Solon was a lawmaker, statesman, and poet. He is often credited for reconstructing the social and political organization of Athens, thus laying the foundations of the Athenians democracy.
Cleisthenes introduced a reform, demokratia or "rule by the people". There were 3 seperate institutions; ekklesia, boule, and dikasteria.
The Romans had established a new kind of government, a republic. This form of government was used by many countries for centuries, including the United States.
Though Athens is not where democracies started, it is often refered to as the birthplace of democracy. The Athens excluded women and slaves from the political processes.
The Athenian "golden age" flouished under Pericles. He was a brilliant general, orator, patron of the arts and politician. According to historian Thucydides, Pericles was the "first citizen" of democratic Athens. He was a great leader in Athens. He introduced democratic instituions in Athens.
While many philosophers supported the idea of democracy, Socrates down right hated it. In his book, Plato recorded a conversation between Socrates and a man by the name of Adeimantus. Socrates took a ship as an example of the society. " If you were heading out on a journey over seas," asks Socrates," who would you want deciding who was in charge of the vessel? Just anyone or people educaed in the area of seafaring?" " The second one," replied Adeimanus. "Then why " responds Socrates," do we keep thinking that any old person should be fit to judge who should be the ruler of a country?" His point, voting is a skill, not random intuition.
One of Romes breakthrough's was the notion of equality under the law. In the year of 449 B.C, government leader carved some of Romes most important laws. The Twelve Tables was foundation and basis of the Roman Republic.
Plato, an athenian philosopher and writer, was one of he important and influencial figures in Ancient Greece and all of Western thought. Plato wrote on his thoughts of different kinds of government, including democracy. His writings helped develop the idea of democracy.
Aristotle was one of the greatest philosophers in all of history. He wrote about democrocy and comparing it to other forms of government. In his book "politics", he seperated government into 6 parts, 3 good and three bad. The three good forms are monarchy, aristocracy, and polity, while the three bad forms are tyranny, oligarchy, and democracy.
After capturing the king, the barons forced King John to sign a document, now known as the Magna Carta, meeting all their needs.
Parlement , or better know as Model parlement, was established on November 13, 1295. The esembly included members of the clergy and the aristocracy, as well as representatives from the various counties.
Though Thomas Hobbes didn't agree with democracy, he did contribute to the idea. In 1651, he wrote a book entitled "Levithian" which is a big monster recorded in the Bible. It symblized the people, and how they were greedy and selfish for power, and that they have no natural inclination to form societies.
John Locke was a British philosopher. He along with Thomas Hobbs were advocates to the idea of he social contract. Yet unlike Hobbs, Locke believed the social contract should be a democracy. Locke was actually the inspiration for the American Revolution. Several phrases in the American decleration have been cited after Locke.
Montesquieu was a French social and political philosopher in the 18th century. He hepled with the development of democracy with his ideas. His theory was the seperation of political powers amoung a legislation, an executive, and a judiciary.
Voltaire was a French philosopher, historian, and a writer during the Enlighment Era. Voltaire's heros included Locke and Newton. He belived that the church and government were corrupt. His idea brought to light the idea of separation of church and state, influencing the American democracy.
Jean-Jazques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. He was one of the most important theorists of the perfect democracy. His political philosophies influenced both French and American Revolutions. Rousseau was the one to come up with the social contract theory.