Civil war between the York and Lancastrian houses in England. War for the English throne. Yorkists win
A series of battles in France between the Huguenots allied with the House of Bourbon and the House of Valois which resulted in Catholicism becoming the official religion of France, though Huguenots would still be accepted because of the Edict od Nantes
Widespread popular revolt in the German-speaking areas of Central Europe from 1524 to 1525. It failed because of the intense opposition of the aristocracy, who slaughtered up to 100,000 of the 300,000 poorly armed peasants and farmers. Didn't have Luther's support.
thousands of French Huguenots and other Protestants killed at wedding of Henry of Navarre
Last of religious wars. Caused by religious conflict in HRE as religious religious groups violated Peace of Augsburg. 1st Europe wide war. 4 phases.
(Puritan Revolution) starts with King Charles I, two major issues were religion and taxation. Parliament demands the king to give them control of the army and the king said no.
Ended English Civil War. Without bloodshed, William and Mary forced James II out of the throne and they claimed it. They signed a treaty with Parliament which limited the monarchy's power, therefore, making England a constitutional monarchy. Also, this secured the power of Parliament in England
Started when Charles II died without an heir so he left the throne to Louis XIV's grandson. This violated a prior treaty and the other powers of Europe refused to let Louis control both Spain and France. Therefore, a war ensued for the Spanish throne. France won but at quite a cost. Philip could keep the Spanish throne, however, France had to cede much of their land to England and other European powers the New World. Peace of Utrecht ended the war.
Frederick of Prussia invaded Silesia, an Austrian providence, and seized it from new (enlightened) monarch, Maria Theresa. France supports Prussia and Great Britain supports Austria. France and G.B fight each other in India and North America. The outcome was that Prussia doubled in population; no change in North America; and unsolved conflicts would lead to 7 Years War
Caused by unsolved conflicts left over from War of Austrian Succession. Primarily Britain and Prussia against Austria, France, and Russia. Fighting began in North America- British wanted to drive French out of North America (unsuccessful). Maria Theresa tries to win back Silesia but ultimately fails. Ended by Treaty of Paris.
July 14, 1789. Caused by bad harvests and rising bread prices. Rumor that King was planning a military coup against National Assembly. The Bastille was an armory and a prison. A mob attacked it for weapon and gun powder. Louis then lost control of the royal. National Assembly survives.
period where National Convention attempted to carry out the "war against tyranny" through mass execution
country gains independence and becomes Kingdom of the Netherlands
country fails to overthrow Austrian rule (carbonari)
country replaces Charles X with Louis Philippe to prevent return to autocratic rule
Wars between China and Great Britain. G.B wanted to imperialism China and Opium trade was a big money maker. China didn't like the immorality it brought and didn't want to be imperialize --> fought back but G.B won
country tries to unify Germany but fails when leader takes back his offer to rule, reestablishing German Confederation
country maintains control over Hungarian and Italian nationalists
country becomes a republic and then goes back to an empire
Russia lost to an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of the United Kingdom and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense.
Against the rule of the British East India Company. began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the cantonment of the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions. Led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858. It also led the British to reorganise the army, the financial system and the administration in India. The country was thereafter directly governed by the crown as the new British Raj.
War fought in 1866 between the German Confederation under the leadership of the Austrian Empire and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the other, that resulted in Prussian dominance over the German states. In the Italian unification process, this is called the Third Independence War. The major result of the war was a shift in power among the German states away from Austrian and towards Prussian hegemony, and impetus towards the unification of all of the northern German states in a Kleindeutsches Reich that excluded the German Austria. It saw the abolition of the German Confederation and its partial replacement by a North German Confederation ("Norddeutscher Bund") that excluded Austria and the other South German states. The war also resulted in the Italian annexation of the Austrian province of Venetia.
Meiji rulers restored the power to the Emperor Meiji. Although there were Emperors before Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. Led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and the emergence of Japan as a modernized nation in the early twentieth century.
War between France and Prussia. Conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification. Prussia wins and France must cease Alsace-Lorraine to Prussia and pay for war reparations. War leaves France very bitter and leads to alliances and anger during WWI.
The February Revolution was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. It was centered on Petrograd, then Russian capital, on Women's Day in March. The revolution was confined to the capital and its vicinity, and lasted less than a week. As more and more troops deserted, and with loyal troops away at the Front, the city fell into chaos, leading to the overthrow of the Tsar.
In January 1923 France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr, an industrial area of German bordering their own countries. This region, full of factories and coalmines, contained resources the French and Belgia
Fought between the Republicans, who were loyal to the democratic, left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, and the Nationalists, a falangist group led by General Francisco Franco. The Nationalists won, and Franco then ruled Spain. Germany and Italy interfered and aided on the nationalists side.
Major battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it marked a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. It followed the First Battle of El Alamein, which had stalled the Axis advance into Egypt.
major battle on the Eastern Front of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad in Southern Russia, on the eastern boundary of Europe. Marked by constant close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians by air raids, it is often regarded as one of the single largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. Was a turning point in the European theatre of World War II; German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to replace their losses.
"Cold" because no military fighting ever really occurred between U.S and S.U. "War" between S.U and U.S of economics and politics. U.S wanted to rid communism in the world, S.U wanted to further it.
Period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II. Failed
event in Ireland that led to a 25% drop in population
the outbreak of plague (mostly bubonic) in the mid 14th century that killed 25-50% of Europe's population
A period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy. Going from Mideval times to modern times. Began in Florence w/ wealthy ppl. flaunting their wealth and hiring artists to do work (such as paint)
The reciprocal importance and exploration of plants and animals between Europe
the effort of the late 1500s and 1600s to reform the Catholic Church from within; also called the Counter-Reformation
Reaction to Protestant Ref, made to inspire religious piety, INTENSE religious scenes, inspire awe in the viewer for secular (i.e. political) purposes, super intense light/dark contrast.
Know: Louis XIV's Versailles palace*, Caravaggio
*Note: Versailles is NOT rococo! Everyone seems to think it is, but remember it was designed to make people feel small and insignificant compared to the king! Rococo was the noble's reaction AFTER Louis' death.
Reaction to Louis XIV's absolutism/ absolutism in general, depicted nobles in their frivolous everyday life, VERY ornamental, "useless".
Return to classical Greek and Roman designs in painting and architecture (like the pillars in buildings, etc).
During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes.
Caused by tensions between slaves, freemen, Creoles, and Whites in Hati. Many slaves heard about the French revolution and wanted that change in Hati- led to civil war. Napoleon sent French troops but they were defeated. Hati gains it's independence.
a distinctive practice, system, or philosophy, typically a political ideology or an artistic movement.
the principle of separation of the state from religious institutions.
Prejudice against Jews
A hierarchical system of government and agriculture based on private contract. Land, worked by serfs attached to it, was held by vassals in exchange for military service and other duties to lords.
The emphasis on the unique and creative personality. the principle that the purposes of the human individual possess dignity and worth that take precedence over communal, metaphysical, cosmological, or religious priorities.
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
The practice of holding several church offices
A revival of Platonic philosophy in the third century C.E., associated with Plotinus; a similar revival in the Italian Renaissance, associated with Marsilio Ficino, who attempted to synthesize Christianity and Platonism
Closely related to imperialism. the idea that countries should settle their own people (establish colonies) in lands they conquer to manage the economic exploitation of the area and to govern it.
The appointment of family members to important political positions; derived from the regular appointment of nephews (Latin, nepos) by renaissance popes
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by favoring exporting rather than importing.
Protestant denomination that believes in absolute power of God and predestination
A form of government in which the king has complete control
English movement of philosophers who wanted to "deduce the right form of institutions from the very nature of and psychology of man himself." Favored universal manhood suffrage and reform of Parliament.
The belief that God exists and created the world but thereafter assumed no control over it or over the lives of people; God is a "watch maker."
Absolute rule justifies not on grounds of heredity or divine right. Secular in outlook and justification, as in Frederick the Great's self-description as "the first servant of the state." Used to rationalize and organize the state from the top down during the Age of the Enlightenment. Other example is Joseph II of Austria
Idea of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) that the object of conduct and legislation is to achieve, "the greatest good for the greatest number." There is a strong relativist component since the morality of an action is defined by its utility: does it cause pleasure or pain? Bentham defines "good" as that which gives pleasure or stops pain and "bad" as that which gives pain.
Economic system in which capital is controlled my individuals, not by the state. The economy grows through the efforts of each individual to make the most profit. Possession of the property is the foundation for personal independence and political liberty.
Movement in art, music and literature that was a reaction against the classical period. Themes included emotion, supernatural, nationalism, historical themes, nature, true love (often unrequited) and death.
19th century political philosophy supported mostly by business and professional men. They support only limited suffrage. They favor freedom for the individual, so they fear the "mob."strong emphasis on the rights of property., Generally they favored laissez-faire economics, especially at the beginning of the 19th century - keep the government out of the economy and let each individual have as much freedom as possibly to improve himself. Advocated free trade (so they opposed mercantilism). Generally, they opposed militarism. Favors constitutionalism "stake in society" theory, and nationalism, because of the idea that people should be governed with their own consent.
a political philosophy that favors tradition (in the sense of various religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs) in the face of external forces for change, and is critical of proposals for radical social change.
Idea that the government should manage the economy, or aspects of the economy for the good of the people. These people in the 19th century agreed that workers were unfairly treated, opposed competition as a principle of economic behaviors, rejected laissez-faire and questioned the validity of the concept of private property.
A form of government and a way to manage the economy that puts all power in the hands of the Communist Party, ostensibly to manage the country for the good of the "people."
The desire of a country to take over and exploit foreign lands, usually inhabited by people of different ethnicity or religion. Economic motive is to acquire raw materials.
Art and literature movement that followed Romanticism. Closely allied with realpolitik in government. as a philosophy, it is a "kind of unrealistic faith in the constructive value struggle and a tough-minded rejection of ideas and ideals."
French art movement started around 1871 with Monet's "Impression of the Sunrise" at Salon des Refuses in Paris
The idea that Jews should have a nation in the land of Israel. First articulated by Theodor Herzl in 1896, in response to anti-Semitism, unleashed by the Dreyfus case.
The idea that life is a struggle and only the fittest groups of people can survive.
centered on man instead of God
"Nationalism on steroids." Also a hierarchical economic system not unlike feudalism except that everyone is working at the behest of and for the benefit of the state.
The organization of a state that has complete control over every aspect of the individual's life and in which the goal of the individual is to serve the state.
An individual; usually a human being.
Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
first feminist who refuted myths about women
He was a humanist, and sometimes known as the first modern historian. His most famous work was the History of Florentine People. This book was known as the first modern book because of its three part view of history, antiquity, Middle Ages, and modern.
humanist figure who exposed the Donation of Constantine as a forgery
The crisis in the late medieval church when there were first two, then three popes; ended by the Council of Constance
Florentine dynasty of successful merchants, patrons of the arts, and future popes
Christian humanist who wrote The Praise of Folly and wanted a reform of the Catholic Church
Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Devised a model of the universe with the Sun at the center, and not earth. Began Scientific Revolution.
An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
Humanist. Beheaded by Henry VIII because he refused the Act of Supremacy. He wrote Utopia
humanist figure who wrote The Courtier and encouraged personal growth
main figure of Protestant Reformation and author of "Ninety-five Theses on the Power of Indulgences"
founder of Society of Jesus
figure of Protestant Reformation who wrote "Institutes of the Christian Religion" and believed in absolute power of God
radical Christian group that believed in adult baptism and separation of church from state
Christian humanist who popularized essay as a literary genre and expressed his doubts about the universe
politique who brought many Protestant ideas into Church of England, let people practice whatever religion they wanted at home, and resisted invasion of Spanish Armada
scientist known for inductive reasoning
term for French Calvinists
Figure of scientific revolution who used controlled experiments, formalized concept of inertia, and looked at space with telescope
Figure of scientific revolution who created three laws of planetary motion
Discovered the circulation of blood and the role of the heart in propelling it. Developed an accurate theory of how the heart and ciculatory system operated.
Figure of scientific revolution who used deductive reasoning and believed in Cartesian dualism
Swedish ruler during Thirty Years' War whose death caused France to help Sweden
chief minister under Louis XIII who essentially controlled France, sided with Protestants in the Thirty Years' War, and minimized power of nobles
English philosopher who believed in protecting natural rights
Figure of scientific revolution who published "Principia," created three laws of motion, and discussed idea of "world machine"
English military dictator and lord protector who dismissed Parliament
Russian tsar of Romanov Dynasty responsible for westernization and militarization
Enlightenment figure who promoted religious tolerance and the separation of church from state
Enlightenment figure who promoted emotion over rationalism, also wrote "The Social Contract" and believed in general will
Enlightenment figure who published "Encyclopedia" and promoted social progress and reform
economist who wrote "Wealth of Nations" and promoted economic liberalism
Jacobin leader of Committee of Public Safety who was executed to put an end to the Reign of Terror
economist who believed population will always grow faster than food supply
emperor of France from 1804 to 1814 who used domestic policy to maintain popularity and order
economist who came up with Iron Law of Wages
very radical republicans who wanted the execution of the king
moderate republicans who didn't want the execution of the king
radical group of laboring poor who helped overthrow Louis XVI and took over Paris' municipal government
corrupt five-man executive (accompanied by legislature) formed in 1795 that began weak dictatorship over France
romantic artist who painted Liberty Leading the People
piece written by Martin Luther against clerical abuses and sale of indulgences
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
The excommunication of Luther-never carried out
A doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church during the Eucharist of the bread and wine
Designed to tighten the government's control over trade between England, its colonies, and the rest of the world.
Set of English laws protecting individual rights and establishing relationship between king and Parliament
Third Estate decides to write a new constitution and forms National Assembly
Prevent unlawful combinations of workmen, prohibited trade unions and collective bargaining by British workers.
Law code for France. Purpose was to reform French legal caudate reflect principles of French Revolution. Equality of citizens before law and abolition of serfdom and feudalism. Sadly, any gains made by women previously were lost because of the Napoleonic code.
The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundesversammlung on 20 September 1819 after a conference held in the spa town of Carlsbad, Bohemia.
Expanded the electorate for the House of Commons and rationalized the representation of that body.
Young children were working very long hours in workplaces where conditions were often terrible. The basic act was as follows: no child workers under nine years of age. Meant improve conditions for children working in factories.
Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It prohibited (banned) all girls and boys under ten years old from working underground in coal mines. It was a response to the working conditions of children revealed in the Children's Employment Commission (Mines) 1842 report.
The Enabling Act was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet - in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler - the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag.
Took away a myriad of Jewish rights. Jews could no longer vote, marry a non jewish person, and lost German citizenship and all rights that accompanied it.
Purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization. Split Germ. into 4 zones each zone given to each allied winner. Russia promised free elections in Eater Europe. Agreed on unconditional surrender of Germany. Nuremberg trials.
Plan of containment and aided western European nations, Africa, and Asia as long as they didn't succumb to communism. Helped repair war torn countries.
Written in the vernacular. Describes hell, heaven, and purgatory with a great deal of humanism. Portrays historical and contemporary figures. Considered the bridge between Medieval literature and Renaissance.
Giovanni Boccaccio, Important because of the humanism predominant in the diaries of the individuals fleeing the Plague. A very good description of the disease
collection of tales from a variety of people from different social backgrounds. Showed humanism through their materialism, sensual, and worldly interests
Erasmus, A satirical social critique of the Church, advocating for more scriptural-based doctrines. Criticized punishments for heresy. Sowed the seeds for the Reformation. Think social reform in the Northern Renaissance.
Had influence on modern political thought and practice. Taught what it took to be a good ruler. "It is better to be loved and feared", "Being able to conduct war is of utmost important", "There is a time and place for cruelty and deception". Very controversial, gave rise to the famous quote "The ends justify the means."
A critique on contemporary society, advocating for more socialist ideologies, such as the removal of class distinctions, sharing the wealth, etc. Think social reform in the Northern Renaissance.
sought to train, discipline, and fashion young men into an ideal gentlemen ("Renaissance Men"). Includes academics and physical training as well as dance, music, arts
Wanted the new science to be established on mathematics, logic, and philosophy. "I think, therefore I am."
Defended absolute monarchy. In a state of nature, man's life is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Social order must be maintained by absolutism in order for people to feel secure.
Taught that people are by nature good, capable, and cooperative in a state of nature. Served to justify the Glorious Revolution in England.
All ideas are derived from experience. The human mind at birth is a "Tabula Rasa" (blank slate).
Attempt to teach people how to think critically and objectively about all matters
General will (common interests of the people, or popular sovereignty) displaces absolutism.
proclaimed white superiority; there are four races of humanity, all derived from the original white people
The free pursuit of the economic self interesting, laissez-faire, invisible hand theory, greed was good for the economy.
Advocated human rights, attacked the excesses of privilege, attacked the evils of government against man.
The rights of women should be respected. "I wish to persuade women to endeavor to acquire strength, both of mind and body."
Laid out the principles of Marxism. Class struggle, future revolution, the working class overthrowing the middle class bourgeois
Showed the dark side of antiheroes who are usually tormented or criminal.
king of France who created first permanent royal army through taxes
Portuguese leader who founded a school for the study of navigation/geography
humanist figure who wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man and emphasized potential for human greatness
famous female art patron of Renaissance
rulers of Spain who created equivalent of national church, oversaw the Reconquista, and established Spanish Inquisition
first head of the Church of England
Book of Common Prayer
Sharp movement towards Catholicism
son of Charles V who failed as a leader in the Netherlands and lost battles to English Fleet
War of Three Henrys
French king and politique who wrote Edict of Nantes
Henry of Navarre
Edict of Nante
Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Austrian ruler who unified separate states and started process of militarization
French monarch responsible for absolutism and revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Absolutism, no first minister, Versailles
Colbert (finance minister)
English Civil War
English monarch who passed Test Act and restored the monarchy and both houses of Parliament
Prussian king responsible for Prussian absolutism and continuing militarization
ruler of Prussia who wrote new code of law, welcomed religious minorities, and took Silesia
ruler of Russia who continued westernization, ended torture, offered limited religious toleration, and supported education
ruler of Austria who abolished serfdom and promoted religious toleration, even though his reforms didn't last
weak monarch of France who gives in to efforts for a constitutional monarchy and is executed during the Reign of Terror
Agreement between Spain and Portugal. Organized by Pope Alexander VI to end fighting over territory. Everything west of imaginary line, in New world, was given to Spain and everything east was given to Portugal. For the most part, the treaty was honored
France: Francis I and Pope Leo X agree to this in 1516. Compromise to the Pragmatic Sanction
Made the King head of the Anglican church
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
officially recognize Lutheranism, prince chose the religion for their respective country(ies) (No freedom of religion though)
Catholic Henry IV gave religious toleration to the Huguenots
Ended war of Spanish Succession. Let Philip be in control of Spain but made them cede much of their land to England and other world powers. Also, the Peace forbade the Spanish and French thrones from ever combining
Ended 7 years war. Britain won French land in Canada as well as land between Mississippi and Appalachian mountains. Additionally, won domination over India, and gained Florida from Spain.
Napoleon makes peace with Pope Pius VII. Gave church power to appoint clergy, but paid by state. Catholicism was declared the religion of the majority of the Frenchmen.
Held by Metternich after final defeat of Napoleon. The victorious Great Powers (Russia, Great Britain, Austria and Prussia) invited the other states of Europe to send plenipotentiaries to Vienna for a peace conference. Dealt with territorial issues, : the rights of German Jews, the abolition of the slave trade and navigation on European rivers, not to mention the restoration of the Bourbon royal family in France, Spain and Naples, the constitution of Switzerland, issues of diplomatic precedence and, last but not least, the foundation of a new German confederation to replace the defunct Holy Roman Empire.
ease diplomatic tensions
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I.
Peace treaty ended WWI. Wilson proposed 14 points, only League of Nations accepted. U.S wanted to compromise, France wanted to Germany to pay. Germ. had to pay ALL war reparations and cease Alsace-Lorraine back to France. Set grounds for WWII
an international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them." No way to enforce --> failed
The Munich Conference came as a result of a long series of negotiations. Adolf Hitler had demanded the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia; British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain tried to talk him out of it --> failed. Appeasement used.
Promise to fight communism wherever it may arise
The Helsinki Accords were primarily an effort to reduce tension between the Soviet and Western blocs by securing their common acceptance of the post-World War II status quo in Europe. Good example of Detente.