John Quincy Adams- president who was a strong nationalist and he supported the building of national roads and canals. He also supported education
National Republicans- leaders were Clay and Adams
Democratic-Republicans- leader was Jackson
Andrew Jackson- first president from the west and second president without a college education
Denmark Vesey- led slave rebellion in South Carolina
Five Civilized Tribes- Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles. These tribes made efforts to assimilate into white culture. President Jackson wanted to move the Indians so Americans could expand.
Nicholas Biddle- the president of the Bank of the United States, held an immense and possibly unconstitutional amount of power over the nation's financial affairs.
Anti-Masonic Party- The party hated the Masonic Order, a secret society, because it thought the Order was comprised of privileged, elite people. Although Jackson was supported egalitarianism and "the common man", he was a Mason himself; therefore the Anti-Masons were an anti-Jackson party. It gained support from evangelical Protestant groups.
Whigs- supported government programs, reforms, and public schools. They called for internal improvements like canals, railroads, and telegraph lines.
The Whigs claimed to be defenders of the common man and declared the Democrats the party of corruption. They absorbed the Anti-Masonic Party.
-supported the natural harmony of society and the value of community, a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, and moral reforms, such as the prohibition of liquor and the abolition of slavery.
Stephan Austin- Mexico gave a large chunk of Texas land to him.He promised to bring families into Texas.
Santa Anna- dictator of Mexico; in 1835, he removed Texans' local rights and started to raise army to suppress the rebelling Texans.
Sam Houston- commander in chief for Texas army.
-forced Santa Anna to sign a treaty in 1836 after the Battle of San Jacinto. The treaty defined the Rio Grande as the southwestern boundary of an independent Texas.
(jacksonian) Democrats- supported individual liberties, states' rights, and federal restraint in social and economic affairs.
George Caitlin- painter and student of Native American life who was one of the first Americans to advocate the preservation of nature; proposed the idea of a national park.
(Nativists) Know-Nothing party- americans who disliked the Irish and German because they believed they were stealing their jobs and they opposed them also because they were roman catholic
Samuel Slater- "Father of the Factory System" in America; escaped Britain with memorized plans for textile machinery; put into operation the first machine to spin cotton thread in 1791.
Eli Whitney- built the first cotton gin in 1793. The cotton gin was much more effective than slaves at separating the cotton seed from the cotton fiber. Its development affected the entire world. Because of the cotton gin, the South's production of cotton greatly increased and demand for cotton revived the demand for slavery. interchangeable parts was an idea
created by Eli Whitney. the idea of using machines (instead of people) to make each part of the musket. This meant that the musket's components would be consistently manufactured, and thus, could be switched
Elias Howe- invented the sewing machine in 1846. The sewing machine boosted northern industrialization. It became the foundation of the ready-made clothing industry
Samuel F. B. Morse- invented the telegraph.
Catharine Beecher- urged women to enter the teaching profession.
John Deere- produced a steel plow in 1837 which broke through the thick soil of the West.
Robert Fulton- installed a steam engine on a boat and thus, created the first steamboat. The steamboat played a vital role in the economic expansion of the West and South, via their extensive waterways.
Governor DeWitt Clinton- governor of New York who lead the building of the Erie Canal that connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River in 1825; the canal lowered shipping prices and decreased passenger transit time.
Peter Cartwright- a revivalist, traveling preacher who converted thousands to Christianity.
Charles Grandison Finney- one of the greatest revivalist preachers.
Joseph Smith- formed the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) in 1830 when he deciphered the Book of Mormon from some golden plates given to him by an angel; led the Mormons to Illinois.
Brigham Young- led the Mormons to Utah to avoid persecution.
Horace Mann- campaigned effectively for a better school system.
Emma Willard- Women's schools at the secondary level came in the 1820s because of her.
Dorothea Dix- traveled the country, visiting different asylums; released a report on insanity and asylums; her protests resulted in improved conditions for the mentally ill.
William Ladd- founded the american peace society
Neal S. Dow- thought that alcohol should be outlawed; "Father of Prohibition
Robert Owen- founded a communal society in New Harmony, Indiana in 1825 to seek human betterment.
Washington Irving- the first American to win international recognition as a literary figure.
James Fenimore Cooper- the first American novelist to gain world fame.
Ralph Waldo Emerson- transcendentalist poet and philosopher; urged American writers to forget European traditions and write about American interests; wrote "The American Scholar," which was an intellectual declaration of independence.
Henry David Thoreau- : transcendentalist who believed that people should ignore bodily desires and pursue truth through study and meditation.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow- one of the most famous poets to come from America; wrote for the wealthy class; was adopted by the less-cultured class.
Edgar Allan Poe- wrote with a pessimistic tone, unlike the literature at the time.
Herman Melville- wrote the novel Moby Dick.
lucretia mott- was one of the leading voices of the abolitionist and feminist movements of her time. Raised in a Quaker community, she became a member of the society's ministry and adopted its anti-slavery views. she helped form the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society in 1833, and later was among the founders of the American women's rights movement
elizabeth cady stanton- became involved in the abolitionist movement after a progressive upbringing. She helped organize the world's first women's rights convention in 1848, and formed the National Women's Loyal League with Susan B. Anthony in 1863. Seven years later, they established the National Woman Suffrage Association
susan b anthony- lecturer for women's rights who fearlessly exposed herself to rotten people
lucy stone- kept her maiden name after marriage
amelia bloomer- donned a short skirt with turkish trousers
john j audubon- painted wildfoul in their natural habitat "birds of america"
stephan c foster- An important figure of nineteenth century popular music, one of America's earliest known songwriters.
louisa may alcott- wrote little women
walt whitman- poet, located divinity at common objects "leaves of grass"
emily dickinson- created her own world through poetry
extreme example of romantic artist's desire for social reform
explored themes of death, love and immortality
nathaniel hawthorne- the tragic of his fathers death on an ocean voyage led him to create the scarlett letter and marble faun
francis parkman- wrote in the dark, chronicled the struggle between france and brittain in the colonial times