most prominent in New Orleans, but flourished elsewhere.
ensemble 10-12 musicians: trumpets, cornets, alto and baritone horns, tuba, clarinet, drums
repertoire: rags, marches, dances (parade music )
famous figure: Bunk Johnson (1879-1949)
Generally 6-10 Musicians per ensemble
Cornet/Trumpet (melody) vs. Clarinet (countermelody) vs. Trombone ("harmonic countermelody")
Banjo, Tuba and Drums
Rhythm consists of 4 beats per bar.
Ensemble chorus and improvisation.
Louis Armstrong, King Oliver
Tenor saxophone added to ensemble
Guitar replaces the banjo
Rhythm in 2/4 rather than 4/4
Solo improvisation instead of emphasis to ensemble
Piano and string bass gradually added to ensemble
Dixieland is closer to Chicago style than to the New Orleans style
Famous figure: Louis Armstrong
Chicago style example
Came around about the time that the African-Americans migrated to northern America in hope for a better life, but with little success. Mamie Smith was the first African-American to be recorded and became a big hit. She started being accompanied by black jazz bands. More singers started to sing with jazz bands accompanying them, for example Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith. One musical elements in city blues include call and response.
Ensemble consists of c.14-16 musicians grouped in sections: trumpet, trombone, saxophone, and rhythm.
Controlled and organised solo 'improvisation'.
Each benad had a 'trademark' style, depending on the band leader.
Famous figures: Fletcher Henderson (1898-1952), Duke Ellington (1899-1974), Bennie Goodman.
Small ensemble, quartet or quintet, etc. Saxophone, trumpet, piano, bass, drums. For listening, not dancing. Fast and complex rhythms, heavy syncopation. Dissonance. First chorus played in unison, then improvisation, then return to first chorus at end. Charlie Parker.
Revolt against bop, more relaxed and understated. Three main characteristics: unique sonority, delicate attacks, little or no vibrato, played in the middle range of the instrument. Phrasing: not regular length, not limited to 12 or 16 bars. Overlapping phrases, one player begins a solo before the other is finished. Orchestral concept: ensemble of 3 to 8 players, using instruments new to jazz, French horn, flute, cello, vibraphone etc. Unusual metres common, (3/4, 5/4, 9/4, 19/4). classical form sometimes used. Rondo, fugue,etc. Famous, Miles Davis, Dave Brubeck.
Miles Davis: "Kind of Blue"
John Coltrane's: "Giant Steps"
Ornette Coleman's: "Shape of Jazz to Come"
Dave Bruebeck: "Time out"
A lack of adherence to established rules of melody, harmony, rhythm, form etc. The ultimate in improvisation, the musician preforms, the remaining ensemble reacts to what is played. famous figures, John Coltrane,corn(y), Ornette Coleman.
Fusion is a mixture of funk and R&B with complex time signatures. Derived from non-western music. Improvisation
Continued big band, (Maynard Ferguson). Latin and Hispanic influences (Afro-Cuban, salsa). Rock influences, (Miles Davis, Chicago).
an important fusion piece by the band called weather report