The Civilisation of Indus Valley was a Bronze age Civilisation located in South Asia. The Indus Valley had an advanced urban culture, both technologily and sophisticately. For example, the citizens had a high priority on hygiene (a room that had been set aside for bathing), and access to a drain system. We don't know much about the religions of the Indus Valley Civilization, but some figures in early forms of Hindu gods have been found.
The Vedic period (or the Vedic era) has been named after the period during which the four Vedas were composed. In the early part of the Vedic period, the Indo-Aryans settled to the Northern parts of India. The invasion of Darius I of the Indus Valley and meanwhile the shramana movements, challenged the authority of Vedic scriptures. It is seen that the Vedic period ends there.
During this time began the rise of new movements in India. Buddhism (founded by Buddha around 500-400 BCE) and Jainism (founded by Mahavira around the same time) started to spread around much of Asia.
The Classic era of Hinduism is the period when Hinduism transferred from the religion of the Veda to a form of Hinduism with various new deities and rituals.
The Maurya Empire dominated Ancient India, and was the largest to have ever existed on Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta in 322 BCE.
During these times, the Muslims started their first conquests to India.
The Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place during these years. In 1204, Bakhtiar Khilji led the Muslim conquest of Bengal, and marked the eastern-most expansion of Islam at the time.
The Delhi Sultanate was a muslim sultanate. It was based mostly in Delhi, and it stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent. It was ruled by a total of five dynasties. The Delhi Sultanate had a significant impact on the Indian culture and society.
On 20 May 1498 Vasco da Gama landed in Calicut and linked Europe and Asia by an ocean route. This was the start of global imperialism.
The Mughal Empire was also a muslim dynasty, and it ruled a major part of the Indian subcontinent with a part of Afghanistan. The beginning of the empire takes place on the victory of its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. The Mughal Empire eventually fell in the Siege of Delhi, the last point of a long conflict between the UK/East India Company and the empire.
The British East India Company was an international trade route between the United Kingdom and the Indian subcontinent.
Brahmo Samaj is a theistic movement in Hinduism. It does not accept the authority of the Vedas and has no faith in avatars. It made a significant contribution to the making of modern India.
Neo-Vedanta is a Hindu movement that has a liberal attitude toward the Vedas. It developed in the 19th century, as a response to colonialism.
During the British Raj, the Indian Subcontinent was under the rule of the United Kingdom and a part of its empire.
Arya Samaj is a Hindu reform movement. Its members believe in one God and reject the worship of idols.