history final timeline

Events

Colonization

Columbus

1492

Columbus arrives in America

Jamestown

1607

first english settlement in America with leader John Smith
conflict w/ NA --> starving time 1609-1610

Mayflower Compact

1620

compact signed on Mayflower
established rules and legitimacy for settlement

Pilgrims

1620

Pilgrims arrive in Plymouth
first successful english setttlement after Jamestown
separatists

Rhode Island

1636

Roger Williams forms RI after being exiled from Plymouth for differing religious beliefs
enforced religious liberty

Colonies to Country

Mercantilism

1650

ideology that colonies exist for the benefit of the Mother Nation

Navigation Acts

1660

GB only allowed colonies to trade with them
colonies feel confined and restricted while Gb makes all the profit

Habeas Corpus Act

1679

allows those wrongfully accused and imprisoned to take court for justice

Salem Witch Trials

1692 - 1693

fear in Puritan society/ need for place of blame for failure = women seen as witches

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

French and Indians = main threat to the colonies
disputes over land and colony ownership
GB does majority of fighting and funding for war
French ceded land east of Mississippi to Great Britain and some to Spain to compensate for losses

Albany Plan of Union

1754

plan to keep colonies together while entering F+I war
join or die
unsuccessful

Patriots vs Loyalists

Approx. 1760 - Approx. 1780

patriots: support colonists/ independent class
loyalists: support the crown
1/3, 1/3, 1/3

Proclamation of 1763

1763

forbid settlers to move past Appalachian mountains
stop NA attacks on settlers

Stamp Act

1765

tax on colonies to pay back debt from war
end of salutary neglect

Boston Massacre

1770

english bring in troops to supress colonists
conflict breaks out between 2 groups

Boston Tea Party

1773

Sons of Liberty (Adams) dump tea into sea as form of protest
no taxation without representation

Intolerable Acts

1774

closed Boston port
reduced self gov't abilities of colonies
royal officers can be tried in other colonies and in England instead of colonies: biased towards British
British troops must be quartered in colonists' barns or empty houses & colonists forced to support

Lexington and Concord

1775

first battle of American Revolution
minutemen are successful

Bacon's Rebellion

1776

led by Nathaniel Bacon
lower class workers and indentured servants angered by conditions
result = workers needed that wont rebel = increase in slavery

Declaration of Independence

1776

led to war
declared that colonies have ability to overthrow government if it does not benefit and protect

Articles of Confederation

1777 - 1789

-each state is sovereign
-"firm league of friendship"
-not capitalized
-each state has 1 vote & own army
-taxes issued by individual state legislatures
-all laws passed 9/13 states in congress

Alexander Hamilton

Approx. 1780

leader of Federalist party
radical federalist

Treaty of Paris

1783

end of the Revolutionary War

Shay's Rebellion

1786 - 1787

farmers cant afford to pay for their homes due to taxes
homes taken = rebellion

Creation of the US

US Constitution

1787

supreme law of US

Great Compromise

1787

two house compromise: upper house = equal representation, lower house = population
3/5 compromise = slaves count as 3/5 of person

Federalist Papers

1787 - 1788

Hamilton, Madison and Jay
spread of Federalist ideas

Presidents and Precendents

Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan

1787

VA = big states: national legislature divided into 2 houses with lower house on population and upper house elected officials
NJ = small states: each state has equal representation

George Washington

1789 - 1797

sets precedents for rest of nation:
cabinet for advice
-chooses own cabinet
-only two terms in office
-appoints SC judges from outside court
-executive privilege & executive restraint
-federal law is supreme and will be enforced
-veto only for constitutional reasons & not opinion
-Vice President ceremonial
-tolerant of criticism and attacks
-dignity and prestige by & towards president

Whiskey Rebellion

1791 - 1794

tax on whiskey to pay off war debt
impacted poor whiskey producers = rebellion

XYZ Affair

1797 - 1798

US sends reps to France to discuss embargo
France demands bribes with threats if not met
causes quasi war with France

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

1798

states should be allowed to decide if law is constitutional and decide to nullify it
against elastic clause

Alien and Sedition Acts

1798 - 1799

limit immigrant ability to become citizens
government ability to deport

Election of 1800

1800

Jefferson wins over Adams
democratic-republican rule
eventual demise of federalists

Thomas Jefferson

1801 - 1809

anti-federalist
utilized elastic clause for Louisiana Purchase
abolished internal taxes and cut debt in half

Marbury vs Madison

1803

set judicial review precedent
checks and balances

James Madison

1809 - 1817

federalist
era of good feelings

War of 1812

1812 - 1815

tensions with GB over trade
short war, US "wins"
increases US nationalism

Spoils System

1829

Jackson eliminating 1/5 of cabinet
replaced with "common people" for better representation
action inspired continuous cycle & privilege of president to cycle members to fight corruption

Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837

inauguration mob
contrivercial actions
end of national bank and d-r party

Nullification Crisis

1832

SC threatens succession is nullification does not end
solved by Henry Clay

Worcester vs. Georgia

1832

andrew jackson not following treaties
conflict with rights of cherokee

Trail of Tears

1838

path NA are forced to take
2,000 die
Indian Removal Act of 1830

Industrialism and Reform

Cotton Gin

1793

invented by Eli Whitney
faster cotton production
increase in slavery

2nd Great Awakening

Approx. 1800

religious movement
perfectionism - people can get religion and become perfect
horace mann, dorothea dix

Declaration of Sentiments

1820

"grand basis for attaining the civil, social, political, and religious rights of women"

Erie Canal

1825

increased commerce and trade
faster transportation

Nat Turner

1831

slave who led only successful slave revolt
killed 50 whites
supported by northerner abolitionists

Gag Rule

1836 - 1844

rule prohibits any discussion regarding or ascertaining to slavery and abolition in congress

Irish Immigrants

Approx. 1840

bottom of social class = worst jobs
religious persecution, famine
new opportunities

Seneca Falls Convention

1848

first modern women's rights convention

Manifest Destiny and Sectionalism

Missouri Compromise

1820

slavery south of Louisiana territory and in MO
illegal north and in ME
balance

Manifest Destiny

1840 - 1860

ideal god and white supremacy mean america destined to spread across whole country: relocation & migration

Annexation of Texas

1845

Mexicans want Americans settle TX and attract citizens: tension up btwn Mexico and usa b/c not agree about immigration
Mexican dictator: people revolt 1836 and usa fled but Sam Houston stay and got independence for TX

James K Polk

1845 - 1849

"american blood shed on american soil" quote: call to action for usa b/c protect, also because want annexation TX & grow power slavery

Wilmot Proviso

1846

attempted to end slavery but was not realistic for the time

Mexican War

1846 - 1848

cause: mexico claim Nueces river border of Texas but usa claim Rio Grand river is border: size discrepancy of land
course: mexico refuse to fight initially, attack usa troops b/c "looming" threat and after fighting mexico propose peace treaty that usa accepts
consequence: usa gain territory, causes civil war, reopen slavery issue in territories b/c new territory, spark north and south disagreement

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1848

mexico agrees to give US California and New Mexico if they pay $15 million
re-increase and spike slavery discussion because new land w/o established slavery laws

California Gold Rush

1849

men migrate west after discovery of gold in california
labor shortage in east, gold now difficult to find

Compromise of 1850

1850

-California a free state
-NM and UT popular sovereignty
-DC not allow slave trade
-Fugitive Slave Act
-victory for south NOT north

Fugitive Slave Act

1850

required escaped slaves to be returned to masters
free slaves had to cooperate

Bleeding Kansas

1854 - 1861

-John Brown & radical abolitionists go to Kansas
-violent political confrontations btwn anti-slavery "Free-Staters" and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" or "southern yankees"
-Pottawatomie Massacre

Kansas Nebraska Act

1854

popular sovereignty
pro-slavery supporters sway decisions in Kansas to make it slave state

Dred Scott vs Sanford

1857

-slave in free state: sued for freedom in federal court but denied right to sue
-court justice Roger Taney rule slavery legal everywhere
-black no rights anywhere & slavery legal all b/c of constitution: nullifies north laws against slavery

Harper's Ferry

1859

-want invade fed aresnal w/ armed slaves & abolitionists to lead rebellion: caught by proslavery & John Brown killed
-violence not successful method to end slavery

Election of 1860

1860

-Abraham Lincoln: free soil republican & WON, oppose slavery in territories but leave in south, won all north, not on south ballot & south use as reason to secede b/c no voice in president or gov't
-John Breckenridge: democratic south: preserve slavery into territories
-John Bell: constitutional union, preserve union at all costs, not care slavery or blacks
-Stephen A Douglass: democratic north, tolerate slavery, support popular sovereignty for territories

Civil War

South Carolina Succession

1860

angered over seeming end of slavery
inspire chain of secession before Lincoln: MO, FL, AL, GA, LA, & TX
formed confederates

Fort Sumter

1861

Lincoln willing to peacefully support and not attack
Confederates attack fort and war begins

Abraham Lincoln

1861 - 1865

anti-slavery but not abolitionist
wanted union back together plus black emancipation, rights and sufferage

Confederate States of America

1861 - 1865

southern states and government separate from Union
pro-slavery and democratic
aggressor of civil war

Antietam

1862

bloodiest battle in history with 22,000 dead
enough of victory to make the emancipation proclamation

Sherman's March to the Sea

1863 - 1864

march w/ troops from savannah deep into confederacy destroying everything in path to instill fear & destroy morale: destruction leads to victory

New York Draft Riots

1863

democrats and poor fear freed blacks after war will take their jobs while they are fighting
think blacks should fight for themselves

Emancipation Proclamation

1863

Lincoln proclamation of war that all slaves under ownership of confederate peoples or those supporting the confederacy would be confiscated and freed

Gettysburg Address

1863

Lincoln's speech about unifying union to win
civil war is fought for equality and liberty

Reconstruction

Homestead Act

1862

allowed 160 acres for $10
ownership of land after 5 years of cultivation on the land
increased industries, lowered agricultural prices
cowboys!!

Black Codes

1865 - 1877

restrict black freedoms to equivalent of slavery
preventing jobs, firearms, congregation, etc.

13th Amendment

1865

abolishment of all slavery

Freedmen's Bureau

1865 - 1872

enacted by congress to help freedmen
distributed food, built schools

Klu Klux Klan

1866 - 1872

prevent suffrage and voting of blacks
white supremacy with violence and terror
ends when redeemer governments come into power

14th Amendment

1868

defined citizenship as all born or naturalized in usa & must be guaranteed all rights of the constitution

15th Amendment

1870

cannot be denied suffrage based on race

Redeemer Governments

Approx. 1870

reestablishment of white rule in southern black states
north no longer has desire or funds to regulate South

Enforcement Act of 1870

1870

combat attacks on suffrage rights of blacks from officials in south or violent groups like KKK

Crop Lien System

1873

cycle of debt for Black farmers

Jim Crow Laws

1876

make segregation legal

Sharecropping

1877 - 1945

blacks rent land from whites to work on
contracts keep working conditions poor

Compromise of 1877

1877

republican president Hayes wins, agrees to pull troops from North

Closing the Frontier

Transcontinental Railroad

1863 - 1869

connected east and west = increased migration to west
increase in agricultural, mining and cattle industries
internet of it's time

Sand Creek

1864

Black Kettle (Cheyenne Chief) resisted moving to reservation but decided to turn himself and tribe in. Stopped to sleep (group of 800) attacked by John Chivington's group (700) Colorado militia. 105 women and children, and 28 men killed. Their scalps were taken as trophies. Chivington's actions outraged many citizens and increased tensions with N.A.

Labor Movement

1865 - 1900

uprising of under-payed and poorly treated workers against corporations and bosses

Little Bighorn

1876

General Custer and his men wiped out by Sioux Indians such as Sitting Bull due to his attempt to take land for gold mining

Andrew Carnegie

Approx. 1880

gospel of wealth = wealthy have the right to contribute to society as benefactors
schools, charities, libraries, etc

Dawes Act

1887 - 1891

160 acres to 1 head of family
after 15 years they are granted citizenship and right to vote

Ghost Dance

1888 - 1890

spiritual movement intended to predict future of world restarting to grant NA a world without whites and complete restoration
whites are threatened by movement

Wounded Knee

1890

result of Ghost Dance

Homestead Strike

1892

strike of workers at Homestead Steel Works against working conditions

American Federation of Labor

1896 - 1900

national federation of labor unions