The Growing Power of Western Europe, 1640-1714
Starting with 10,000 ships around 1600
Carriers between Spain, France, England, & the Baltic
Extraordinary learned scholar and artist. Developed important seventeenth-century argument for the education of woman
Founded by the Dutch
City is now called Jakarta
Exploit the loosely held riches of the Spanish and Portuguese America. Entered the expanding Atlantic slave trade and transported Africans found in Dutch colonies
"A pioneering treatise on international law."
Greatest Dutch scientist, worked in physics and math, improved the telescope, made clocks move with pendulums, discovered the rings of Saturn, and launched the wave theory of light.
Anna Maria van Schurman
Developed argument for the education of women
Feared the political consequences of Christian penetration
Confined the Dutch to limited operations on an island near Nagasaki
Dutch remains for over two centuries the only link of the West and Japan
The Triumph of Absolutism
Never becomes stadholder, lives as a regular nobleman. Grows up to be a grave and reserved man. Learned to speak Dutch, German, English, and French & to understand Italian, Spanish, and Latin. Dutch Calvinist. Had a strong dislike for anything magnificent or pompous, lived plainly, hated flattery, and took no pleasure in social conversation. Opposite of life-long enemy the Sun King (inherited enemy from father)
First of a long series of political measured by which the British began to build their colonial empire. Aimed against the Dutch carrying trade. Goods imported into England (& dependencies) must be transported on English ships or on ships belonging to the country exporting the goods.
Taken from the Portuguese, in South Africa.
"The sick man of Europe:" Incompetent ruler, afflicted by illnesses of mind and body, impotent, mentally deficient, product of intermarriage among the Hapsburg family. Rule was irresolute and feeble. End of the Hapsburg family line, couldn't/didn't have children.
Alleged certain rights of his Spanish wife. Overran the Spanish Netherlands with his army. Dutch set in motion the mechanism of the balance of power. Allied with the English - Louis XIV withdrew
Symbol of the modern world in its youth - sunlight through a window, globe, map, dividers, tapestry (or rug from Asia), head lifted in thought, eyes resting on an invisible world of fresh discoveries and opening horizons.
Attacked with forces 5x as large as the Dutch, occupied three of the seven Dutch provinces.
William of Orange duly elected stadholder in 6 provinces. These 6 provinces voted to make stadholerate hereditary in the house of Orange. William attempted to centralize & consolidate government, put down traditional liberties of provinces, and free himself of constitutional checks, moving in the direction of absolute monarch. Unable to go far - United Provinces remained decentralized patrician republic until 1795
Mary Stuart - niece of Charles II
At the expense of Spain & the Holy Roman Empire - The Dutch preserved their territory intact.
Became King of England, able to bring British Isles into perpetual combinations against France.
Decisive blow against the expiring superstition of witchcraft.