Catholic Church History

Councils

The Council of Jerusalem

Approx. 50 AD

The Council of Jerusalem took place to settle the disagreement over whether or not the gentiles had to follow the first Mosaic Law before becoming Christians. Peter then told them that God makes no distinction between Gentile and Jew. He told them that all live are saved in the same way; through the Grace of Jesus Christ.

Council of Nicaea

325

The people believed that Jesus was divine but inferior to God. The Council came to the conclusion that Jesus was of the same substance of the Father. At the council, they came up with the Nicene Creed, the statement of our core beliefs.

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Council of Constantinople

381

The Council of Constantinople was called to resolve the issues of the Nicene Creed, mostly focusing on the divided human and divine parts of Jesus and if the Holy Spirit was a divine messenger and if it was fully God. The Council confirmed that yes the Holy Spirit was also fully divine; thus the Trinity had one fully divine “nature” and has three distinct “Persons”.

http://catholic-resources.org/ChurchDocs/EcumenicalCouncils.htm

Council of Ephesus

431

The Council of Ephesus discussed if Mary is, “The Mother of Christ” and shouldn’t be “The Mother of God” so that Jesus’ humanity wouldn’t be neglected. They concluded that Mary is “The Mother of God” and Jesus is by nature fully human and divine, and united by one person.

http://catholic-resources.org/ChurchDocs/EcumenicalCouncils.htm

Council of Chalcedon

451

The Council of Chalcedon argued if Jesus is human and divine but had only “one nature”. They decided that Jesus is fully human and divine, his two natures were united in his one person.

http://catholic-resources.org/ChurchDocs/EcumenicalCouncils.htm

Council of Constantinople II

553

The Council of Constantinople II was called to discuss the decisions reached in the first four Councils. They reconfirmed their decisions.

http://catholic-resources.org/ChurchDocs/EcumenicalCouncils.htm

Council of Constantinople III

680 - 681

Council of Constantinople III was called to argue if Jesus has only one “will”. They concluded that he has a human and a divine “will”.

http://catholic-resources.org/ChurchDocs/EcumenicalCouncils.htm

Council of Nicaea II

787

The Council of Nicaea II was called because they thought that all Images and icons should be destroyed. They concluded that the use of images and icons would be permitted.

http://catholic-resources.org/ChurchDocs/EcumenicalCouncils.htm

Early Church History

Paul'sConversion

Approx. 35 AD

Saul, more commonly known as Paul, was converted when he was blinded by a light and heard God crying out at him saying, "Saul. Saul. Why do you persecute me?". From that day on he became the boldest missionary.

Edict of Milan

313

The Edict of Milan is an agreement of religious toleration between the Eastern half of Milan and Rome. This took place after the war in 312, a war between Rome and Milan because Rome felt threatened by Christianity so Rome declared war on the Christians. During the war, Constantine had a vision of Jesus Christ where Jesus. After this Constantine converted to Christianity so, he had his soldiers put the Chi-rho of their shields.

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Eastern and Western Schism

1054

The Eastern and Western Schism started when the Latin and Greek churches separated because Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, was excommunicated from the Church by Pope Leo IX l, Cerularius then walked out of the Church and shook the dirt from his feet. In 1040’s in Southern Italy, Norman worriers conquered them and replaced the Greek [Eastern] Bishops with Latin [Western] Bishops. The differences in practice confused the people and caused arguments to arise.
http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/issues/issue-28/1054-east-west-schism.html

History of Jesus

The Ascension

33 AD

This is when Jesus Ascended into Heaven and was seated at the right hand of God. He did this to save us from our sins and open up the gate of Heaven for us.

Resurrection of Jesus Christ

33 AD

This date is more commonly known as Easter. This is the day when Jesus defeated sin and rose up from the dead.

Martyr's

Paul Martyred in Rome

Approx. 65 AD

Paul made his way to Rome, he testified to the Jews. They threw him into prison and after two years he died. According to tradition, he was beheaded.

Peter Martyred in Rome

Approx. 67 Ad

Peter was crucified upside-down on a cross. He was crucified in Rome under the order of Emperor Nero.

Saints and Important Figures

Saint Thomas Aquinas: Birth-Death

Approx. 1225 - 1274

St. Thomas Aquinas was born in 1225 and died in 1274. During his life, he wrote many books, including the Summa Theologica, Summa Contra Gentiles and many more. He was Canonized by Pope John XXII in 1323. He is the Patron Saint of Collages, Students, and Schools. His symbols are a monstrance, Chalice, Ox, and a Star. In 1273 at the Dominican convent of Naples, in the Chapel of Saint Nicholas, Thomas was seen crying and levitating in prayer before an icon of the crucified Christ.
During this prayer, Christ is said to have told him, "You have written well of me, Thomas. What reward would you have for your labor?”
Thomas replied, "Nothing but you, Lord."

St. Elizabeth Ann Seton

August 28th, 1774 - January 4th 1821

St. Elizabeth Ann Seaton was born on August 28th, 1774 and died on January 4th, 1821. Her Beatification date is March 17th, 1963 by Pope John XXII, and was later Canonized on September 14th, 1975. Her feast day is January 4th. She is the Patron saint of in-law problems, against the death of children, widows, a death of parents, and opposition of Church authorities. During her life, she helps her Sisterhood establish two Schools and two orphanages.

St. John Neumann

1811 - 1860

St. John Neumann was born in 1811 and died in 1860. In his lifetime, he started the first Catholic school system. He was beatified on October 13th of 1976, and canonized in June of 1977. his feast day is January 5th. St. John Neumann is the Patron saint of Sick Children. His symbols are a Pope with a chalice over their head.

https://www.catholicculture.org/culture/liturgicalyear/calendar/day.cfm?date=2018-01-05
http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=70
https://www.franciscanmedia.org/saint-john-neumann/

The Gospels

The Gospel of Mark

Approx. 65 AD - Approx. 70 AD

Mark's Gospel was the first out of the four. His Gospel was also the shortest because his was the most rushed. Mark Wrote to the Gentiles because it was at this time that Peter and Paul were martyred, so he portrayed Jesus as humanly and down to earth.

The Gospel of Luke

Approx. 80 AD - Approx. 85 AD

Luke's Gospel was the third one to be written. Luke writes to the Gentiles like mark. Though, in his Gospel, he portrays Jesus as forgiving, compassionate, and loving.

The Gospel of Matthew

Approx. 80 AD

Matthew's Gospel was the second to be written. Matthew wrote to the Jews, so he portrayed Jesus as the new Moses to appeal more to the Jews. Matthew, unlike Mark, went more into Jesus' background and family tree.

The Gospel of John

Approx. 90 AD

John was the last one to write their Gospel, and he is also the most different from the rest, he wrote his Gospel for everyone. He also portrayed Jesus as someone with great nobility and as someone who deals with individuals. John also makes it clear that Jesus undeniably human and divine.

The Popes

St. Pope Peter

Approx. 32 AD - Approx. 67 AD

St. Pope Peter was the first Pope.
http://www.catholic.org/pope/

St. Pope Linus

67 AD - 76 AD

St. Pope Linus was the second Pope.
http://www.catholic.org/pope/

St. Anacletus (Cletus)

76 AD - 88 AD

St. Anacletus(Cletus) was the third Pope.
http://www.catholic.org/pope/

St. Pope Clement I

88 AD - 97 AD

St. Pope Clement I was the fourth Pope.
http://www.catholic.org/pope/

St. Pope Evaristus

97 AD - 105 AD

St. Pope Evaristus was the fifth Pope.
http://www.catholic.org/pope/

St. Alexander I

105 AD - 115 AD

St. Pope Alexander I was the sixth Pope.
http://www.catholic.org/pope/

St Pope. Sixtus I (Xystus I

115 AD - 125 AD

St. Pope Sixtus I was the seventh Pope.
http://www.catholic.org/pope/