by Francis Bellamy
in the The Youth's Companion
The first law is passed about requiring pledge recitation in schools in New York
from "I pledge allegiance to my flag" to "I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America" by the National Flag Congress
Lillian and William Gobitis were expelled from their school for refusing to salute the flag at school every day. They were Jehovah's witnesses and believed this went against the bible. The Supreme Court upheld the mandatory flag salute. This means that kids could be expelled for refusing to recite the pledge.
The 77th Congress passed an eight section act that officially recognized the pledge. The flag code becomes law.
Congress changes the mandatory flag salute to hand over heart from the previous salute of straight arm.
Required that all students and staff were to salute the flag every day at school. Refusal to do so was insubordination. The Supreme Court ruled that compelling kids to salute the flag every day was unconstitutional. This reversed the ruling from the previous case of Minersville School District v. Gobitis.
The chaplain includes "under God" in pledge recitation
The Knights of Columbus adopt a resolution to amend the pledge to have the words "under god"
Begin a campaign to add "under God" to the pledge
Introduce bills to add "under God" into pledge
He introduces a bill to Congress proposing that the pledge include the words "one nation under God"
He gave a sermon while President Eisenhower was in attendance. He argues that the words "under God" should be added so it would be differentiated from the one recited by communist heathens in Moscow.
Eisenhower signs the bill to include the words "under God" in the pledge
A federal appeals court rules that it is unconstitutional for public schools to recite the pledge because of the words "under God," that is an endorsement of religion
A group of parents and teachers claimed the use of "Under God" in the pledge violated the equal protection clause of the state's constitution. Supreme Court did not agree with them, they ruled that it does not violate the constitution nor the statute.