Jacques Cartier journeys up the St. Lawrence to the Native settlements of Stadacona and Hochelaga. He gives Canada its name (from Indian word kanata, meaning village).
Champlain travels with the Algonquins to Lake Champlain where they attack the Iroquois and the French use firearms against the Iroquois. Champlain is the first European to use firearms against Indians.
Etienne Brule goes to live among the Huron and eventually becomes the first European to see Lakes Ontario, Huron and Superior.
The first Roman Catholic missionaries try to convert Native people to Christianity.
The French and Huron form an alliance.
The Huron Nation is reduced by half from European disease
War between the Huron and Iroquois confederacies leads to the destruction of the Huron nation. The Iroquois began raids on New France.
As a result of uncertainty in North America during the NIne Years war between England and France the Lachine Massacre is the start of a new series of Iroquois raids on New French settlements.
Frontenac and 2,000 men leave Montreal on raid that will permanently end Iroquois harassment of New France.
Horses come to the northern plains, and the region's Indigenous people become nations on horseback.
Iroquois sign lasting peace with New France
The Mandan Indians west of the Great Lakes begin to trade in horses descended from those brought to Texas by the Spanish. Itinerant Assiniboine Indians bring them from Mandan settlements to their own territories southwest of Lake Winnipeg.
Britain wins the Seven Years War and gains rights to most of the French colonies in North America. The Proclamation states that all lands in British North America are to be negotiated through a treaty process with the indigenous peoples.
After helping the British during the American Revolution, the Iroquois are given two land grants. Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant) settles his followers at the Six Nations Reserve, near Brantford.
Métis and a few Indians Massacre Selkirk settlers at Seven Oaks (Winnipeg). The event is set up by the NWTC over the British HBC encroaching on their territory.
Louis Riel and the Metis occupy Fort Garry exerting their rights to the area and the Red River Rebellion has begun. Riel will later establish a legal provisional government in the area, with himself as the leader. Aggressive Colonial settlers in the area are taken prisoner. One of the settlers is tried and executed by the provisional government. As a result PM Macdonald dispatches the army and Riel flees to the U.S..
The Manitoba Act is passed, making the Red River Area a province known as Manitoba. Metis are granted scrip in the form of land ownership. A voucher with a land or dollar value attached, but are forced out of Red River. Manitoba is known as the "postage stamp" province as a result of its small size.
Riel forced to flee as a result of the Thomas Scott incident does not get to live in the province he created.
The first five numbered treaties deal with native lands in northwestern Ontario and what is now southern Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan and southern Alberta
American whisky traders kill fifty-six Assiniboine in the Cypress Hills of the southern Prairies. The North-West Mounted Police (later the RCMP) is formed to keep order in the new Canadian territories.
Louis Riel is elected as an MP for Manitoba, but cannot take the seat as he will be arrested if he re-enters Canada.
The Indian Act is passed, essentially extinguishing any remaining self-government for natives and making them wards of the federal government.
Treaty No.7 cedes the last big section of Prairie land to the government of Canada
The first residential schools open. Their painful legacy would stretch to today.
After migrating west after the Red River Rebellion, the Metis are once again in an area that colonial Canada wants to expand into. The Metis retrieve Louis Riel to advocate for them. This time Canada has the railway to transport the army and the Metis and other Indigenous peoples are in armed conflict with the colonial government on Canada. The rebellion ends in the capture and execution of Riel and the imprisonment of indigenous leaders.