Indian Removal Act

Events

The Treaty of Hopewell - 1785

28 November 1785

Officials from Georgia as well as Cherokee Native Americans signed a treaty in Hopewell, Georgia, that began the dispossession of Indian land. The treaty created boundaries on the hunting ground of the Indians and also set limitations to the lands that were significant to their culture.

The Treaty of Holston - 1791

2 July 1791

The U.S. Government and the Cherokee again signed a treaty which further set boundaries and stole Cherokee land rights on non-hunting grounds. This allowed settlers the access to a road that passed through the lands which belonged to the Cherokee. The treaty was officially proclaimed on the 7th of February, 1792.

The Compact of 1802

24 April 1802

An agreement was made between the federal government and the state government of Georgia, where the federal government agreed to remove Cherokees and their land title from the state, in return for land rights to specific western lands. The U.S. paid Georgia a total of 1.25 million dollars for this agreement.

Lotteries for the Distribution of Cherokee lands - 1805

1805 - 1833

Beginning in 1805 and ending in 1833, eight lotteries were held in Georgia, in order to distribute former traditional Cherokee lands.

The Battle of Horseshoe Bend - 1814

27 March 1814

Andrew Jackson, an American soldier and statesman, led a military action against the Creek tribe people who lived in the south-eastern of the U.S. state, and forced them to sign a treaty that surrendered over half of their land.

New Cherokee Government - 1817

1817 - 1827

In attempt to put a stop to their constant loss of land, the Cherokee developed a new government in 1817, that was based on the model of the United States.

Act - The Civilisation of the Indian Tribes - 1819

3 March 1819

James Monroe, the 5th U.S. president, designed a rather benign act that provided education as well as other services to the Native Indians, however, also encouraged the Indians to change their cultural traditions and follow the White ways of behaviour and learning.

The Treaty of Washington - 1828

6 May 1828

This treaty voluntarily provided incentives to the Cherokee people who were walking to the west, including compensation for lost property and supplies during the time period of the settlement.

Georgia stripped away the rights of the Cherokee - 1828

20 December 1828

On the 20th of December 1828, the state legislature of Georgia stripped away the legal rights of the Cherokee in attempt to make them completely leave the state.

Indian Removal Act - 1830

28 May 1830

Created by the federal government and the state government of Georgia, the purpose of the Indian Removal Act was to exchange the east lands of Mississippi for the west. The government payed for any of the money required for this migration.

The Removal of the Chickasaws, Creeks, and Choctaws - 1831

1831 - 1833

Between 1831 and 1833, the three major tribes were forcefully removed from their native territories, and marched westward, with many of them dying during the walk due to poor conditions of health.

Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia - 1831

18 March 1831

Chief Justice John Marshall, who held the court case at The United States Supreme Court, claimed that the Native Indians were 'dependent nations', therefore, the tribes were not provided with the protections of the Constitution.

The Trail of Tears - 1838

1838

The 8th president of the United States, Van Buren, ordered the U.S. Army to intrude into the Cherokee's native territory, and round up as many of them as possible, into temporary stockades. The soldiers then chained the Native Americans in lines and them forced them to resettle from their traditional lands, to the west of the Mississippi river.

The Union of the Cherokee

1839

Rather than remaining in seperate nations, the Cherokee united together as one, to preserve their traditional lands and cultural rights.

Indian Appropriations Act

1851

A new Act was created by the government, and consolidated the Native Americans to designated reservations, for the development of railroads and to free land for White settlers.