Mesopotamia formed as one of the River Valley Civilizations.
The River Valley Civilization of Egypt formed.
The first pharaoh, Menes united the Upper and Lower Kingdoms under one rule
The first wheel was invented and heavily used.
The Indus civilization grew during this time period and was based on farming, which was learned by the Mesopotamians. This civilization was highly organized and covered over 600 miles. Many of the homes built during this time were better than the houses built in India today.
Indus (India) River Valley formed.
Between 1750 BC and 1500 BC the Shang Dynasty began along the Yellow River. The Shang developed a writing system and combined animism and ancestor worship to form their own religion.
The River Valley Civilization of China formed.
The Hebrews left Ur in Mesopotamia and traveled with their leader Abraham. Abraham lead them to the Amorites, whom which they settled with.
This was the most powerful time for Egypt. Egypt expanded into an empire during this time by taking control of lands. Defeated lands included: Nubia.
During this time period, Hebrews were heavily used as slaves by the pharaohs.
Lydia was established as a small kingdom in Turkey.
Phoenicia began as one of the small kingdoms. Phoenicians were excellent seafarers and invented the alphabet.
Several small kingdoms formed and became influential after the fall of Egypt and Mesopotamia.
By 1000 BC the Hebrews had developed their own kingdom. Ruling kings included: David, Solomon, and Saul.
Jerusalem becomes the capital city and the Hebrews began writing the first written records of oral traditions. This writing was the begining of the Old Testament.
Greece began during this time period.
Civilizations in the Mediterranean Wolrd began to form and rise to power.
This was the first period in Greece. During this time cities were centered on the polis and built around hills. Important people during this time period were Homer and Hesiod. People began to turn from mysteries to rational thinking.
The first Olympic Games began in the 700's. They were held at the bottom of Mt. Olympus in honor of Zeus.
Siddhartha was born as a prince sometime between 500 and 600 BC. He was influential in Buddhism.
Confucious is born in 551.
The Roman Republic lasted until 27 BC. In this republic, representatives for the people governed. They borrowed some ideas from the Greeks, such as religion.
Ancient Rome began and had a rise in power.
The Classical Period was the second time period in Greece. During this time period, people became more intellectual. Many different philosophers and news ideas came to light. Philosophers include Thales, Anaximander, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Antigone, Hippocrates, and Pythagoras.
During this period, Greeks now know they aren't the center of the Wolrd, Greek city-states become part of a kingdom, and Greek men become subjects instead of citizens.
All the Punic Wars were fought between Rome and Carthage. They fought over, in, and around Sicily. There were a series of victories for Rome.
The Punic Wars official ended around 27 years ago with a pact signed by both of the major cities.
Carthage invaded Italy by way of Spain, which triggered the start of the war.
The Han Dynasty lasted from 206 BC to 220 AD.
This was the last of the Punic Wars. Rome besieged Carthage when its citizens refused to move 10 miles in land.
Tiberius Gracchus proposes land reform, gives wheat to the hungry, builds racetracks, institutes gladiators, and proposes that he be re-elected.
Julius Caesar was a Roman politician and general. He played a large role in the demise of the Roman Republic. He was assasinated in 44 BC.
Caesar was nominated to be Flamen Dialis, which was Jupiter's highest priest.
In the beginning starting at 69 BC, Caesar was elected quaestor, went to Hispania, and was elected aedile. Then leading up around 69 BC he was elected Pontifex and Praetor.
Caesar divorced his wife after the festival of Bona Dea and later was appointed governmor of Hispania.
Senate orders Caesar to disband and return to Rome, Pompey accuses him of treason, and he crosses over the Rubicon River with one legion of soldiers. Pompey flees the city, surrenders, and then Caesars takes control of Rome later becoming a dictator.
He was appointed dictator of Rome again, went to the Middle East, receives the Queen of Egypt as a guest, and ends an uprising against Rome in Africa.
During this time, Caesar is appointed dictator, elected consulate, and then resigns dictatorship.
He was elected the 4th term as consul, made his great-nephew Octavian his heir, established 365 days in a year, established the leap year, and put his face on coins.
Caesar was supposed to speak to the senate but was murdered by the senators. Mark Anthony tried to warn him.
At this battle, Mark Anthony killed himself and Cleopatra was captured. Eventually, she kills herself too.
Octavian changes his name to Caesar Augustus and becomes the first Roman Emperor.
Pax Romana (Roman Peace) started with the reign of Augustas and lasted until the end of Marcus Aurelius' rule.
An educated, Roman Paul Tarsus had a vision and began to preach and transforms Christianity from a Jewish sect to a religion open to anyone.
As a result of wars and conflict, most of Rome was burnt to the ground by this time period.
In the 200s the Franks began moving into the Rhine valley and clashing with the Romans.
Diocletian was selected as emperor by the army at the death of the previous emperor.
Diocletian had established peace in the empire.
During the winter of 302 and 303, the Oracle of Apollo couldn't give advice to Diocletian because of the Christians. So he issued an "Edict of Christians." This was the persecution of anything Christian.
Diocletian became ill in 304 and eventually had no choice step down. He was abdicated from the throne on May 1, 305. He was the first to do so.
Constantine was now in the throne and issued the Edict of Milan. This ended persecution od Christians and returend their property.
Diocletian died at the end of 311, it was a possible suicide.
Constantine acted as a judge in North Africa using Christianity to enforce his army.
This was the first council where all church leaders came together. They decided when to have Easter and the idea of Trinity was developed. The Nicene Creed was also issued.
Constantine rebuilt the city of Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople. He ruled the Roman Empire from Constantinople rather than Rome.
He made Christianity the official religion in the Empire, started to persecute other religions, and was the last emperor of the entire Roman Empire.
The Great Wall of China was built between the 5th and 16th centuries.
This was the time period of the Middle Ages.
Western Rome fell to the Visigoths with the fall of the city of Rome on September 4, 476.
After the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476, trade virtually died in Europe. Manors grew or made everything that they needed, becoming self-sufficient.
In 481 Clovis became king of one of the tribes.
After the fall of the Han, many invaders entered China, eventually adopting Chinese customs but keeping the area unstable until the late 500’s.
By the 500s the Yamato rulers had extended their control over much of Hon-shu. They began to call themselves teh emperors of all Japan.
Around 500 a young monk named Benedict was disgusted with the corruption he witnessed in Rome and lived a hermit’s life. He became famous for his holiness and attracted many followers. He established rules to govern the lives of monks, known as the Benedictine Rule. He later became Saint Benedict.
Muhammad was born to a poor clan in a ruling tribe Mecca.
In 586, the Sui managed to reunite China and build the Grand Canal.
Prince Shptku served as regent until 621. He made Buddhusm popular and attempted to consolidate more power for the emperor, but was oposed by clan leaders.
The Tang came to power in 618 by defeating the Turkish invaders.
In 622 Muhammad and his followers left Mecca and settled in Yathrib. This is known as the Hijrah.
Muhammad moved back to Mecca, destroyed the idols in the Kaaba, and rededicated it to the worship of Allah.
Pepin was one of the mayors and when he became the ruler he reunited the Frankish kingdoms.
Emperor Leo III ordered the destruction of icons. In the West church leaders condemned icons.
In 732 the Spanish Moors invaded. Martel’s cavalry stopped the Muslim advance, though raids continued
Charlemagne became king in 768 and ruled for 46 years.
751 Pépin is anointed king and begins the Carolingian dynasty.
The Pope called all the bishops together to discuss the controversy over worshiping icons. The council decided it was heresy to not allow icons. Iconoclasts were threatened with excommunication.
This year marked the beginining of the Golden Age of the arts in Japan. Arts Consisted of fashion, literature, and religion.
Danes took over much of England between the 800’s and 1000’s
Charlemagne was in Rome, worshipping at St. Peter’s Basilica. When he knelt to pray, the pope put a crown on his head and named him “Emperor of the Romans."
Treaty of Verdun ended a 3 year civil war and divided the empire. Lothair received the Middle Kingdom, Charles the Bald received the Western Kingdom, and Louis the German received the Eastern Kingdom.
After the start of Feudalism, by the 900s most of Europe was governed by this system.
World’s first printed book was the Diamond Sutra a Buddhist religious text.
By 870 the Middle Kingdom had been chopped up and divided between the Eastern and Western Kingdoms. Lords in these kingdoms were powerful and started to defy the Carolingian monarchs.
In 951 Pope John XII asked for his help in fighting against the Roman nobles.
When Otto defeated the nobles, the Pope rewarded him by crowning him Emperor of the Romans in 962.
The last Carolingian King died in 987 and then the Capetian linetook over. They ruled for 300 years.
Before 1000 the Vikings had used Kiev as a trading base to get to Constantinople.
This was the time period of the High Middle Ages.
As one of the few women writers, Around 1000 she wrote The Tale of Genji. This was the world's first full-length novel.
Between 1000 and the late 1200s 4 great universities developed. These universities were Paris, Oxford, Bologna, and Salerno. By the 1400s many more universites had opened in Europe.
Romanesque was the favored style used in the architecture of churches.
In 1042, Danish kings died out and Anglo-Saxons chose Edward the Confessor as their king.
This was the time that Henry ruled. He thought that the church was part of his imperial power.
The Roman Church split into two parts. The Roman Catholic Church, which allowed icons was in the west. The Eastern Orthodox Church, which didn't allow icons was in the east. Churches are still separate today, but EOC allows icons now.
Henry traveled through the harsh winter weather to meet with Gregory at Canossa. When Henry arrived, the Pope made him wait for 3 days out in the cold. Henry then apologized and begged for mercy. Gregory forgave him and Henry went back to fight his nobles.
This was led by the French and Italian lords, who captured Jerusalem, andtraded between Europe and the Holy Lands.
In the 1100’s navigators learned how to magnetize needles, by the 1300’s they had begun to make compasses with marked directions.
By the late 1100s a code of conduct began known as Chivalry. This was the set of rules that dictated knights behavior.
he Song of Roland was written in 1100 and talks about Charlemagne’s wars against the Moors. The poem includes chivalrous values, loyalty, bravery, love and sorrow.
By the late 1100s, Heian was the great center of Japanese art and literature. The rest of Japan was different with nobles fighting overland and other fights throughout Japan. This fighting ruined the lands.
During the mid 1100’s the Gothic style developed and became popular.
In 1122 both sides met in the city of Worms. The Concordat of Worms ended the controversy, allowed the emperor to give fiefs to bishops, but only the pope could name the bishops. The Concordat of Worms ended that disagreement, but emperors continued to interfere in Italian politics and popes continued to interfere in German politics.
This was led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany. This was an epic failed and nothing was accomplished.
Two of these powerful clans went to war with each other in the 1150s. For almost 30 years, the two clans fought.
Frederick I ruled Germany from 1152 – 1190.
Khan was the fiercest Mongol Leader of the Mongol Empire.
King Philip took back much of the lands England had taken. Philip taxed the clergy to get more power and money for the king.
In 1192 Minamoto finally took the title as shogun, a general who ruled Japan in the emperor's name. When he died, he passed his title and power on to one of his children. For about the next 700 years, one shogun would rule in Japan.
Innocent was the strongest medieval pope. He believed that kings and emperors wereonly servants of the churcha dn he had the authority to settle all problems.
In the early 1200s, Genghis led the Mongols to capture much of China, Central Asia and Persia.
In the early 1200’s the Church was the wealthiest institution in Europe due to taxation.
This ended with the Muslum capture of Acre in 1291. The overall goal of the crusades was not achieved.
In 1215, a group of barons rebelled against John. This forced him to sign the Magna Carta
1273 the ruler of a small state in Switzerland was elected emperor.
In 1274 Kublai Khan attempted to invade Japan, but failed. The Mongols failed due to a typhoon.
In 1281 the Mongols tried again, with 2 armies. The attempt was again defeated due to another storm.
In 1294 King Philip IV of France ordered the French clergy to pay taxes.
This was the time period of "rebirth" and reformation.
The Hanseatic League established trading posts in England, Flanders, Russia and Scandinavia. The large climb in trade during the 1300 and 1400’s was a direct result of the Hanseatic League. The League suppressed piracy, dredged waterways, built lighthouses and canals, established courts to settle disputes among members, and monopolized trade in certain goods.
After the death of Boniface, Philip had a French pope elected. People thought the French kings had too much control over the French popes.
2 teachers at the University of Paris wrote Defender of the Faith which said that the pope only had power over the church.
In 1328 the last Capetian kingdied and King Edward claimed the throne.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflcts between France and England that lasted for 116 years.
The Black Plague hit Europe and began to spread through Asia due to the trading. About 1/3 of Europe died due to the disease.
In 1356 Emperor Charles IV, trying to regain power, changed the rules so that only 7 people elected each new emperor.
The Ming finally defeated the Mongols in 1368 and attempted to get rid of all Mongol influence.
Gregory XI moved the papacy back to Rome in 1377. Until 1417 the church had 2, sometimes 3, popes at once. This period is called the Great Schism.
The Wall was improved and reinforced in the late 1400’s to keep out the Mongols.
New discoveries and technological advances were made during this time.
Spain and Portugal had both claimed some of the same new lands by the late 1400’s. To settle their disputes, the Pope issued an edict which drew an imaginary line through the Atlantic Ocean.
The Chinese traveled as far as India by 1405 and in 1415 they reached Arabia, Middle East.
Council of Constance removed the Italian and French popes, a third abdicated and a new pope was elected.
In 1429 Joan convinced a garrison commander to allow her an escort to visit the Dauphin’s court in Chinon. She wore mens clothing to keep safe. Joan of Arc impressed the Dauphin’s court and was allowed to travel with the relief army to Orléans. Supporters equipped her with a horse, white armor, shield, sword, banner and entourage.
In May 1430 Joan was captured while covering a retreat. She tried to escape several times. Once she jumped 70 feet out of a window.
In early 1483 Parliament declared the Prince Edward and Prince Richard illegitimate. They were placed in the Tower of London and they were never seen alive or dead again after that summer.
The period between the late 1400’s and the 1700’s was when Europeans made major economic changes is known as the Commercial Revolution.
In 1450 Johannes Gutenberg created a printing press with moveable type. Gutenberg’s first printed books were Bibles.
This was a war for the throne of England. The House of York challenged the House of Lancaster for the throne of England.
Ferdinand and Isabella united Spain with their marriage in 1479.
Henry Tudor of the House of Lancaster defeated Richard III of York.
In 488 sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and found the Indian Ocean. This made direct trade with India possible.
Columbus wanted to travel west across the Atlantic to reach Asia, instead he found North and South America. He thought it was Asia.
In 1492 they captured Granada and added Navarre in 1515.
Maximilian I became Holy Roman Emperor and followed family tradition.
In 1497 King Henry VII sent John Cabot exploring.
From the mid-1500’s until the mid-1600’s Europe had an outburst of “witch hunts.”
During the 1500’s Europe wanted to colonize places that had a lot of gold, silver and raw materials that their home country didn’t have.
This was the time period where the Monarchs had much of the power.
Spain began its peak in the 1500s which lead up to many of its discorveries and advances.
In 1513 Ponce de Leon discovered Florida.
The Portuguese reached China in 1514.
In 1517 Martin Luther posted the Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral. The Ninety-Five Theses claimed that indulgences were useless.
1519 – Cortes invaded Mexico, conquering the Aztecs.
During the 1520’s and 1530’s many new religious groups appeared in Germany and Switzerland. These were called sects, which slowly died out due to unpopularity.
Pope Leo X declared Luther a heretic and excommunicated him.
In the 1530's the counter reformation began, which was the Catholic Church's attempt to reform.
1530 Pizarro claimed land from Ecuador to Chile for Spain.
Ignatius de Loyola founded the Jesuits in 1534. They believed that part of being a Christian was doing good deeds.
In 1555 the emperor and the princes signed the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed each German ruler to choose the religion for his state. His subjects either had to accept that religion or move.
By 1557 the Chinese allowed a trading station.
In 1580 Spain overtook Portugal. Portugal finally regained their independence over 100 years, but by then they had lost almost all of their colonies to other nations.
Henry was the first Bourbon king. The Bourbons were the last French royal family. Henry was killed in 1610 by a fanatic.
British East India Company received charter from Queen Elizabeth I. They Set up trade centers in Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Built overseas trade for England, and Became an unofficial extension of the British government over it’s 260 years.
The British began to trade with China in the late 1600’s. The British were interested in trading to gain silk and tea.
This was an important period where lands and territories were expanded.
In 1603 a man named Tokugawa became shogun. This began the Tokugawa Shognate rule. This lasted until 1868.
Michael Romanov was elected czar in 1613. Czars ruled Russia for the next 300 years.
n 1617 Louis took full control of the government. His chief advisor was Cardinal Richelieu.
In 1618 the Thirty Years’ War began as a Protestant Rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire and spread into a war involving all of the major European powers. This resulted in a new map of Europe. The war was ended by the Peace of Westphalia.
Richelieu began to take rights away from hugenots and began attacking huguenot towns in 1627. In 1628 they asked for peace and Ruchelieu took away their ability to have fortified cities.
Some of these shoguns feared that Japan would become too much like Europe, and the shoguns would lose their power. To prevent this, the shogun closed Japan off from the rest of the world in the 1630’s.
In 1643 Louis XIV became King of France and ruled for 72 years. He was thelngest reigning king of any European Monarch. He took the thrown as a child.
The Manchu conquered Beijing and ruled China from 1644-1912.
Louis fought 4 wars between 1667 and 1713. Other countries in Europe were worried about what Louis would do, so they allied against France.
In 1674, during renovations in the White Tower the skeletons of 2 children were discovered. The king ordered them buried in Westminster. They were dug up again and examined in 1933 where they determined they belonged to children.
Peter became the new car until 1725. His biggest goal was to make Russia like the rest of Europe. He founded St. Petersburg.
In 1685 Louis dissolved the Edict of Nantes, which ended France’s policy of religious tolerance.
By the early 1700’s the French army was the largest and most powerful army in Europe.
The Habsburg dynasty ended with the death of the king in the 1700’s with Maria Theresa, the Great-Grandmother of Europe.
Russia regains there access to the Baltic Sea.
The Industrial Revolution is made possible by improvements in Agriculture. During this time therewere many improvements and advancements made in transportaion, agriculture, and technology.
The Enlightenment was a time period when people believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature.
In 1713 the treaty was signed. It recognized Philip as king of Spain, but he had to renounce any claim to the French throne and it gave French American lands to England.
In 1740, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI died and left his lands to his daughter, Maria Theresa.
This war was fought over Silesia and created the Diplomatic Sanction, which was a change in alliances between countries.
The war involved most of Europe and took place in Europe, North America and India. It began when the Prussians invaded France and Austria. It ended when Empress Elizabeth of Russia died and Czar Peter III stopped fighting. There was no clear winner.
By the 1760’s the British Empire was considered to be the greatest colonial power in the world.
By the time Peter died in 1786, Frederick the Great had made Prussia into a major power.
Germany and Italy finally became unified in the late 1800s.
The Holy Roman Empire stood until it fell in the 1800s.
The Austria-Hungary Empire declares war on Serbia because they assassinated the Archduke.
After 1815, the European rulers were reactionaries. They wanted to return to the way things were before the French Revolution and Napoléon.
The Opium War was a war between China and Great Britain over tea and opium trading. The Treaty of Nanjing ended the war.
This was caused by the attempt to start a new dynasty that would rid China of Europeans and an attempt to get rid of Christianity. It resulted in the weakening of the Qing Dynasty and China which allowed more Europeans to enter.
China lost another war to Britain, allowing Britain more ports, more land, more trading privileges.
This was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial, and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China towards the end of the Qing Dynasty.
Neo-Confucianism and its focus on ethics became the main religion until the early 1900’s.
By 1900 France, Germany, England, Russia and Japan had large spheres of influence in China. Open Door Policy was later created.
Sun Yixian led revolts in China. Then in February of 1912, the emperor was abdicated.
Foot binding was practiced for over 1000 years, only becoming illegal in 1912 and finally ending sometime in the 1940’s.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated.
The first Wolrd War begans, It is also known as the Great War.
Due to alliances Russia supports Serbia.
Germany devlares war on Russia.
Germany invades Belgium and declares war on france.
German forces drive French troops back and 27,000 soldiers die on the 22nd alone.
During August 26-30 Germany halts the Russian advance.
Eventually the front line stretches all the way from switzerland to the north sea.
hells including dianisidine chlorosulfonate were fired at British troops. This was the earliest time chemicals were introduced to WWI.
The ottoman empire joins the side of the central powers. The turks isolate the Russians by closing down access to the Black sea.
This was the longest battle of World War I.
A battle fought by the British and French armies against the German Empire.
The Treaty of Versailles surfaced five years after the assassination of the Archduke and ended the war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
By June the businessmen of Shanghai had joined the students in their strike. The people of the May 4 Movement failed to acheive their goals.
On this day students from 13 universitiesmet and agreedon 5 resolutions and began protesting for their rights.
During the 1920's the first pieces of evidence were found of the Indus Civilization.
The Chinese Communist Party was founded.
Sun Yixian died in 1925 and a military commander took over leadership of the Nationalists. This was Chaing Kai-shek.
After 1927, Communists escaped to southwest China and set up their own government, copying the Soviet Union’s government.
In 1927 the threat of communism was beginning to be eliminated.
In the 1930's Chiang used the military to try and eliminate communism for good.
Nationalists repeatedly attacked the Communists,forcing them to again flee. The Long March had over 100,000 communists participating.
Japan attacked China opening the Pacific Theater. During the war the Communists and Nationalists paused their civil war to join together and fight against the Japanese Invaders. The uneasy truce didn't last beyind the Japanese surrender in 1945.
n 1945, right after Japan surrendered, China’s civil war resumed.
n 1949, the Communists finally defeated the Nationalists. Then Chiang Kai-shek took the Nationalists and fled to the island of Taiwan, forming their own government there.
China and the Soviet Union were both Communists and allies in the 1950’s.
The Communists wanted to turn China into a modern and industrialized nation. Then in 1953 the Communist government implemented the 5 year plan to reach a strong government.
Mao announced another 5 year plan. This one was called the Great Leap Forward. This wanted to match the factories of the western world. Unlike the first plan this plan failed. 20 million people starved to death in 2 years.
During the 1960’s the differences between the countries became too much and they were no longer friends and in fact had several skirmishes along their border.
he Index of Forbidden Books, which told Catholics which books they were not allowed to read because they were harmful to the Catholic faith or to good morals lasted until 1966.
Chinese society was in turmoil until late 1968 when Mao broke up the Red Guards and ended the Cultural Revolution.
The moderates had won control and put the Gang of Four on trial for their crimes, including treason and given life sentences.
President Nixon visits China on behalf of the damage caused by the war.
Mao died in 1976 which caused a fight for power among his successors. By the late 1970’s, the moderates had won control and put the Gang of Four on trial for their crimes, including treason and given life sentences.
1979 the US officially recognized China as China, not Taiwan as China.
In the 1980’s the US and China signed several trade agreements.
China began to import new technologies from the West which led to the fastest growing economy in the world by the mid-1980’s and early 90’s.
n the spring of 1989 hundreds of thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators gathered, taking a cue from the May 4 Movement, in Tiananmen Square.
On April 15 students gathered in the sqaure to honor those who were lost in the May 4 Movementt. Then on June 5 people were shot when they tried to return to the square. “Tank Man” blocked the tank’s exit and asked why they were there. No one knows what happened to him but in 1990 a Chinese official told Barbra Walters that Tank Man was “I think never killed.”
Hong Kong was returned to China by the British.
Kung is the 80th lineal descendant was born in Taipei on Jan. 1, 2006.
China hosted the Summer Olympics in 2008.