SAT II World History


Macedonian Empire (Alexander the Great)

359 BCE - 150 BCE

Macedonian Empire brought into power by Philip II and expanded to an empire by his son, ALEXANDER THE GREAT
- conquers Persian Empire in 331 BCE



1500 BC - Present

from the Aryan people of ancient Indian civilization
- based on the sacred religious texts, the Vedas
- Brahmins were the priests


500 BC - Present

founded by former Indian prince Buddha, or Siddhartha Gautama,
- believed in Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path
- goal was for ENLIGHTENMENT, or the end of reincarnation
- spreads from India to South and East Asia



3500 BC - 2350 BC

Rise of Sumerian culture in southern Mesopotamia (city-states)
- Cuneiform writing
- ZIGGURATS and wheel
- bronze used commonly

Akkadian Empire

2350 BCE - 2190 BCE

Sargon, ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadians, conquers Sumerian city-states
- Akkadians assimilate into Sumerian culture

Old Babylonian Empire (Amorites)

1950 BCE - 1650 BCE

most famous ruler was Hammurabi (c. 1790-1750 BCE)
- ruled over Sumer and Akkadian

Assyrian Empire

900 BCE - 610 BCE

known for brutal and cruel conquering, the Assyrians
- largest of its time, conquered and exiled Israelites
- Epic of Gilgamesh found in Ninevah (capital)

Persian Empire

560 BCE - 330 BCE

also known as the Achaemenid Empire
- conquered Assyrian Empire
- Cryus the Great unites Medians and Persians to create vast and powerful Achaemenid Persian Empire


Old Kingdom (Egypt)

3100 BCE - 2150 BCE

Lower and Upper Egypt unified by Menes
- hieroglyphic writing (ex. Book of the Dead)
- pyramids at Giza constructed (2500 BCE)
- ended by decades of drought and famine

Middle Kingdom (Egypt)

2000 BCE - 1700 BCE

Egypt was unified again into the Middle Kingdom, which
- focused more on public projects (city buildings, etc.)
- first expansion beyond Egypt into Nubia
- started trade
- defeated by the Hyksos (controlled Lower Egypt)

New Kingdom (Egypt)

1570 BCE - 1070 BCE

Ahmos, from a powerful Thebian noble family, pushes out Hyksos, creating the New Kingdom,
- Ahmose drives out Hyksos and reconquers Nubia
- reign of GREAT RULERS: Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Ramses the Great


Bantu Migrations

1500 BCE - 500 CE

migration of the Bantu people (originally from West Africa)
- abandon nomadic ways
- start agriculture and iron
- spread SOUTHWARD across the Sahara Desert (thanks to population growth, bad agricultural conditions, etc)
- language includes ex. Swahili


Harappan Civilization

3000 BCE - 1300 BCE

first major civilization on the Indian subcontinent arose in the INDUS RIVER VALLEY
- walled, gridded cities: Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
- advanced irrigation and agriculture
- major trading centers, even as far as Mesopotamia
- social structure controlled by powerful priest class

Aryan Dynasty

1600 BCE - 500 BCE

nomadic herders from Central Asia who moved into the western and eastern valleys of India,
- converted to agriculture
- laid foundations for rigid CASTE SYSTEM (Brahmins, etc.)


Yangshao and Longshan

5000 BCE - 3000 BCE

the first civilizations of China's Yellow River valley were the
1) Yangshao (c. 5000 BCE), and
2) Longshan (c. 3500 BCE)

  • farmed, domesticated animals
  • created pottery, Longshan had rituals for the dead

Xia Dynasty

2200 BCE - 1700 BCE

not conclusively established by archaeological records

Shang Dynasty

1750 BCE - 1046 BCE

first real urban kingdom in China and first to have written history


1100 BCE - 256 BCE

the Zhou conquered the Shang,
- created FEUDAL SYSTEM (ex. vassals, fiefs, etc.)
- cities planned according to "feng shui"
- two big philosophers: CONFUCIUS (Confucianism) and LAOZI (Taoism)


Olmec civilization

1200 BCE - 500 BCE

often called the "mother civilization of Mesoamerica"
- on the southeast coast of present-day Mexico
- mostly used jungle environment, fishing, some irrigation and agriculture
- trademark STONE HEADS

Mayan Civilization

300 CE - 900 CE

considered the high point of Mesoamerican civilization
- located in Southern Mexico and Central America
- known for agriculture, urban society, complex religion, arts, complex writing, mathematics and astronomy
- monumental architecture

South American

Chavín civilization

900 BCE - 500 BCE

origin of future Peruvian civilizations
- first in the Americas to enter the Bronze Age
- located high in the Andes, conducted trade across South America
- llama was an extremely important animal