Each summer Lake Yuchengs water evaporates and reveals salt. This salt is gathered using a technique called "dragging and gathering."
Egyptians believe Goddess Iris taught them to grow olives.
Brine was gathered and boiled in clay pots till the springs dried.
Prehistoric stone tools were found around "the salt mountain" that date back to 3500 BC. They were just six inch black rocks with one end serving as a pick and the other as a scraping tool.
Egyptians developed wheat that could be ground and stretched into a dough capable of trapping CO2 from yeast.
Sichuan had been producing salt as early as 3000 BC
Earliest Burial Sites were dated back to 3000 BC as well as earliest record of salt making.
Egyptians began trading fish.
A mound found on an island in Banana Bayou was carbon dated to 2500 BC and makes it the oldest man made structures ever found in the US.
Yu founded the Xia Dynasty
Egyptian Burials found in 1990s were dated back to 2000 BC.
Earliest Chinese record of fish preservation in salt.
Dye from creatues like shellfish brought wealth to the merchants in Tyre.
Ancient Hebrew alphabet found in Sihai with 22 characters, each representing a sound.
Tutankhamen dies at age 13.
Moses liberated Hebrew slaves. The Hebrews only took flat unleavened bread (matzo) described as "bread for the poor."
Iron first came to use in China
Earliest Salt Works have been found in non-Mayan Mexico such as Oaxaca.
Earliest known travel across Sahara by oxen and then by horse drawn chariots.
Phoenicians found a seaport, Srax, which still prospers today.
"The Hallstat Period" became the Archeological name for a rich early iron age culture.
Graves in Hallstatt dated back to mostly 700 BC to 600 BC with some as late as 500 BC. The Durnberg discoveries (salt preserved man) from 400 BC suggests that the Hallstatt mine became less important as the Durnberg one became a better source of salt.
The Romans no longer wanted to depend on Etruscan salt and in response founded their own salt works across the river in Ostia. This consisted of a single shallow pond that held sea water until the sun evaporated it into salt crystals.
506 BC is the earliest record of the Roman government interfering with salt prices.
Evidence of iron being used in salt making by Yi Dun.
The salt preserved bodies found in Tuerberg and Hallstat date back to 400 BC
The Celts sacked Rome. They had travled eighty miles in four days on horseback while western Eurapeans had never seen mounted calvary. They were a terror to the townsfolk with heavy swords and loud war cries. They controlled Rome for the next 4 years till 279 BC when they invaded what is now Turkey.
Items found in the salt mines as well as remains of a thatched roof village date bac to 300 BC
Punic wars was a war over control of the Mediterranean. Rome manipulated the salt prices to help raise money for the war.
Li Bing ordered the drilling of the worlds first brine well.
Li Bing was the greatest Hydraulic engineering genius and was the Governor of Shu.
at the end of the Punic wars the largest mediteranean island, Sicily, came under Roman control. It was well known for its grain and had valuable fisheries.
Qin defeats his rivals and the last rivals ruler became emperor of china.
Han Dynasty ends Qin Dynasty as well as unpopular monopolies to demonstrate better and wiser government.
China learns of the Roman Emperor.
Expeditions still being done to drive out the Huns back and the Treasury was drained to pay for the wars.
Chinese Armies attack former Greek kingdom, Sogdiana, and were defeated by a party of partly captive Roman Soldiers.
Emperor Budi (one of the greatest Chinese Emperors) dies and is replaced by 8-year-old Zhaodi.
Two wells in Sichuan became infamous for emerging evil spirits.
Yuandi abolished salt monoplies put in by Zhaodi.
Well workers found the brine wells holes to be full of an invisible substance that caused illness and were blamed on spirits. The holes were shut down. Eventually cooking pots were placed and cooking happened.
Boiling houses became popular. They had iron pots that were heated by the "invisible substance" found in the wells.
Venetians started using landfill to extend the mainland closer to the islands of modern day Venice.
Half of Chinese Revenue was derived from salt.
Earlliest record of commercial whaling is a bill of sale from the year 670 for forty pots of whale oil.
Viking raids turned into compaigns involving large groups. They traded and were paid (by Great European Countries) to be leave them alone.
Basques made a 1500 mile journey to Viking's Faroe Islands where they discovered Atlantic cod (way more profitable than whaling).
Group of angry protesters (over high salt tax) took over the city Xi'an.
Venice started a "salt comeptition" with the Benedictine monks produced salt. They ended this "competition" by destroying the saltworks...
The First French Mediterranean port was established by Louis. It was a walled city names Aigues-Mortes ("dead waters").
Miners began digging into the earth to collect rock salt that had hardened at the sources of brine.
Successful as a supplier, Venice started to put out contracts that declared the other city could not buy salt from anyone else.
First attempt at a comprehensive salt administration occurred in the Berre saltworks near Marseilles.
New salt mining technique was used to mine rock salt where water was piped into a dug out vein of rock salt where it became a dense brine and then piped out of the mine to be boiled down into crystals bover wood burning fires in Hallein.
The Book of Trades stated that cooked meat could only be kept for 3 days unless it had been salted.
Venetian government paid merchants a subsidy on salt landed in Venice from other areas. Shipping salt to Venice became so profitable that merchants could afford to ship goods at prices that undersold their competitors.
City of Parma took over thirty-one Pallovicino wells.
The first record of sugar in Sweden was in 1324 for a funeral.
Phillip VI established a salt administration in Northern France that was labeled the Pays de Grande Gabelle.
Count of Holland prepared for his compaign against the Frisians by ordering the slating of 7342 cod caught off the coast. Now thats an awful lot of fish and salt!
Wilhelm Beuckelzon started a practice of pickling herring in brine, fresh with no drying at all.
Ibn Batuta reported visiting the city of Taghaza which he said was entirely made of salt.
In a war over the control of herring, the Danes lost to the Hanseatics.
During a Famous French dinner in 1378, an awkward question of where to place the nef arose. It was settled by placing out three large nefs in front of the three persons of importance.
Hanseatic League gained complete control of Bergen, Norway. It had acheived a monopoly on northern European productions of herring and salt but their was constant warfare due to the rebellious Baltic states.
The Hanseatics caught 96 British fisherman off Bergen. They tied their hands and feet and threw them overboard to drown.
The French Crown granted a patent that declared only the cheese of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon could be called Roquefort cheese.
Count of Holland threatened to prosecute any fisherman who cured a Herring that had been out of the water for more than 24 hours.
Great salt cod enthusiasts, the Catalans brought the Cod to southern Italy when they took control of Naples in 1443.
The Main Durnburg mine tunnel was built in 1450 but the current timber shoring is only 100 years old.
200 Hanseatic ships in the year 1452 alone had stopped in Le Croisic to load Guerande salt for the Baltic.
Venice aquired Cervia and forced them to sell to no one but them, but an exception was made to where Cervia could still sell to Bolonga.
Cyprus (Second largest salt producer) officially became a Venetian possession.
Tunisians say that all salt and sweet dishes were all foreign imports brought from Spain in 1492.
Culumbus wanted to find another route to india in the oppisite direction. He bagan a series of boyaged for Spain which opened up a trans-Antlantic trade carrying new spices. John Cabot did the same in 1497...
Records show that between Cabot's 1497 voyage and 1550, 128 fishing expeditions sent out from Europe to Newfoundland left with holds full of salt.
Combermere, Chesire reports the land near them had fallen into a pit filled with salt water.
A Spanish explorer noted while traveling up the Mississipi river that salt was being made along it.
A small but irritating consumer tax was dropped and replaced by a much larger tax on producers in southwestern France. After years of angry protests the tax was completely dropped.
1200 salt ships from other European ports came to Le Croisic.
The Dutch had an 80-year-old struggle against Spainm which cut them off from spanish salt.
Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian II was healed by application of cabbage plasters. (it was widely publicized).
A comet appeared in the sky the 13th of the winter month and on the 26th of that same winter month a man was dug out of the Tuermberg Mountain having been fully preserved in salt!
Founded by a royal charter granted by Queen Elizebeth I, the East India Company could function as its own nation (through commercial enterprise).
An 800-foot steeple was added to a fifteeth century church to show navigators the entrance from the marsh to the Liore.
Captain John Smith explored the coast of New England by sea from Penobscot Bay to Cape Cod.
Similarly salt preserved body from the one found in Teurburg found in Hallstat.
Francis Higgenson wrote in New England plantation that the Country was perfect for making salt. Only problem? Pilgrims had no idea how to make it.
As soon as the Herring were taking from the nets, they were passed to "grippers" who gutted and mixed them with dry salt crystals and then packed them in a barrel where they were left for a day to draw out the herring juice and dissolve most of the salt. More salt was added and the barrel once again closed.
Bermuda finally became a British colony and was given instructions to proceed with making salt.
Another salt pond like the one in Chesire found in Bickley.
The Gabelle was regarded by King Louis XIV as the leading source of state revenues.
The Dutch granted permission to colonists to build a salt works on Coney Island.
A revision of the criminal code in France brought up another use for salt. To enforce the law against suicide, it was ordered that the bodies of those who took their life be salted and then brought before a judge to be sentenced to public display.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek concluded that the red color of the salt was caused by microorganisms in the brine.
Colbert revises the Gabelle, codifying the inequities among the region into six unequal zones.
It became illegal in 1680 for innkeepers to give rooms to salt smugglers and was punishable by death.
Daniel Coxe wrote about New Jersey that fish were abundant but the colony was unable to establish a successful fishery because of a "want of salt."
Mines began offering miners daily catholic services at the underground place of work.
Alace (known to Germans as Elsass) was part of the Holy Roman Empire and was not added by the France into the Hexagon till 1697.
It was reported that "salt smuggling is endless on the Loire."
Bermudian's began living full time on raking salt to protect their properties.
Boston merchants felt they didn't need New England anymore but they were wrong as they needed New England for its salt.
Steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen.
Another salt hole appeared south of Winsford.
Caspar Neuman discovered that Epsom salt could be made by applying sulphuric acid to the mother liquor.
Merchants from Shaanxi Province begin construction of a guild hall in Zigong for traveling salt traders.
Guillaume Francois Rouelle wrote a definition for salt that has endured. The definition is: Salt was any substance caused by the reaction of an acid and a base.
Sauerkraut makes its debut off the continent of Europe when an English doctor delcared it prevented Scurvy.
A letter from a Captain estimated that Newfoundland cod fishery used "at least 1 thousand tons" of salt.
Denis Diderot mentioned Saucrote in a letter.
Collioure had 800 fishermen working on 14 Catalans. (1888 saw a decrease of 10 boats)
The Gabelle had 3000 troops stationed on the Loire to put an end to salt smuggling.
Congress pushes for the public to make salt in their respective Colonies. Through this, a magazine publishes an essay on making bay salt. Congress decided to give a bounty of one-third of a dollar per bushel. New Jersey thought of opening a state wide salt works but those plans were dashed due to many small salt works having been built along its coast in 1777. June 1777 a committee was appointed to devise ways of supplying the US with salt.
Despite early 1700s beliefs, in 1750 the Americans were still reliant on British salt.
British declared the colonies in open rebellion. This caused a serious salt shortage and the British kept it that way during the war by isolating the colonies from the salt trade.
General Howe takes over, chasing the Continental army from Long Island, New York City, and later Philadelphia. The armies main salt supplies had also been cut off and captured despite Washington warning for every attempt to save it.
Don't laugh at your neighbors 8 bushels of salt! John created a Vat that he spent the winter Caulking and in the end, he came up with thirty bushels of salt in a time of salt scarcity!
Sir Humphry Davy was a brilliant scientist who dwelled in chemistry. He found the element sodium.
The Herring, after a long disappearance, reappear and swarm Kladesholmen 1780 to 1808.
Choucroute appears in France!
Americans began producing salt in Onondaga, New York.
New York State negotiated a treaty with the Onondaga that established joint ownership of a 10,000-acre reservation in 1788. It was renegotiated in 1795 where the Onondaga gave up rights to the land in exchange for salt deliveries of 150 bushels annually.
Robert Fulton established the first steamboat service that ferried passengers between Philadelphia and Trenton.
Britain offered to buy all of the salt made it Orissa but they turned down the offer when they realized Britain was trying to eliminate Orissa salt.
The National Assembly called the salt tax "odious" and annulled all trials for violation of the gabelle and ordered those charged, on trail, or convicted to be set free.
Whiskey producing farmers rebelled against the Whiskey tax. George Washington called upon the militia to stop the "Whiskey rebellion."
Reuben Sears invented a roof that slid open and shut of oak rollers. This allowed for sea salt to be made efficiently from March to November.
A Spanish priest noticed the Ohlone making salt on the side of a bay. The brine slowly evaporated and left behind salt that could be scraped away. He also found marshes that had thick layers of salt.
Elisha Brooks leased land on a salt lick. He hollowed out 3 sycamore trees and sunk the trunks ten feet into the ground of the lick. The three "pipes" served as wells.
State of New York began granting leases for working the brine springs of Onondaga.
Sodium carbonate, soda, is made from mother liquor.
Thomas Moore wanted to keep his butter cold while he journeyed 20 miles from his Maryland farm to Washington, D.C. (mind you, in the summer heat). He came up with the idea of putting the butter in a metal container and packing ice around it in a large wooden box and then stuffed the box with rabbit fur. The result was cold butter that sold well.
The British army occupied Orissa and annexed it to Bengal.
Appert persuades the navy to try his broth, beef, and vegetables all preserved in glass jars by his heating and sealing process. Navy gives a big thumbs up.
Napoleon Bonaparte becomes Emperor of the French.
Orissa becomes a British monopoly by proclamation. The private sale of salt was prohibited and those who owned salt had to sell it for a fixed price to the goverment.
Davy discovers potassium after connecting a piece of potash to the poles of a battery which caused the release of a metal at the negative pole.
Davy isolated the element sodium through electrolysis.
Before it was named the Eerie Canal and began construction a recommendation of considering a canal was brought forth that would connect the Great Lakes to the Hudson River. It was believed the canal would expand the salt industry.
Davy discovers Magnesium.
Donin founded Donkin Hall, and Gamble, the first British canning plant. It became a famous outfitter for expeditions.
Davy isolates chlorine as an element.
saltworks were reported to be producing far below their capacity but were limited by poor roads.
Kanawha County alone had 352 slaves but by 1850 had 3,140 (mostly for the salt works).
War broke out between Britain and America. Salt shortages and blockages followed, concreting the need for the Eeire canal.
The Malangis rebel and attack salt works and salt offices and chased away agents.
Jean-Baptiste Dumas proves Iodine was present in natural sponge (It had been a standard treatment for goiter).
Steamboats made Liverpool salt accessible for the first time in the US interior because they could carry heavy loads of salt up and down the river against strong upriver currents.
fish were beginning to be packed in ice to preserve its freshness.
Liverpool sugar refiners had been using steam evaporators since 1823.
Antoine Jerome Balard studies the composition of salt marshes and concluded that the blackish-purplish foul smelling liquid present in marsh water was the residue water from which salt crystals had formed. The element was named muride but then changed to bromine.
A treaty between Baveria and Austria allowed Austrians to mine salt up to one kilometer beyond their border. In exchange 4 percent of the miners had to be Bavarian and Baveria could also feul its pans with trees chopped on the Austrain side.
Canned food was for those on the "sick list" at first, but by the 1830s it became a part of general provisions.
At 2700 feet it hit natural gas, at 2970 feet the well reached natural brine. The drilling continued to 3300 feet, making it the deepest drilled well in the world.
Cape Cod alone had 658 salt companies and was producing 26000 tons a year.
Edward Robinson reported on his 1838 trip to the dead sea that he could "sit, stand, lie or swim in the water without difficulty."
Syracuse (not Kanawha) became the leading supplier of salt in the Midwest.
In Massachusettes, a 28-pond salt works supplemented the power from windmills on calm days by pumping brine by means of a 15-inch diameter, five food wide wheel with buckets on its outer rim.
An angry mob assassinated Joseph Smith, the leader of the Mormons. Brigham Young took over and wanted to find a new land for the Mormons so they could set up their own community away from the scrunity of other Americans.
E.I. Wheeler and Company had been started by Onondaga salt companies to help with selling salt in the Midwest.
W.F. Lynch persuaded his superiors to finance his own expedition to the dead sea using two boats with metal hulls (a considerable technological advance for its time).
1700 salt merchants were in Zigong, and 20% of the salt production was held by four families that had accumulated fabled wealth.
Every day in New Orleans (1857 to 1860), 350 tons of British salt was unloaded. (Ballast for the cotton trade)
Indians openly revolted against Britains salt and India issues.
Virginia, Kentucky, Florida, and Texas produced 2,365,000 bushels of salt while New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania produced 12,000,000 bushels.
The US becomes a huge salt consumer.
Abraham Lincoln ordered a blockade of all southern ports tgat was enforced till the wars end.
Anyone could spend time making salt but that was put to a halt in 1862 when leases were required by Alabama legislator.
Though warned against it by a popular British book, rumors spread about another way to cure bacon and beef. The cure was pyroligneous acid.
A slave was digging/cleaning a brine well. He hit a log that would not move. It turned out to be hard pure salt.
The British government announced its intention to halt salt production and instructed salt agents to end salt manufacture asap.
C.A. Goesmann reported to the American Bureau of mines and theorized that the salt under Avery Island resulted from brine springs ascending through older desposits of salt. Acording to Goesmann, the nrine rises from seep within the earth while moving through earth's fissure and crystalzing near the surface.
Law forbids women and children to work between 6 AM to 6 PM at factories.
Mcilhenny produced 985 bottles of a red pepper and salt mixture for one dollar each wholesale in New Orleans and along the Gulf. The sauce was used for seasoning in recipes that called for red pepper and salt.
Mcilhenny obtained a patent and named his red pepper and salt sauce Petite Anse Sauce but it was changed to Tabasco sauce after a family disagreement.
An inquiry demands girls under 18 be barred from saltworks.
After another long pause, the Herring swim through Kladesholmen 1880 to 1900.
Chesire was described in a newspaper as "the smoke and smother of weary Winsford" as Chesire was covered in soot and glowing embers.
Age of canals dwindles to an end as railroads begin. Salt becomes less profitable in upstate New York as it was used less and less for food and more for manufacturing.
The Greek Orthodox Church decided to build a church at the site of a Byzantine ruin in the town of Madaba.
First vacuum pan salt process was put in operation by Joseph Duncan in New York.
A group of London financiers raised $4 billion to buy the salt works company Salt Union Limited.
Stubbs brothers sold out to the Salt Union in 1888
Chesire supplied 90% of British salt.
Sichuan salt makers discover a layer of rock salt that feeds the ground water under Zigong.
A 1100-foot shaft sunk and flooded with water and natural gases which killed six and lost investors money. It was successfully opened in 1907.
A mile deep shaft was drilled in order to find coal but they instead found salt.
Spindletop was actually supposed to be a Texas salt dome that instead hit tons and tons of oil, resulting in spawning the age of petroleum.
Chinese stopped using Oxen in 1902 due to the introduction of the coal-fired steam engine.
Salt monopoly law comes into force. The Japan Monopoly office set prices and ended imports.
Morton introduces first magnesium carbonate in table salt
Ancient China comes to an end when the last three millennia of Chinese emperors abdicated.
The new Chinese government obtained a Western loan from the Quintuple Group of Bankers of £25 million to start a salt industry. The entire revenue of the salt administration was put up to help repay the loan.
In World War I, chlorine gas was exploded in canisters still they were put in artillery shells filled with carbonyl chlorine. AKA Mustard gas.
Till 1915, Maritime Custom was the leading government revenue source. However, Dane claimed he had reestablished a centralized salt administration in 1915.
Part of the Erie canal in Syracuse was closed and covered up five years later.
The paludiers spoke the language of Vercingetorix till the 1920s.
Moishe Novamentsky established a Palestine Potash Company along the northern coast of the dead sea in British ruled Palestine.
Tutankhamun tomb is discovered and was the most elaborate and well preserved ever found.
Salt Union buys New Chesire Salt Works
Birdseye moves and establishes a frozen seafood company in the busy cod-fishing port of Gloucester, Massachusettes.
Pig Lard accounted for 70% of the animal calories consumed.
Salt indusrty has long since vanished in Syracuse and were cleared away. Meanwhile the city struggled to clean up the lake so the area could be used for recreation.
Stubbses import their first salt evaporator to the New Chesire salt works.
Gandhi publicly broke British law by picking up a piece of salt crust.
Lord Irwin signed the Gandhi-Irwin pact, ending the salt campaign. Indians were now allowed to collect salt but for their use only. Political prisnors were released and a discussion to be held about British administration in India. It was considered a compromise.
The gabelle remained a part of the French administration until it was abolished in 1946.
When Mao Zedong came into power, Hot spicy food, la, from southwestern China, became an official "fashion."
"If you don't eat la, you are not a revolutionary" was a popular saying.
Blue Jackets, along with other matching attire, were the only clothes available in China during the 1950s and 1960s
A Polith archeaologist found a fish smoking station in the area of Znin. It dated back to the eighth and tenth centuries.
Kibbutz built a hotel that today is Israel's leading tourist attraction
Thompsons' principal remaining market was destroyed by the Biafran war.
Remains of Viking-built turf houses were found in Newfoundland and dated back to 1000 AD.
Sheng Hai was drilled to 4400 feet (four-fifths of a mile)
When it became difficult to find people in southern Louisiana to pick peppers, the solution was to take the seeds from Avery Island back to Mexico and Central America each year.
US government decided to store an estimated 700 million barrels of oil in a select few of the 500 salt domes that have been identified in southern Louisiana and eastern Texas.
Ruins of a Basque whaling station was found on the coast of Labrador dating back to only 1530.
Bill 101 required stores to have their names in French.
Avery Island salt stops producing table salt as the energy cost of the vacuum evaporators were too costly.
Pig population in China is estimated to be 331 million
The Thompsons finally gave up in salt making.
Noirmoutier salt business almost died out with only 21 makers left.
Westerners become aware of the mummies found in the Uyghur Autonomous Region of China.
A group of locals and off-islanders form a salt cooperative to bring back traditional salt making. Now almost 160 work on the island's salt ponds and market it through the cooperative.
The state decides to stop producing soy sauce in Lezhi. Leaves 100 workers jobless.