Cell History Timeline


Hans and Zachariah Jansen


They invented the first primitive microscope which allowed Robert Hooke to view the cell walls of a cork in 1665.


Marcelo Malpighi


He was the first to observe blood callaries in fish tails. He is considered the precursor of embriology and history. his discovery was of great importance in elucidating a major issue regarding animal physiology. He observed red blood cells passing throug capillaries and found the connection between arteries and veins.


Robert Hooke


He discovered the cell in 1665 by examining a thin slice of cork and seeing a multitude of little pore. He said thet the pores looked like the walled compartments a monk would live in, because of this he called them cells the name they still have today. Even though Hooke discovered the cell he did not know of the structure, function, nucleus, and other organelles found in cells.


Francesco Redi


He experimented to see if rotting meat turns into flies. He found out that flies can make other flies, but rotting meat can't. This is simmilar to how cells reproduce, cells split to make other cells, which is the third part of the cell theory.


Anton Van Leeuwenhoek


He taught himself how to polish and grind glass of great curvature, up to 270x diameters, which he then used to create the first practical microscope. He was the first to see and dicribe bacteria, yeast plants, the teeming life in a drop of water, and the circulation of blood corpuscles in capillaries. During his long life he made many pioneer studies.


Robert Brown


He discovered the nucleus in plant cells. He discovered it because he went to Australia to study flora. When he got back he was scrutinizing the epidermis of an orchid eith his microscope and he found that the cell had an opaque spot. He used the term areola to describe this opaque spot.


Theodor Schwann


Mathis Scheldien had found that all plants are composed of cells, and communicated his findings with Schwann who had found simmilar structures in the cells. in his book he concluded, "All living things are made of cells and cell products." Which is now the first part of the cell theory.


Matthias Schleiden


He stated that different parts of the plant are composed of cells and communicated it to Schwann. They then became the first to formulate what was an informal belief as a principal of equal importance to the atomic theory of chemistry. He also recognized the importance of the cell nucleus and sensed its importance with cell division.


Ruldoph Virchow


He suggested that all cell come from pre-existing cells. His aphorism'omnis cellula e cellula' meaning every cell from a pre-existing cell became the foundations of division, even if the process was not fully understood then. He also stated that nope all plantas are made up of cells, which eventually led to the creation of the cell theory.


Gregor Mendel


Through his work on pea plants he discovered the laws of inheritance, which are:

  1. The Law of Segregation: Each inherited trait is defined by a gene pair. Parental genes are randomly separated to sex cells so that they contain only one gene pair. Offspring then inherit one allele from each parent when cells unite unite in fertilization

  2. The Law of Intependant Assortment: Genes for different traits are sorted seperatly from one another so that the inheritance of one trait is not dependent on the inheritence of another

3.The Law of Dominance: An organism with alternate forms of a gene will express the form that is dominant.

He published his findings in 1865, but his discoveries were not appreciated until they were rediscovered in 1900.


Walter Fleming


He was a pioneer of cytogenetics. He was the first to conduct systematic study of chromosomes durring division and he called this process mitosis. His 1882 work "Zellsubstanz, kern and Zelltheilang" is considered a seminal work of modern cell biology.


Thomas Hunt Morgan


He confirmed Mendelian laws of inheritance and the hypothesis that genes are located on chromosomes. He did this by extensively breeding the common fruit fly. Him and his colleagues piublished the Mechanism of Mendelian Heretityin 1915 with all of there findings. In 1933 he received the Nobel Prize in Phisology or Medicine.


Francis Crick and James Watson


Crick and Watson along with Maurice Wilkins solved the structure of DNA. Their findings where published in Nature in April 1953. They later shared the Nobel prize for Phsiology or Medicine.