History of Cardiovascular Transplants


Alexis Carrel

Approx. 1900

Alexis Carrel developed new ways to suture blood vessels

Mechanical Heart


A mechanical heart was developed that could pump blood

Experiments on Dogs


Frank Mann transplanted a heart into the neck of the dog and kept it alive for 8 days

More Dog Experiments


Vladimir Demikhov transplanted hearts into the chest cavities of dogs and they lived

Animal Transplant Experiments

1964 - 1977

Sheep, Baboon, and Chimp hearts were transplanted into adults

Failed Chimp Transplant

Approx. 1964

James Hardy tried transplanting a chimp heart into a 68-year-old man, but the heart was too small and failed days after

Modern-day Intra-aortic Balloon Pump

Approx. November 1967 - December 1967

Dr.Adrian Kantrowitz and his brother, an engineer, together were responsible for the development and 1st successful clinical use of the modern-day intra-aortic balloon pump.

First Human Transplant (human to human)

December 3, 1967

The first successful heart was transplanted into a 55-year-old man by Christiaan Barnard

Anencephalic Donor Heart Replacement Surgery

December 6th, 1967

Dr.Kantrowitz and associates used an anencephalic donor heart to replace the heart of a 3-week old patient with type IA tricuspid atresia and atrial communication, the baby died.

Other Heart Transplants

January 1, 1968 - December 31, 1968

100 heart transplants were performed but none survived long

Development of Cyclosporine A


Cyclosporine A helped T-cells stop to avoid rejection of the heart implant.

Percutaneous Transvenous Endomyocardial Biopsy


The Stanford group formulated a new technology- percutaneous transvenous endomyocardial biopsy, improved overall effectiveness of open heart surgery.

World Record


John McCaftery held the world record for longest surviving heart transplant

Pediatric Transplant


World's first successful pediatric transplant performed on a 4 year old boy