618

City of Batavia Found in Java

1619

Founded by the Dutch
City is now called Jakarta

The Dutch Establish a Dutch West India Company

1621

Exploit the loosely held riches of the Spanish and Portuguese America. Entered the expanding Atlantic slave trade and transported Africans found in Dutch colonies

Hugo Grotius Releases "Law of War and Peace"

1625

"A pioneering treatise on international law."

Christian Hugyens

1629 - 1695

Greatest Dutch scientist, worked in physics and math, improved the telescope, made clocks move with pendulums, discovered the rings of Saturn, and launched the wave theory of light.

Armenian Toleration Begins

1632

Jan Vermeer

1632 - 1675

"The Learned Maid or Whether a Maid May Be Called a Scholar"

1638

Anna Maria van Schurman
Developed argument for the education of women

The Growing Power of Western Europe

1640 - 1715

Japanese Expel All Europeans (Except the Dutch)

1641

Feared the political consequences of Christian penetration
Confined the Dutch to limited operations on an island near Nagasaki
Dutch remains for over two centuries the only link of the West and Japan

The France of Louis XIV (the 14th)

1643 - 1715

The Triumph of Absolutism

Louis XIV (14th) Inherits the Throne

1643

Age 5

Age of Louis XIV (the 14th)

1648 - 1698

The Dutch are Without a Stadholder

1650 - 1672

Stadholder William II Dies

November 6, 1650

William III is Born

November 14, 1650

Never becomes stadholder, lives as a regular nobleman. Grows up to be a grave and reserved man. Learned to speak Dutch, German, English, and French & to understand Italian, Spanish, and Latin. Dutch Calvinist. Had a strong dislike for anything magnificent or pompous, lived plainly, hated flattery, and took no pleasure in social conversation. Opposite of life-long enemy the Sun King (inherited enemy from father)

Three Wars of Dutch & England

Approx. 1651 - 1674

Interruptions happened

England Passes First of Navigation Acts

1651

First of a long series of political measured by which the British began to build their colonial empire. Aimed against the Dutch carrying trade. Goods imported into England (& dependencies) must be transported on English ships or on ships belonging to the country exporting the goods.

Dutch Capture the Cape of Good Hope

1652

Taken from the Portuguese, in South Africa.

Vermeer, "A Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window"

Approx. 1658

Vermeer, "The Milkmaid"

Approx. 1660

Louis XIV Assumes the Personal Direction of Affairs

1661

Age 23

English Annex New Amsterdam & Rename it New York

1664

Vermeer, "The Artist's Studio"

Approx. 1665

Charles II

1665 - 1700

Spanish Throne Inherited by Charles II

1665

"The sick man of Europe:" Incompetent ruler, afflicted by illnesses of mind and body, impotent, mentally deficient, product of intermarriage among the Hapsburg family. Rule was irresolute and feeble. End of the Hapsburg family line, couldn't/didn't have children.

The Wars of Louis XIV

1667 - 1713

Louis XIV Claims the Spanish Netherlands & French Comte

1667

Alleged certain rights of his Spanish wife. Overran the Spanish Netherlands with his army. Dutch set in motion the mechanism of the balance of power. Allied with the English - Louis XIV withdrew

Vermeer, "Geographer"

1669

Symbol of the modern world in its youth - sunlight through a window, globe, map, dividers, tapestry (or rug from Asia), head lifted in thought, eyes resting on an invisible world of fresh discoveries and opening horizons.

Louis XIV Crosses Spanish Netherlands (Again)

1672

Attacked with forces 5x as large as the Dutch, occupied three of the seven Dutch provinces.

6 Provinces Vote to Make Stadholderate Hereditary

1673

William of Orange duly elected stadholder in 6 provinces. These 6 provinces voted to make stadholerate hereditary in the house of Orange. William attempted to centralize & consolidate government, put down traditional liberties of provinces, and free himself of constitutional checks, moving in the direction of absolute monarch. Unable to go far - United Provinces remained decentralized patrician republic until 1795

William III Married Mary Stuart

1677

Mary Stuart - niece of Charles II

Peace Signed in Expansionist Wars - Treaty of Nimwegen

1678

At the expense of Spain & the Holy Roman Empire - The Dutch preserved their territory intact.

Great Windfall of William of Orange's Life

Approx. 1679 - Approx. 1689

Became King of England, able to bring British Isles into perpetual combinations against France.

William of Orange Becomes King of England

1689

Bathalasar Becker, "World Bewitched"

1691

Decisive blow against the expiring superstition of witchcraft.

Charles II Dies

1700

The Peace of Utrecht

1713