Period 5: 1750-1900 CE (Orange)

Events

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

The Agricultural Revolution allowed for urbanization to occur, which provided a greater amount of workers to become available to work in factories.
This event is important because the upcoming Industrial Revolutions would not have occurred without the urbanization that happened as a result of the increase of food supply due to agricultural innovations.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1900

Between 1750-1900, there were two industrial Revolutions that acted as turning points for civilizations across the globe. The innovations that occurred in both allowed for European powers along with the US to rise in global dominance and for western ideas to spread through imperialism.
This innovative era is important because new innovations allowed for population increases across the globe and created clear distinctions between developed and undeveloped nations as industrialization andes nationalism rose.

improvement of steam engine

1769

The improvement of the steam engine allowed for European imperialism to reach Central Africa, which had been previously untouched by European imperialistic rule.
This event is oficial great importance in the orange period because the balance of power was greatly sought after and was typically won by the nation with the greatest influence abroad.

Opium introduced to Chinese by British

1773

Opium would lead to the opium Wars that left China in shambles after being defeated by the British and would lead to China being forced into unfair trade treaties to survive after such great loses.
This occurance is important because it greatly weakened China and forced China to become dependent on European powers through unfair interactions.

American Revolution

April 19, 1775 - Approx. 1781

The American Revolution was the war between the American colonists and the Britsh super power that would grant the American colonies independence from Britain once won.
The American Revolution is a turning point in history because it was the first event in which Enlightenment ideas were incorporated to help a colonized region to gain independence and establish a democratically run country.

The Wealth of Nations published

1776

With the publication of Adam Smith's ideas, there was a flourish in the popularity of Capitalistic practices.
The publication of this book is important to this time period because it provided an alternative form of economy rather than merchantilism.

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

The revolution in France that overthrew the absolute monarchy in France that was led mainly by the third estate, peasants. During, the revolution, several forms of government were established , but all eventually failed and a monarchy was reestablished..
This revolution is important because it was one of the first attempts of independence that used Enlightenment ideas and would be an influence for the Haitian Revolution.

Invention of Cotton gin

1793

The invention of the cotton gin was a prime key to the growth of industrialization, specifically the textile industry, because cotton was now being produced at a faster rate.
The importance of the cotton gin lies in what it caused because the cotton gin was a catalyst for an increased import of slaves and a growth of the textile industry.

Luddites protest against working conditions

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1850

A group of workers protested working conditions and low wages by destroying equipment in factories in the middle of the night. These workers recieved harsh punishments from the government, who favored business owners.
This event is important because it showed a lack of advocacy for workers' rights politically in the early ages of industrialization and the steps workers took to battle the fact.

Hatian Revolution

1801 - 1804

The Hatian Revolution was the first successful slave revolt that gained influence from the Enlightenment ideas that fueled the French Revolution.
The importance of the Haitian Revolution is in the fact that it was the only successful slave revolt in history.

Slave trade abolished

1807

As soon as upper classes began advocating for workers' rights and social rights reforms started todo appear in societies. Among these reforms was the reform of abolishing the trading of slaves, which was now seen as inhumane according to the ideas presented by Enlightenment thinkers.
This is a turning point in history of great importance because it was the first time that slavery, which has existed since the beginning of civilizations, was widely seen as something unacceptable.

Latin American Revolutions

1810 - 1889

Latin America was able to gain independence from its longtime oppressors, Spain and Portugal, with the help of some Creole sympathizers, Miguel Hidalgo andes José de San Martín, among some others, José Morelos and Simón Bolívar.
These intertwined revolutions are important because they completely transformed Latin America from a main source of raw materials to a small time producing continent and would now allow the US to be more involved as an imperial power, in its own way, in Latin and Central America.

Battle of Waterloo

1813

The battle in which Austria, Britain, and Russia joined forces to halt Napolean's attempt at returning from exile to regain posee. As a result of Napolean's defeat, Napolean was exiled to the island of St. Helen, where he would later die.
This battle is important because it not only caused France to be restablized, but also put measures in place that would prevent another Napolean from rising.

Monroe Doctrine

1823

The doctrine that President Monroe declared in his State of the Union Address that prohibited European aggression from reaching the Western Hemisphere.
This doctrine is important because its shows the alternative method in which the US approached imperialism between 1750 and 1900.

Factory Act of 1833

1833

This act was passed by the British Parliament that limited workday hours, restricted the use of child labor in factories, and required factories to improve working conditions.
This act is important in history because it was one of the first signs of reforms in acknowledgement of the consequences of the Industrial Revolution.

The Communist Manifesto is published

1848

The Communist Manifesto presented the ideas that the working class would revolt , which would result in the workers controlling the means of production, and that all instruments of power were against the workers, making them untrustworthy.
This book is important because it would act as the foundation for communism in later years.

Commodore Matthew Perry lands in japan

1853

The arrival of Commodore Perry in Japan would lead to Japan being forced to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa. This treaty would greatly favor the United States and other powerful, industrialized countries both politically and economically. Commodore Perry's landing in Japan was important because this intrusion would also trigger the Meiji Restoration that would allow Japan to rise out of China's shadow through industrialization and adopting western ways.

Sepoy Rebellion

1857

The Sepoys, Indians who worked for the British East Indian Company, rebelled once they discovered that their cartridges were greased with pork and beef fat. These cartridges had to be bitten to be properly loaded, but the fats used violated both Hindu and Muslim dietary laws.
This event is important because it resulted in the British parliament seizing control of India from the East India Company and made India a crown colony.

Invention of lightbulb

1876

The invention of the lightbulb would make working conditions for factory workers even worse because workers were now forced to work all day and night.
The lightbulb is important because production was able to boom with longer work hours and conditions became more dangerous.

maxim gun invented

1880

The invention of the maxim gun made imperialistic efforts led by Europeans much more deadly and efficient.
The maxim gun is an important invention from the Orange period because the maxim gun allowed for an easier method for imperialism, which gave nations more colonies that would increase industrial production and grow the available markets across the globe.

Sino-French War

1883

The war in which the French prevailed over the Chinese and gained control oficial Vietnam, which would become French Indochina.
This war is important to this time period because israelíes it showcases the crumbling of China's Manchu Dynasty that would lead to the first republic in China being established.

Indian National Congress formed

1885

The formation of the Indian National Congress allowed India to further its slow movement towards independence, but British customs were still being adapted into society.
The formation of this congress was important because it gave Indians a greater say in how India was maintained rather than allowing the British to rule the colony without a suggestion of acting in the interests of those living in India.

foot binding was abolished

1905

This change in the social norms of Chinese society showed an apparent loss of the Confucian teachings that had been used since the early dynasties of China.
The end of foot binding in Chinese society was important because marked the spread of westernization as women were then need to be mobile and work in factories.