History Exam 2

Events

Associational Action

1920 - 1929

In trying to promote private charity instead of direct gov his plan didn’t work. His failure to properly address it doomed his presidency.

Court Packing

1930 - 1939

(During Second New Deal)
FDR designd to prevent overturning of legislation, he has control of appointing them, it doesn’t get passed but the court begins to side more

Civilian Conservation Corps

1933

The CCC made a major contribution to the enhancement of the American environment. One of the more successful new deal programs.

Huey Long ("Share Our Wealth Movement")

1934

Key rival to FDR was not able to have fame bc assassinated. He used his dictatorial power to build roads, schools, and hospitals and to increase the tax burden on Louisiana’s oil companies. Gov as well as congressmen

Wagner Act

1935

It outlawed “unfair labor practices” including the firing and blacklisting of union organizers.

Keynesian Economics

1936 - 1938

(Still embraced today by Dems)
There was a major shift in New Deal philosophy. Public spending would now be the government’s major tool for combating unemployment and stimulating economic growth. This brought the second New Deal to an end.

Libertarians

1940 - 1959

to protect liberty by limiting gov & stop them from interfering w human rights

Four Freedoms Speech

1941

FDR went beyond basic freedoms in the Constitution and claimed these new rights as American values. They become symbols for people to rally around during the hard times during WW2. The rights work as inspiration to citizens.
- Before war even started it was outlining what postwar was gonna look like

KNOW what each one represents,

Office of War Information

1941 - 1945

(During WW2)
much more geared towards diversity then earlier generation. EVERYONE is helping the war effort, no one is sitting out. Unified effort. Counter to WW1, where hyphonated groups were seen has having questionable loyalty.

Double V

1942

The campaign was run by a weekly black newspaper called the “Pittsburgh Courier” that helped influence public opinion among black Americans. The campaign got country-wide support. The support showed that black America was tired of being oppressed and ready for a change. The campaign helped tremendously the plight of black Americans.
- Slogan suggested that AA soldiers should come back and fight against racism at home, one of the originating factors of the civil rights movement, spearheads civil rights activism

Executive Order 9066

February 19, 1942

Hawaii was excluded, there was no real descent against it, most people supported it so there was no effort to stop FDR, organizations don't come to the defense

The Road to Serfdom

1944

ppl supported the book bc it favored free market capitalism & less gov intervention

An American Dilemna

1944

offered an uncompromising portrait of how deep, combined with WW2, nativism and racism lose their legitimacy after the war ended. In many ways, 3 differences don’t really exist. They are being challenged more openly.

Serviceman's Readjustment Act (GI Bill) Passed

1944

(WW2)
It profoundly shaped postwar society. By 1946, more than 1 million veterans were attending college under its provisions, making up half of total college enrollment. Almost 4 million would receive home mortgages, spurring the postwar suburban housing boom.
- Attempt to prevent massive unemployment

Iron Curtain Speech

1946

Churchill is foreshadowing the coming of the cold war indicating a split between free and communism, placing non existent wall talking about, need to prevent spreading

Francois Georges

1947

bad treatment of foreign official made US look hypocritical bc claimed equal

Marshall Plan

1947

successfully sparked economic recovery, within a decade Europe is back on track, more successful program of the Truman administration, it does what it was meant to do

Taft- Harley Act

1947

Taft-Hartley led to population and capital investment shifts to states with “right to work” laws. It contributed to the decline of organized labor’s share of the nation’s work

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

1948

Nation’s treatment of own citizens should have outside evaluation, individual freedom & less gov control

Levittown

1950 - 1959

segregated until the 60s, one of the first suburbs in US, model becomes the model used by other suburbs to grow, becomes blueprint for urban development

Kitchen Debate

1950 - 1959

to respect each other’s culture, mutual agreements

McCarthyism

1950 - 1959

shows ppl have anti-communist hysteria

Brown v. Board of Education

1954 - 1955

Oliver Brown’s daughter unsafe to walk far to segregated school & fought to integrate white school but stigma made whites feel lesser, rise of private edu, helped end desegregation of schools

Phyllis Schlafly

1960 - 1969

thought that giving equal rights would break up the home, discredit roles of men and women, mothers pension would go away, her movement got states to stop supporting it bc they had before

Vietnamization

1960 - 1979

to win war, to fight against war, it ends but there’s still upbringing of protests

Participatory Democracy

1960 - 1969

for students to have more of an influence in schools

The Silent Majority

1960 - 1969

IRONIC bc silent ppl had huge impact supporting Nixon (he won election 1968), feel gov favors other groups & allowed too much change too fast in 1960’s

Energy Crisis

1960 - 1980

US attempts to be independent & stop foreign dependence by promoting coal/nuclear energy

Silent Spring

1960 - 1969

promote constitutional rights

Detente

1960 - 1979

decrease tensions, increase trade, promote as foreign policy pursuit for future presidents

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

forces Kennedy to use nonviolent solution to promote cooperation, “arms reduction”

The Feminine Mystique

1963

2nd wave feminism movement supporting women’s rights

Letter from Birmingham Jail

1963

to remind ppl of the violence happening, being punished for nonviolent protest shouldn’t be a crime & the common ppl won’t act to change it

New Deal Coalition

1963

Because of the strong support he had he won the election with more than 60 percent of the popular vote. These groups make up the Coalition, in which would dominate American politics for nearly half a century.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

1964

Johnson pushed for this saying Kennedy would’ve wanted it, thought he’d lose next election, activist support, D party backlash

Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

1964

promote diversity in politics

Barry Goldwater

1964

a test case to see if conservatism would thrive or die for the R party

Great Society

1964 - 1965

Johnson won Johnson vs Golewater by a landslide, idea to make society great not just better, make everyone equal in economy (initially war on poverty impacts goes down then fluctuates & gov impacted by great society for better or worse)

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

1964

Not factual, brings forth escalation of US involvement in Vietnam

Tet Offensive

1968

caught US off guard & made them look bad, US loss, ppl worried war is unwinnable, causes Johnson not to rerun in 1968 bc thinks no support

The Burger Court

1969

Nixon thought that he modeled Congress a certain way but it turns out it was nothing like he planned for it to be.

Malcom X

1970 - 1979

bc sees islam culture has diff groups so Malcolm X promotes racial harmony

Watergate Scandal

1972

The trial later revealed that the Nixon administration was involved in a wider pattern of wire-tapping, break ins, and attempts to sabotage political opponents. The scandal ultimately led to Congress suggesting his impeachment in 1974 and Nixon then became the only president to ever resign.
**Led congress to enact new restrictions on the power of the FBI and CIA to spy on American citizens or conduct operations abroad without the knowledge of lawmakers.

Carter Doctrine

1977 - 1980

Afghanistan becomes Russia’s Vietnam like they are to us, Taliban is formed later down the road, boycott of Moscow olympics in 1980

Mikhail Gorbachev

1980 - 1989

Since he changed how it was run, the soviet union and the US got along a lot better

Supply-Side Economics

1980 - 1989

thought it would make american’s work hard because they would keep more of the money they earned

Iran-Contra Scandal

1985

Reagan escapes punishment and it doesn't tarnish his legacy

Election of 1992

1992

Bush had 89% approval rating until Buchanan gave a speech, causing people to vote for Clinton, Bush and Buchanan were closely tied, Clinton was an outsider

Contract with America

1994