2

Events

Reign of Augustus

27 B.C.E. - 14 C.E.

Life of Jesus

Approx. 4 B.C.E. - Approx. 30 C.E.

Battle of the Teutoberg Forect

9 C.E.

Life of Paul

Approx. 10 C.E. - Approx. 67 C.E.

Reign of Tiberius

14 C.E. - 37 C.E.

Life of Ignatius of Antioch

Approx. 35 C.E. - Approx. 108 C.E.

Reign of Caligula

37 C.E. - 41 C.E.

Reign of Claudius

41 C.E. - 54 C.E.

Claudius begins conquest of Britain

43 C.E.

Paul's missionary career

46 C.E. - 67 C.E.

Reign of Nero

54 C.E. - 68 C.E.

Life of Tacitus

Approx. 58 C.E. - 120 C.E.

Uprising of Boudicca

61 C.E.

Jewish War

66 C.E. - 70 C.E.

Reign of Galba

June 8, 68 C.E. - January 15, 69 C.E.

Reign of Otho

January 15, 69 C.E. - April 16, 69 C.E.

Reign of Vitellius

April 17, 69 C.E. - December 20, 69 C.E.

Reign of Vespasian

December 21, 69 C.E. - 79 C.E.

Destruction of Jerusalem Temple

70 C.E.

Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius

79 C.E.

Reign of Titus

79 C.E. - 81 C.E.

Reign of Domitian

81 C.E. - 96 C.E.

Life of Marcion

Approx. 85 C.E. - Approx. 160 C.E.

Reign of Nerva

96 C.E. - 98 C.E.

Reign of Trajan

98 C.E. - 117 C.E.

Roman Empire reaches greatest extent

117 C.E.

under Trajan

Reign of Hadrian

117 C.E. - 138 C.E.

Career of Gnostic Basilides

117 C.E. - 138 C.E.

Bar-Kokhba revolt

Approx. 132 C.E. - Approx. 136 C.E.

Reign of Antoninus Pius

138 C.E. - 161 C.E.

Life of Tertullian

Approx. 155 C.E. - Approx. 240 C.E.

Co-reign of Lucius Verus

161 C.E. - 169 C.E.

Reign of Marcus Aurelius

161 C.E. - 180 C.E.

Co-reign/Reign of Commodus

177 C.E. - 192 C.E.

Reign of Pertinax

January 1, 193 C.E. - March 28, 193 C.E.

Reign of Didius Julianus

March 28, 193 C.E. - June 1, 193 C.E.

Reign of Septimius Severus

April 9, 193 C.E. - 211 C.E.

Co-reign/Reign of Caracalla

198 C.E. - 217 C.E.

Death of Perpetua at Carthage

203 C.E.

Life of Plotinus

204 C.E. - 270 C.E.

Co-reign of Geta

209 C.E. - 211 C.E.

Life of Prophet Mani

Approx. 216 C.E. - 276 C.E.

Reign of Macrinus

217 C.E. - 218 C.E.

Reign of Elagabalus

218 C.E. - 222 C.E.

Reign of Alexander Severus

222 C.E. - 235 C.E.

Reign of Ardashir I

224 C.E. - 241 C.E.

Founder of the Sasanian Empire

Third Century Crisis

235 C.E. - 284 C.E.

Life of Zenobia

Approx. 240 C.E. - Approx. 274 C.E.

Reign of Shapur I

241 C.E. - 270 C.E.

Reign of Philip the Arab

244 C.E. - 249 C.E.

Life of Helena

Approx. 246 C.E. - 327 C.E.

Reign of Decius

249 C.E. - 251 C.E.

Seven Sleepers of Ephesus take refuge in cave (traditional)

250 C.E.

Decian Persecution

250 C.E. - 251 C.E.

Plague sweeps across Roman Empire

Approx. 251 C.E.

Reign of Valerian

253 C.E. - 260 C.E.

Reign of Valerian

253 C.E. - 260 C.E.

Life of Arius

256 C.E. - 336 C.E.

Defeat and capture of Valerian by Shapur I

260 C.E.

Reign of Claudius Gothicus

268 C.E. - 270 C.E.

Reign of Diocletian

284 C.E. - 305 C.E.

Life of Athanasius of Alexandria

Approx. 296 C.E. - 373 C.E.

Conversion of King Tiridates of Armenia to Christianity

301 C.E.

Diocletianic "Great" Persecution

303 C.E. - 313 C.E.

Reign of Constantine

306 C.E. - 337 C.E.

Life of Epiphanius of Salamis

Approx. 310 C.E. - 403 C.E.

Battle of the Milvian Bridge

312 C.E.

Life of Cyril of Jerusalem

Approx. 313 C.E. - 386 C.E.

Edict of Milan

313 C.E.

Council of Nicaea

325 C.E.

Founding of Constantinople

330 C.E.

Life of Basil of Caesarea

Approx. 330 C.E. - 379 C.E.

Reign of Constans I

337 C.E. - 350 C.E.

Reign of Constantius II

337 C.E. - 361 C.E.

Reign of Constantine II

337 C.E. - 340 C.E.

Life of Jerome

Approx. 340 C.E. - 420 C.E.

Life of Ambrose

Approx. 340 C.E. - 397 C.E.

Life of Augustine

354 C.E. - 430 C.E.

Reign of Julian the Apostate

360 C.E. - 363 C.E.

Reign of Jovian

363 C.E. - 364 C.E.

Reign of Valentinian I

364 C.E. - 375 C.E.

Reign of Valens

364 C.E. - 378 C.E.

Reign of Gratian

367 C.E. - 383 C.E.

Huns push barbarian tribes south and west

Approx. 370 C.E.

Reign of Valentinian II

375 C.E. - 392 C.E.

Life of Cyril of Alexandria

Approx. 376 C.E. - 444 C.E.

Frontier migrations begin

Approx. 376 C.E.

Battle of Adrianople

378 C.E.

Reign of Theodosius I

379 C.E. - 395 C.E.

Emperor Theodosius makes Christianity official state religion

380 C.E.

Co-reign/Reign of Arcadius (East)

383 C.E. - 408 C.E.

Life of Nestorius

Approx. 386 C.E. - Approx. 450 C.E.

Life of Symeon the Stylite

Approx. 390 C.E. - 459 C.E.

Emperor Theodosius bans paganism

391 C.E.

Co-reign/Reign of Honorius (West)

393 C.E. - 423 C.E.

Augustine becomes bishop of Hippo

395 C.E.

Reign of Theodosius II (East)

402 C.E. - 450 C.E.

Visigoths sack Rome

410 C.E.

Reign of Constantius III (West)

421 C.E.

Valentinian III (West)

424 C.E. - 455 C.E.

Reign of Marcian (East)

450 C.E. - 457 C.E.

Council of Chalcedon

451 C.E.

Death of Dioscorus of Alexandria

454 C.E.

Reign of Leo I (East)

457 C.E. - 474 C.E.

Reign of Peroz

459 C.E. - 484 C.E.

Reign of Zeno (East)

474 C.E. - 491 C.E.

Odovacar deposes Romulus Augustulus

476 C.E.

Life of Boethius

Approx. 480 C.E. - 524 C.E.

Life of Benedict of Nursia

Approx. 480 C.E. - Approx. 547 C.E.

Merovingian Dynasty

481 C.E. - 751 C.E.

Reign of Clovis

481 C.E. - 511 C.E.

1st Reign of Kavad

488 C.E. - 496 C.E.

Son of Peroz and royal enthusiast for the communism of Mazdak

Life of Cassiodorus

Approx. 490 C.E. - Approx. 583 C.E.

Reign of Anastasius I

491 C.E. - 518 C.E.

Rule of Theodoric the Ostrogoth

493 C.E. - 526 C.E.

2nd reign of Kavad

498 C.E. - 531 C.E.

Life of Theodora

Approx. 500 C.E. - 548 C.E.

Life of Belisarius

Approx. 505 C.E. - Approx. 565 C.E.

Reign of Justin I

518 C.E. - 527 C.E.

Life of Symeon the Younger

Approx. 521 C.E. - 597 C.E.

Martyrdom of Christians of Najran

524 C.E.

Defeat of King Yusuf of Himyar by Ethiopians

525 C.E.

Justinian marries Theodora

525 C.E.

Reign of Justinian

527 C.E. - 565 C.E.

Death of Mazdak

Approx. 528 C.E.

Closure of philosophical schools of Athens

529 C.E.

Samaritan Revolt

529 C.E.

Reign of Khusrow I

531 C.E. - 579 C.E.

Nika Riots

532 C.E.

Eternal Peace signed between Persia and Rome

532 C.E.

Justinian's Digest Published

533 C.E.

Belisarius conquers Vandal kingdom (North Africa)

533 C.E.

Belisarius conquers Ostrogothic kingdom (Italy)

535 C.E.

Dedication of Hagia Sophia

537 C.E.

Life of Gregory of Tours

Approx. 538 C.E. - 594 C.E.

Bubonic Plague sweeps across Roman Empire/Persia

541 C.E.

Reign of Justin II

565 C.E. - 578 C.E.

Lombards conquer Northern Italy

568 C.E.

Life of Muhammad

Approx. 570 C.E. - Approx. 632 C.E.

Reign of Tiberius II Constantine

578 C.E. - 582 C.E.

Reign of Maurice

582 C.E. - 602 C.E.

Reign of King Aethenberht of Kent

Approx. 589 C.E. - 616 C.E.

First English king to be converted to Christianity.

Papacy of Gregory I the Great

590 C.E. - 604 C.E.

Reign of Khusrow II

590 C.E. - 628 C.E.

Reign of Phocas

602 C.E. - 610 C.E.

Reign of Heraclius

610 C.E. - 641 C.E.

Persians capture Jerusalem

614 C.E.

Persians capture Alexandria

619 C.E.

Sutton Hoo burial

Approx. 620 C.E.

most recent coin at the site found from 620's, providing a terminus post quem

Hijrah of Muhammad

622 C.E.

Heraclius takes back Jerusalem from Sassanians

627 C.E.

Reign of Abu Bakr

632 C.E. - 634 C.E.

Reign of Yazdegird III

633 C.E. - 651 C.E.

Last Sasanian Shahanshah

Reign of Umar I

634 C.E. - 644 C.E.

Life of Pepin of Herstal

Approx. 635 - 714 C.E.

Battle of Yarmouk

636 C.E.

Arab conquests (Persia, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa)

636 C.E. - 651 C.E.

Arabs capture Jerusalem

638 C.E.

Reign of Constantine III and Heraklonas

February 11, 641 C.E. - September 15, 641 C.E.

Reign of Constans II

September 15, 641 C.E. - 668 C.E.

Alexandria falls to the Arabs

642 C.E.

Sunni-Shi'ite Schism

644 C.E.

Reign of Uthman

644 C.E. - 656 C.E.

Reign of Ali

656 C.E. - 661 C.E.

Reign of Mu'awiya

661 C.E. - 680 C.E.

Umayyad caliphate rules entire Islamic world

661 C.E. - 750 C.E.

Reign of Constantine IV

668 C.E. - 685 C.E.

Life of the Venerable Bede

672 C.E. - 735 C.E.

First Arab attempt to take Constantinople

677 C.E.

Reign of Yazid I

680 C.E. - 683 C.E.

Reign of Marwan I

684 C.E. - 685 C.E.

Reign of Abd-al-Malik

685 C.E. - 705 C.E.

Reign of Justinian II

685 C.E. - 695 C.E.

First mention of Mohammad on an Arab coin

686 C.E.

Work begins on Dome of the Rock

689 C.E.

Reign of Leontios

695 C.E. - 698 C.E.

Reign of Tiberius III Apsimar

698 C.E. - 705 C.E.

Reign of Justinian II (again)

705 C.E. - 711 C.E.

Reign of Walid I

705 C.E. - 715 C.E.

Arabs conquer much of Visigothic Spain

711 C.E.

Reign of Philippikos Bardanes

711 C.E. - 713 C.E.

Reign of Anastasios II

713 C.E. - 715 C.E.

Work begins on Great Mosque of Damascus

715 C.E.

Reign of Suleiman

715 C.E. - 717 C.E.

Reign of Theodosius III

715 C.E. - 717 C.E.

Iconoclast controversy

717 C.E. - 787 C.E.

Reign of Umar II

717 C.E. - 720 C.E.

Second Arab attempt to take Constantinople

717 C.E.

Reign of Leo III (the Isaurian)

717 C.E. - 741 C.E.

Reign of Charles Martel

718 C.E. - 741 C.E.

founder of the Carolingian Dynasty

Reign of Hisham

724 C.E. - 743 C.E.

Battle of Tours

732 C.E.

Life of Alcuin

Approx. 735 C.E. - 804 C.E.

Battle of Acroinum

740 C.E.

Reign of Constantine V (the Dung-named)

741 C.E. - 775 C.E.

Reign of Walid II

743 C.E. - 744 C.E.

Reign of Marwan II

744 C.E. - 750 C.E.

Hegemony of Abbasid dynasty over Islamic world

750 C.E. - 930 C.E.

Reign of Pepin the Short

751 C.E. - 768 C.E.

Founding of Baghdad

762 C.E.

Reign of Charlemagne

768 C.E. - 814 C.E.

Reign of Leo IV (the Khazar)

775 C.E. - 780 C.E.

Reign of Constantine VI

780 C.E. - 797 C.E.

Reign of Harun al-Rashid

786 C.E. - 809 C.E.

Regency/Reign of Irene (the Dragon Lady)

797 C.E. - 802 C.E.

Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III

800 C.E.

Period of Viking invasions

800 C.E. - 1000 C.E.

Carolingian Empire

800 C.E. - 888 C.E.

Reign of Nicephorus I (the Logothete)

802 C.E. - 811 C.E.

Reign of Michael I Rangabe

811 C.E. - 813 C.E.

Reign of Leo V (the Armenian)

813 C.E. - 820 C.E.

Reign of Loius the Pious

814 C.E. - 840 C.E.

Reign of Michael II (the Amorian)

820 C.E. - 829 C.E.

Reign of Theophilus

829 C.E. - 842 C.E.

Reign of Michael III (the Drunkard)

842 C.E. - 867 C.E.

Treaty of Verdun

843 C.E.

Reign of Basil I (the Macedonian)

867 C.E. - 886 C.E.

Reign of Alfred the Great

871 C.E. - 899 C.E.

Reign of Leo VI (the Wise)

886 C.E. - 912 C.E.

Clunian monastic reform movement

Approx. 900 C.E. - Approx. 1050 C.E.

Shi'ite Fatimids seize North Africa

909 C.E.

Conversion of the Slavs to Christianity

Approx. 911 C.E. - Approx. 989 C.E.

Reign of Alexander

912 C.E. - 913 C.E.

Reign of Constantine VII (the Purple-born)

913 C.E. - 959 C.E.

Reign of Romanus I Lecapenus

920 C.E. - 944 C.E.

Reign of Otto I the Great (Holy Roman Empire)

936 C.E. - 973 C.E.

Reign of Romanus II

959 C.E. - 963 C.E.

Reign of Nicephorus II Phocas

963 C.E. - 969 C.E.

Fatimids seize Egypt

969 C.E.

Reign of John I Tzimiskes

969 C.E. - 976 C.E.

Beowulf manuscript

Approx. 975 C.E. - Approx. 1010 C.E.

Reign of Basil II (the Bulgar-Slayer)

976 C.E. - 1025 C.E.

Life of Avicenna

980 C.E. - 1037 C.E.

Vladimir of Kiev converts the Rus to Christianity

989 C.E.

Life of Anselm of Canterbury

1033 C.E. - 1109 C.E.

Life of Matilda of Tuscany

1046 C.E. - 1115 C.E.

Papacy of Leo IX

1049 C.E. - 1054 C.E.

Medieval agricultural revolution at its height

Approx. 1050 C.E.

East-West schism

1054 C.E.

Reign of Henry IV (Holy Roman Empire)

1056 C.E. - 1084 C.E.

Papacy of Nicholas II

1059 C.E. - 1061 C.E.

Battle of Hastings

1066 C.E.

Reign of William the Conqueror

1066 C.E. - 1087 C.E.

Battle of Manzikert

1071 C.E.

Papacy of Gregory VII

1073 C.E. - 1085 C.E.

Investiture Controversy

1075 C.E. - 1122 C.E.

Walk to Canossa

1077 C.E.

Life of Peter Abelard

1079 C.E. - 1142 C.E.

Reign of Alexius I Comnenus

1081 C.E. - 1118 C.E.

Life of Anna Comnena

1083 C.E. - 1153 C.E.

Papacy of Urban II

1088 C.E. - 1099 C.E.

Life of Bernard of Clairvaux

1090 C.E. - 1153 C.E.

Life of Heloise

Approx. 1090 C.E. - Approx. 1164 C.E.

First Crusade

1095 C.E. - 1099 C.E.

Life of Peter Lombard

Approx. 1096 C.E. - 1160 C.E.

Cistercian Order established

1098 C.E.

Life of Hildegard of Bingen

1098 C.E. - 1179 C.E.

Song of Roland written down

Approx. 1100 C.E.

Reign of Henry I (England)

1100 C.E. - 1135 C.E.

Life of Thomas Beckett

Approx. 1119 C.E. - 1170 C.E.

Concordat of Worms

1122 C.E.

Life of Eleanor of Aquitane

1122 C.E. - 1204 C.E.

Life of Averroes

1126 C.E. - 1198 C.E.

Reign of Stephen (England)

1135 C.E. - 1154 C.E.

Life of Moses Maimonides

Approx. 1137 C.E. - 1204 C.E.

Reign of Louis VII (Franks)

1137 C.E. - 1180 C.E.

Publication of Gratian's Concordance of Discordant Canons

Approx. 1140 C.E.

Life of Peter Waldo

Approx. 1140 C.E. - Approx. 1205 C.E.

Second Crusade

1147 C.E. - 1149 C.E.

Reign of Frederick I Barbarossa (Holy Roman Empire)

1152 C.E. - 1190 C.E.

Reign of Henry II of Anjou (England)

1154 C.E. - 1189 C.E.

Papacy of Alexander III

1159 C.E. - 1181 C.E.

Reign of King Alfonso II of Aragon

1162 C.E. - 1196 C.E.

Life of Chrétien de Troyes

1165 C.E. - 1190 C.E.

Life of Fibonacci

Approx. 1170 C.E. - 1250 C.E.

Life of Dominic of Osma

1170 C.E. - 1221 C.E.

Reign of Saladin

1174 C.E. - 1193 C.E.

Reign of Philip II Augustus

1180 C.E. - 1223 C.E.

Life of Francis of Assisi

1182 C.E. - 1226 C.E.

Recapture of Jerusalem by Saladin

1187 C.E.

Reign of Richard the Lionheart (England)

1189 C.E. - 1199 C.E.

Third Crusade

1189 C.E. - 1192 C.E.

Liber feudorum maior compiled by Alfonso II

1192 C.E. - 1194 C.E.

Papacy of Innocent III

1198 C.E. - 1216 C.E.

Reign of John I (England)

1199 C.E. - 1216 C.E.

Fourth Crusade

1202 C.E. - 1204 C.E.

Sack of Constantinople

1204 C.E.

Expansion of the Mongol Empire

1206 C.E. - 1260 C.E.

Reign of Genghis Khan

1206 C.E. - 1227 C.E.

Franciscan order established

1209 C.E.

Magna Carta promulgated

1215 C.E.

Fourth Lateran Council

1215 C.E.

Dominican order established

1216 C.E.

Reign of Henry III (England)

1216 C.E. - 1272 C.E.

Reign of Frederick II the Great (Holy Roman Empire)

1220 C.E. - 1250 C.E.

Life of Thomas Aquinas

1225 C.E. - 1274 C.E.

Reign of Ögedei Khan

1229 C.E. - 1241 C.E.

Mongol Khanate established at Kiev

1240 C.E.

Life of Meister Eckhart

Approx. 1260 C.E. - 1327 C.E.

Reign of Kublai Khan

1260 C.E. - 1294 C.E.

Life of Dante Alighieri

1265 C.E. - 1321 C.E.

Life of Giotto di Bondone of Florence

Approx. 1267 C.E. - 1337 C.E.

Travels of Marco Polo

1271 C.E. - 1295 C.E.

Reign of Edward I (England)

1272 C.E. - 1307 C.E.

Life of William of Ockham

Approx. 1285 C.E. - 1347 C.E.

Expulsion of the Jews from Sicily

1288 C.E.

Expulsion of the Jews from England

1290 C.E.

Fall of the Kingdom of Acre

1291 C.E.

Papacy of Boniface VIII

1294 C.E. - 1303 C.E.

Life of Petrarch

1304 C.E. - 1374 C.E.

Expulsion of the Jews from France

1306 C.E.

Avignon Papacy

1309 C.E. - 1378 C.E.

French King Philip IV deposes Boniface VIII and forcibly moves papal court

Life of Boccaccio

1313 C.E. - 1375 C.E.

Great Famine ravages Europe

1315 C.E. - 1322 C.E.

Reign of Charles IV of France

1322 C.E. - 1328 C.E.

last Capetian monarch

Life of John Wyclif

Approx. 1330 C.E. - 1384 C.E.

Edward III of England claims French throne

1337 C.E.

Hundred Year's War

1337 C.E. - 1453 C.E.

Life of Chaucer

Approx. 1340 C.E. - 1400 C.E.

Papacy of Clement VI

1342 C.E. - 1352 C.E.

Rise of the Ottoman Turks

Approx. 1345 C.E. - Approx. 1389 C.E.

Battle of Crécy

1346 C.E.

Life of Catherine of Siena

1347 C.E. - 1380 C.E.

Battle of Calais

1347 C.E.

Spread of the Black Death in Europe

1347 C.E. - 1350 C.E.

Publication of Mandeville's Book of Marvels

1352 C.E.

Battle of Poitiers

1356 C.E.

Establishment of the Hanseatic League

1358 C.E.

Jacquerie Rebellion in France

1358 C.E.

Reign of Charles V (France)

1364 C.E. - 1380 C.E.

Life of Christine de Pisan

Approx. 1365 C.E. - Approx. 1434 C.E.

Last Mongol dynasty in China overthrown

1368 C.E.

Life of Jan Hus

Approx. 1369 C.E. - 1415 C.E.

Papacy of Gregory XI

1370 C.E. - 1378 C.E.

Reign of Tamerlane (Mongols)

1370 C.E. - 1405 C.E.

Life of Bruni

Approx. 1370 C.E. - 1444 C.E.

Reign of Richard II (England)

1377 C.E. - 1399 C.E.

Great Western Schism begins

1378 C.E.

Ciompi Revolt in Florence

1378 C.E. - 1382 C.E.

Life of Thomas à Kempis

Approx. 1380 C.E. - 1471 C.E.

Reign of Charles VI (France)

1380 C.E. - 1422 C.E.

English Peasant's Revolt

1381 C.E.

Life of Donatello

Approx. 1386 C.E. - 1466 C.E.

Battle of Kosovo

1389 C.E.

Life of Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 C.E. - 1460 C.E.

Battle of Nicopolis

1396 C.E.

Reign of Henry IV (England)

1399 C.E. - 1413 C.E.

Life of Rogier van der Weyden

Approx. 1400 C.E. - 1464 C.E.

Life of Masaccio

1401 C.E. - 1428 C.E.

Life of Alberti

1404 C.E. - 1472 C.E.

Life of Lorenzo Valla

1407 C.E. - 1457 C.E.

Life of Joan of Arc

Approx. 1412 C.E. - 1431 C.E.

Reign of Henry V (England)

1413 C.E. - 1422 C.E.

Council of Constance convened

1414 C.E. - 1418 C.E.

Battle of Agincourt

1415 C.E.

Colonization of Canary and Azores Islands

1420 C.E. - 1440 C.E.

Reign of Henry VI (England)

1422 C.E. - 1461 C.E.

Reign of Charles VII the Dauphin (France)

1422 C.E. - 1461 C.E.

Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence

1431 C.E. - 1449 C.E.

Life of Ficino

1433 C.E. - 1499 C.E.

Reign of Cosimo de' Medici in Florence

1434 C.E. - 1464 C.E.

Medici family comes to rule Florence

1434 C.E.

Lorenzo Valla debunks the "Donation of Constantine"

1440 C.E.

Life of Donato Bramante

Approx. 1444 C.E. - 1514 C.E.

Life of Botticelli

1445 C.E. - 1510 C.E.

Life of Christopher Columbus

1451 C.E. - 1506 C.E.

Reign of Mehmet II the Conqueror

1451 C.E. - 1481 C.E.

Life of Leonardo da Vinci

1452 C.E. - 1519 C.E.

Fall of Constantinople

1453 C.E.

Gutenberg's Bible printed at Mainz

1454 C.E. - 1455 C.E.

Wars of the Roses

1455 C.E. - 1487 C.E.

Fall of Trebizond

1461 C.E.

Reign of Ivan the Great (Muscovy)

1462 C.E. - 1505 C.E.

Life of Pico della Mirandola

1463 C.E. - 1494 C.E.

Life of Johann Tetzel

1465 C.E. - 1519 C.E.

Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile

1469 C.E.

Life of Machiavelli

1469 C.E. - 1527 C.E.

Life of Erasmus

Approx. 1469 - 1536 C.E.

Life of Albrecht Dürer

1471 C.E. - 1528 C.E.

Life of Cesare Borgia

1475 C.E. - 1507 C.E.

Life of Michelangelo

1475 C.E. - 1564 C.E.

Life of Baldassare Castiglione

1478 C.E. - 1529 C.E.

Life of Sir Thomas More

1478 C.E. - 1535 C.E.

Life of Luther

1483 C.E. - 1546 C.E.

Life of Raphael

1483 C.E. - 1520 C.E.

Life of Zwingli

1484 C.E. - 1531 C.E.

Reign of Henry VII Tudor (England)

1485 C.E. - 1509 C.E.

Life of Catherine of Aragon

1485 C.E. - 1536 C.E.

Completion of Botticelli's Birth of Venus

1486 C.E.

Reign of Frederick the Wise of Saxony

1486 C.E. - 1525 C.E.

Bartolomeu Dias rounds the Cape of Good Hope

1488 C.E.

Life of Titian

Approx. 1490 C.E. - 1576 C.E.

Life of Ignatius of Loyola

1491 C.E. - 1556 C.E.

Expulsion of Jews from Spain

1492 C.E.

Christian armies of Spain conquer Granada

1492 C.E.

Columbus lands on Hispaniola

1492 C.E.

Papacy of Alexander VI

1492 C.E. - 1503 C.E.

Life of François Rabelais

Approx. 1494 C.E. - 1553 C.E.

Reign of Savonarola in Florence

1494 C.E. - 1498 C.E.

Life of Menno Simons

Approx. 1496 C.E. - 1561 C.E.

Vasco de Gama reaches India

1497 C.E. - 1498 C.E.

Life of Hans Holbein the Younger

1497 C.E. - 1543 C.E.

Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper painted

1498 C.E.

Life of Vergerius

Approx. 1498 C.E. - 1565 C.E.

Amerigo Vespucci reaches South America

1501 C.E.

Life of Anne Boleyn

Approx. 1501 C.E. - 1536 C.E.

Publication of Erasmus' Handbook for the Christian Knight

1503 C.E.

Papacy of Julius II

1503 C.E. - 1513 C.E.

Life of Francis Xavier

1506 C.E. - 1552 C.E.

Remodeling of St. Peter's Basilica begins

1506 C.E.

Life of Andrea Palladio

1508 C.E. - 1580 C.E.

Publication of Erasmus' The Praise of Folly

1509 C.E.

Reign of Henry VIII (England)

1509 C.E. - 1547 C.E.

Life of John Calvin

1509 C.E. - 1564 C.E.

Portugese venture into Indonesia

1511 C.E. - 1515 C.E.

Raphael's School of Athens completed

1511 C.E.

Michaelangelo completes the Sistine ceiling

1512 C.E.

Life of John Knox

Approx. 1513 C.E. - 1572 C.E.

Balboa reaches the Pacific Ocean

1513 C.E.

Publication of Machiavelli's The Prince

1513 C.E.

Papacy of Leo X

1513 C.E. - 1521 C.E.

Albrecht Dürer's Saint Jerome completed

1514 C.E.

Life of Teresa of Avila

1515 C.E. - 1582 C.E.

Erasmus' translation of the New Testament published

1516 C.E.

Thomas More's Utopia published

1516 C.E.

Publication of Erasmus' Complaint of Peace

1517 C.E.

Luther posts the Ninety-Five Theses

1517 C.E.

Publication of Erasmus' Colloquies

1518 C.E.

Life of Tintoretto

1518 C.E. - 1594 C.E.

Magellan's fleet circumnavigates the Globe

1519 C.E. - 1522 C.E.

Cortez conquers the Aztec Empire

1519 C.E. - 1521 C.E.

Reign of Charles V (Holy Roman Empire)

1519 C.E. - 1556 C.E.

Publication of Luther's To the Christian Nobility

1520 C.E.

Luther excommunicated at the Diet of Worms

1521 C.E.

Publication of Luther's On Temporal Authority

1523 C.E.

Papacy of Clement VII

1523 C.E. - 1534 C.E.

Publication of Luther's Against the Thievish, Murderous Hordes of Peasants

1525 C.E.

Swabian Peasant's Revolt

1525 C.E.

Reign of Albert of Prussia

1525 C.E. - 1568 C.E.

Life of Bruegel the Elder

Approx. 1525 C.E. - 1569 C.E.

Castiglione's Book of the Courtier published

1528 C.E.

Luther publicly breaks with Zwingli

1529 C.E.

Life of Jean Bodin

1530 C.E. - 1596 C.E.

Pizarro conquers the Inca Empire

1531 C.E. - 1533 C.E.

Life of Sir John Hawkins

1532 C.E. - 1595 C.E.

Tenure of Archbishop Cranmer

1533 C.E. - 1555 C.E.

Life of Montaigne

1533 C.E. - 1592 C.E.

Henry VIII establishes the Church of England

1534 C.E.

Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus

1534 C.E.

Papacy of Paul III

1534 C.E. - 1549 C.E.

Anabaptists gain control of Münster

1534 C.E.

lose it a year later

Life of Sir Francis Drake

Approx. 1540 C.E. - 1596 C.E.

Regional religious wars in Germany

1540 C.E. - 1555 C.E.

Publication of Ignatius of Loyola's Spiritual Exercises

1541 C.E.

Geneva adopts a theocratic government based on Calvinism

1541 C.E.

Life of El Greco

Approx. 1541 C.E. - 1614 C.E.

Council of Trent

1545 C.E. - 1563 C.E.

Reign of Edward VI (England)

1547 C.E. - 1553 C.E.

Life of Miguel de Cervantes

1547 C.E. - 1616 C.E.

Reign of Mary Tudor (England)

1553 C.E. - 1558 C.E.

Papacy of Paul IV

1555 C.E. - 1559 C.E.

Peace of Augsburg

1555 C.E.

Reign of Philip II (Spain)

1556 C.E. - 1598 C.E.

Reign of Elizabeth I (England)

1558 C.E. - 1603 C.E.

First approval of the Thirty-Nine Articles

1562 C.E.

French wars of religion

1562 C.E. - 1598 C.E.

First publication of the Index of Prohibited Books

1564 C.E.

Life of Shakespeare

1564 C.E. - 1616 C.E.

Life of Marlowe

1564 C.E. - 1593 C.E.

Papacy of Pius V

1566 C.E. - 1572 C.E.

Dutch wars with Spain

1566 C.E. - 1609 C.E.

Completion of Bruegel's Massacre of the Innocents

Approx. 1567 C.E.

Battle of Lepanto

1571 C.E.

Life of Ben Jonson

Approx. 1572 C.E. - 1637 C.E.

Montaigne composes his Essays

1572 C.E. - 1580 C.E.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572 C.E.

Life of Archbishop Laud

1573 C.E. - 1645 C.E.

Jean Bodin publishes Six Books of the Commonwealth

1576 C.E.

Life of Rubens

1577 C.E. - 1640 C.E.

Founding of the Roanoke Colony

1585 C.E.

Papacy of Sixtus V

1585 C.E. - 1590 C.E.

Life of Cardinal Richelieu

1585 C.E. - 1642 C.E.

Life of Sir Robert Filmer

1588 C.E. - 1653 C.E.

Life of Hobbes

1588 C.E. - 1679 C.E.

English defeat of the Spanish Armada

1588 C.E.

Reign of Henry IV (France)

1589 C.E. - 1610 C.E.

first monarch of the House of Bourbon

Publication of Marlowe's Doctor Faustus

1589 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream

1595 C.E. - 1596 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet

1595 C.E. - 1596 C.E.

El Greco paints his View of Toledo

Approx. 1596 C.E. - 1600 C.E.

Edict of Nantes

1598 C.E.

Life of Bernini

1598 C.E. - 1680 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's Much Ado about Nothing

1598 C.E. - 1599 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's As You Like It

1599 C.E.

Life of Cromwell

1599 C.E. - 1658 C.E.

Life of Diego Velázquez

1599 C.E. - 1660 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's Hamlet

1600 C.E. - 1601 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's Twelfth Night

1601 C.E. - 1602 C.E.

Reign of King James I (England)

1603 C.E. - 1625 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's Measure for Measure

1604 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's King Lear

1605 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's Macbeth

1606 C.E.

Publication of Jonson's Volpone

1606 C.E.

Life of Rembrandt

1606 C.E. - 1669 C.E.

Founding of Jamestown

1607 C.E.

Life of Milton

1608 C.E. - 1674 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's Cymbeline

1609 C.E. - 1610 C.E.

Life of Judith Leyster

1609 C.E. - 1660 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's A Winter's Tale

1610 C.E. - 1611 C.E.

Reign of Louis XIII (France)

1610 C.E. - 1643 C.E.

Publication of Shakespeare's The Tempest

1611 C.E.

Last meeting of the French Estates-General before the French Revolution

1614 C.E.

Thirty Year's War

1618 C.E. - 1648 C.E.

Life of Jean-Baptiste Colbert

1619 C.E. - 1683 C.E.

Life of Pascal

1623 C.E. - 1662 C.E.

Reign of Charles I (England)

1625 C.E. - 1649 C.E.

Life of Bossuet

1627 C.E. - 1704 C.E.

Charles I made to accept Petition of Right by Parliament

1628 C.E.

Life of Locke

1632 C.E. - 1704 C.E.

Tenure of Archbishop Laud

1633 C.E. - 1640 C.E.

Scottish invasion of England

1640 C.E.

Reign of Frederick William the "Great Elector (Duke of Prussia)

1640 C.E. - 1688 C.E.

English Civil War

1642 C.E. - 1649 C.E.

Fronde Revolt in France

1643 C.E.

Battle of Rocroi

1643 C.E.

Reign of Louis XIV (France)

1643 C.E. - 1715 C.E.

Reign of Louis XIV (France)

1643 C.E. - 1715 C.E.

Peace of Westphalia

1648 C.E.

Interregnum Period in England

1649 C.E. - 1660 C.E.

Passage of the Navigation Acts (England)

1651 C.E. - 1663 C.E.

Hobbes publishes Leviathan

1651 C.E.

Cromwell's Dictatorship

1653 C.E. - 1658 C.E.

Velázquez completes his Maids of Honor

1656 C.E.

Rubens paints The Horrors of War

1657 C.E. - 1658 C.E.

Reign of Leopold I of Austria

1658 C.E. - 1705 C.E.

Restoration of the monarchy in England

1660 C.E.

Reign of Charles II (England)

1660 C.E. - 1685 C.E.

Reign of Charles II (Spain)

1665 C.E. - 1700 C.E.

Publication of Milton's Paradise Lost

1667 C.E.

Dutch surrender New Amsterdam to the English

1667 C.E.

Publication of Pascal's Pensees

1670 C.E.

Battle of Vienna

1683 C.E.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV

1685 C.E.

Reign of James II (England)

1685 C.E. - 1688 C.E.

League of Augsburg (Grand Alliance) founded

1686 C.E.

War of the League of Augsburg

1688 C.E. - 1689 C.E.

Glorious Revolution in England

1688 C.E.

Reign of Frederick I (King of Prussia)

1688 C.E. - 1713 C.E.

Co-reign of William III and Mary II (England)

1689 C.E. - 1694 C.E.

Reign of Peter the Great (Russia)

1689 C.E. - 1725 C.E.

Parliament passes a Bill of Rights (England)

1689 C.E.

Act of Toleration passed (England)

1689 C.E.

Reign of William III of Orange (England)

1694 C.E. - 1702 C.E.

Establishment of the First Bank of England

1694 C.E.

Reign of Philip V (Spain)

1700 C.E. - 1746 C.E.

Act of Succession passed (England)

1701 C.E.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 C.E. - 1714 C.E.

Reign of Queen Anne (England/Britain)

1702 C.E. - 1714 C.E.

Battle of Blenheim

1704 C.E.

Founding of the United Kingdom of Britain

1707 C.E.

Battle of Malplaquet

1709 C.E.

Reign of Frederick William I (Prussia)

1713 C.E. - 1740 C.E.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713 C.E.

Peace of Nystad

1721 C.E.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 C.E. - 1748 C.E.

Reign of Frederick II the Great (Prussia)

1740 C.E. - 1786 C.E.

Reign of Maria Theresa (Austria)

1740 C.E. - 1780 C.E.

Seven Year's / French and Indian War

1756 C.E. - 1763 C.E.

Reign of George III (Britain)

1760 C.E. - 1820 C.E.

Reign of Catherine II the Great (Russia)

1762 C.E. - 1796 C.E.

Reign of Joseph II (Austria)

1765 C.E. - 1790 C.E.

Co-rule of Maria Theresa and Joseph II (Austria)

1765 C.E. - 1780 C.E.

Russo-Turkish War

1768 C.E. - 1774 C.E.

Partition of Poland

1772 C.E. - 1795 C.E.

Boston Tea Party

1773 C.E.

Formation of the First Continental Congress

1774 C.E.

Battles of Lexington and Concord

1775 C.E.

American War of Independence

1775 C.E. - 1783 C.E.

France and Spain join the American war effort

1778 C.E.

Abolition of slavery in Britain

1833 C.E.