Mesopotamia was the first river valley civilization and many inventions were created during this time.
Egypt depended heavily on the Nile River due to the fact that this civilization was based on agriculture and the Nile provided the soil with rich nutrients.
Egypt was ruled by Pharaoh Menes and he had brought together the upper and lower kingdoms under one rule.
The first wheel was used and created in Mesopotamia.
The first Indus Civilization was only first discovered in the 1920s.
Most of the homes that were built during this time were better than the homes that you see in India today.
The Indus River Civilization was mainly based on farming, they had learned from the Mesopotamians and their main crop was cotton.
This dynasty began along the Yellow River and had developed a system of writing.
This civilization was built along the Yellow River, and it was yellow due to deposits and clay changing the color.
The Hebrews had left Mesopotamia to be with their leader, Abraham.
This was the most powerful time for Egypt and this was also the time period of the New Kingdom. During this time, Egypt had built an empire and took control of many lands.
Slavery was very important to the Egyptians, and the pharaohs used Hebrews as their slaves.
By this time, the Hebrews had their own kingdom, and Jerusalem was their capital city.
The small kingdom, Phoenicia was created and this kingdom had created the alphabet instead of using symbols for words.
Small kingdoms began to become influential after the fall of Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The Old Testament was written during this time period along with other records of oral traditions.
This was the time period of Ancient Greece.
During this time, the cities were centered around the city-state and were built around hills. The writing system of Ancient Greece was based on the Phoenician Alphabet.
This was the time period of Ancient Rome and Greece.
Siddhartha was either born in the 600or the 500s BC and he was born as a prince.
He was born around 551 BC and worked in a court for almost four years.
This was the time period of Ancient Rome.
The Roman Republic had representatives for the people governed, and in this system senators were the chosen representatives.
During this period, Greece is more intellectual and this is also the time of philosophers and new ideas.
During this period, the Greeks have finally figured out that they are not the center of the world and Greek city-states become part of a kingdom.
He was the first to dissect animals and study them, and he also made great advances in science that hadn't changed until the 1800's.
This dynasty had lasted from 206 BC until 220 AD, after the fall of this dynasty many invaders had entered China.
During this time, he proposes land reform, gives wheat to the hungry, builds racetracks, and proposes that he should be re-elected.
He was born into a patrician family and he became the head of the family at the age of sixteen.
He was nominated as Jupiter's high priest.
Julias Caesar went to Hispania and was then elected Aedile.
Julias Caesar was elected Pontifex Maximus which was the chief priest of the Roman Republic.
His wife holds a festival, and a senator is put on trial for flirting with her. He later divorces his wife because he suspected he cheated on her
Julias Caesar is elected senate and he is accused of treason.
Caesar was appointed dictatorship and he goes to the Middle East to put down a rebellion.
Caesar is elected again and he established a 365 day year and there was an extra day every four years, and he also put his face on coins.
Caesar spoke to the senate and a group of senators crowded around him and gave him a petition. He was then stabbed 23 times by more than 60 senators.
In this battle, Mark Antony kills himself and Cleopatra is captured.
Octavian changes his name to Caesar Augustus and he then becomes the first Roman Emperor.
This was a time period that had a huge population growth as well as massive trading.
He was a Roman citizen who had a vision and he began to preach.
In the 200s, the Franks(which was a German tribe) began moving into the Rhine valley and clashing with the Romans.
He was selected as emperor by the army after the death of a previous emperor. By 299 he had established peace in the empire.
He couldn't give advice to Diocletian because of the Christians so he issued an Edict against Christians.
He started to become very ill and it continued to get worse.
He became the first Roman emperor to abdicate.
He tended gardens at his palace until he had died in 311, which is suspected as a suicide.
Constantine issues the Edict of Milan which ends the persecution of Christians and returns all of their property.
Constantine acts as a judge in North Africa between sects of Christianity.
This was the first council where all of the church leaders came together. They decided when Easter would be and came up with the idea of the Trinity. They also issued the Nicene Creed.
Constantine rebuilds the city, Byzantium which he then renames Constantinople.
He was emperor from 379-395 and he made Christianity the official religion of the Empire, and he also started to persecute other religions.
The Great Wall of China was being built during those years, and the wall stretches more than 6000 miles.
This was the time period of the Middle Ages.
This empire had fallen to the Visigoths with the fall of the city of Rome.
Clovis became king of one of the tribes and they became the Merovingian Dynasty.
In the 500s Yamato rulers had extended their control over much of Hon-Shu.
He was born into a poor clan in a ruling tribe in Mecca.
Sui managed to reunite china after the fall of the dynasty and had built the Grand Canal.
This prince had served as a regent from 593 until 621.
This dynasty had come to power after defeating the Turkish invaders.
Muhammad and his followers had left Mecca and settled in Yathrib.
Muhammad had moved back to Mecca and he destroyed the idols in the Kaaba and rededicated it to the worship of Allah.
He had reunited the Frankish Kingdoms.
He had ordered the destruction of icons.
In 732, the Spanish Moors invaded and Martel's cavalry stopped the Muslim advance.
In 751, Pepin is anointed king and begins the Carolingian dynasty.
In 768, Charlemagne became king and he ruled for 46 years.
The pope had gathered all of the bishops to discuss the controversy. They were against the idea of getting rid of icons.
The Treaty of Verdun had ended a 3-year civil war and divided the empire.
By 870 the middle kingdom had been divided between eastern and western Kingdoms.
The feudal lords of Germany elected Otto I as their new king.
Pope John XII asks for help to fight against the nobles and in 952 Otto defeated the nobles and the Pope crowned him emperor of the Romans.
In 987, the last Carolingian king had died
This was the time period of the Late Middle Ages.
This was the main art form of the middle ages.
Danish Kings had died out so Anglo-Saxons chose Edward the Confesser as their king.
These were the years that King Henry was the King.
During this time the church had split into two, the east and the west. The churches are still separate today.
In October of 1066, William crossed the English Channel and fought the Battle of Hastings.
Henry had traveled through the harsh winter weather to meet Gregory at Canossa and when he arrived, the pope made him wait for 3 days in the cold.
By the 1100s, Hein was the center of Japanese art and literature.
In 1122 both of the sides had met in the city of Worms which is a city in Germany.
This crusade was led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany and this was a huge failure.
In the 1150s, two powerful clans went to war with each other for almost 30 years. They had destroyed the land, property, and families were torn apart.
From 1152 until 1190 King Frederick had ruled Germany.
He was the fiercest Mongol leader and his name mean Universal ruler.
In 1192 the leader of the Minimoto clan had named himself, Shogun, which meant a general who ruled Japan in the emperor's name.
He was the strongest medieval pope.
In the early 1200s, the church was the wealthiest institution in Europe.
In the early 1200s, Ghengis had led the Mongols to capture much of China, Central Asia, and Persia.
Saint Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscans in 1209.
This was the time period of the Children's crusade.
In 1215, a group of barons rebelled against King John.
Saint Dominic had founded the order of the Dominicans in 1216.
In 1273, the ruler of a small state in Switzerland was elected emperor.
In 1274, Kublai Kan attempts to invade Japan but failed.
In 1281, the Mongols had tried to invade Japan with two armies, but they had failed due to a storm.
The crusades were ended by the Muslim capture of Acre.
King Philip IV of France had ordered the clergy to pay taxes.
After the death of Boniface, Philip had a French pope elected.
During the Hundred Years war, the last Capetian King had died in 1328.
During the years 1337 until 1453, there were a series of conflicts between France and England lasting for 116 years.
In 1347, the Plague had swept through Europe, this was also known as the Black Death.
This was the time period of the Renaissance and Reformation.
IN 1356, Charles IV tried to regain power and changed the rules so that only seven people elected a new emperor.
The Ming Dynasty had finally defeated the Mongols and attempted to get rid of all Mongol influence.
This was the time period of Exploration and Expansion.
Improvements were made to the wall to help keep the Mongols out.
By the end of the 1400s, many universities had opened up in Europe.
In this Dynasty, the Chinese used a compass to navigate their ships, and by 1415 they had reached the middle east.
The Council of Constance removed the Italian and French popes, one had abdicated and then a new pope waws then elected.
In 1429, Joan had convinced a commander to allow her an escort to visit the Dauphin's Court in Chinon.
In 1430, Joan of Arc was captured while she was covering a retreat.
He had created a moveable printing press.
This was a war for the throne of England. The house of York had challenged the House of Lancaster for the throne of England.
Spain became united by Ferdinand and Isabella's marriage.
In 1483, Parliament declared the Princes illegitimate.
The Princes were placed in the Tower of London
In 1485, Henry Tudor from the House of Lancaster defeats Richard III of York.
In 148, he had sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and found the Indian Ocean.
He became the first Holy Roman Emperor and he followed family traditions.
In 1497, King Henry VII sent John Cabot exploring.
In the 1500s, Europe had wanted to colonize places that had lots of gold and silver that their home country didn't have.
This was the time period in which Europeans made major economic changes.
This was the time of the Monarchs of Europe
In 1513, Ponce de Leon had discovered Florida.
In 1514, the Portuguese had first reached China.
Martin Luther had posted the Ninety-Five Thesis on the door of Wittenburg Cathedral.
In 1519, Cortes invades Mexico and he conquers the Aztecs.
In 1521, Pope Leo X said that Luther was a heretic and excommunicated him.
In the 1530s, the Counter-Reformation had begun, and this was the catholic Church's attempt to reform
In 1530, Pizarro claims land from Ecuador to Chile for Spain.
He founded the Jesuits in 1534.
The emperor and the prince signed the Peace of Augsburg which allowed each German ruler to chose the religion for their state.
In 1557, the Chinese had finally allowed a trading station, and by doing this, the Portuguese tried to convert the Chinese people.
In 1580, Spain has taken over Portugal.
He becomes the first Bourbon King of France.
In the early 1600s, the British began trading in China. The British were interested in two items, silk, and tea.
This was the time period of the English Colonial Expansion.
In 1603, he became a shoguns, this then began the Tokugawa Shogunate, which meant the Tokugawa family ruled.
In 1610, a fanatic had killed King Henry IV.
He was elected Czar in 1613.
In 1617, Henry VI's son, Louis had taken control of the government.
In 1618, the war began as a rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire and then spread into a war.
In 1627, King Louis attacked the Huguenot towns.
In 1628, the Huguenots asked for peace and he took away their ability to have fortified cities.
In the 1630s Japan was closed off to the rest of the world and they had also banned guns.
The Manchu had conquered Beijing and ruled China from 1644 until 1912.
During of the Renovations of the White Tower, two skeletons of children were found.
Peter I had become the Czar.
He dissolved the Edict of Nantes which had ended France's policy of religious tolerance.
In 1700, the Habsburg King of Spain had died.
This was the time period of the Industrial Revolution.
In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht was signed, he gave the French American lands to England.
in 1740, Charles VI had died and left his lands to his daughter Maria Theresa.
This was a war involving most of Europe that took place in Europe.
This was the war between China and Great Britain over tea and opium trading, China had lost to the British miserably.
This rebellion had weakened the Qing Dynasty and made China weaker to allow more Europeans to enter.
China had lost another war to Britain, which had allowed Britain more ports, land and more trading privileges.
The emperor of China attempts the Hundred Days Reform, which was changes to make China more modern.
In the 1900s, France, Germany, England, Russia, and Japan had large amounts of influence in China.
This was the main religion of China until the early 1900s.
He had led revolts in China.
In February 1912, the Emperor of China had abdicated.
Foot Binding becomes illegal in 1912.
On May 4, 1919, students from 13 universities met and had agreed on 5 resolutions.
In July 1921, the Chinese Communist Party was founded. They were inspired by the Russian Revolution.
He had died in 1925, and a military commander took leadership of the Nationalists. His name was Chiang-Kai-Shek
After 1927, communists escape to southwest China and decide to set up their own government.
In 1927, the executions of communists had ended the alliance between the two parties, but it didn't end the communism in China.
They wanted to eliminate the threat of communism and Chiang had killed large numbers of Chinese communists.
In the 1930s, Chiang had used the military to try and eliminate communism for good.
In 1933, the skeletons that were found in the White Tower were dug up and examined in 1933.
In 1934, Nationalists repeatedly attack the communists which had forced them to flee.
In 1940, there was finally an end to footbinding.
In World War II, the truce didn't last beyond the Japanese surrender in 1945. After the surrender, the civil war of China had continued.
In 1949, the communists had finally defeated the Nationalists, and the new republic was led by Mao Zedong.
In the 1950s, China and the Soviet Union were both communists and allies.
in 1953, the communist government introduces the 5 Year Plan. This plan had two goals, to build industry, and land reform.
Mao had introduced a new five year plan and this one was called the Great Leap Forward.
The Great Leap Forward didn't achieve its goals, it had failed. From 1958-1960, 20 million people had starved to death.
In the 1960s, differences between countries became too much and they were no longer friends.
The Chinese society was doing poorly and so Mao broke up with the Red Guards and then ended the Cultural Revolution.
In the late 1970's, the moderates had won control and the Gang of Four was put on trial for their crimes, including treason nd life sentences.
In 1972, President Nixon of the United States visits China.
In 1976, Mao passed away and after that, there was a fight as to who would have his power.
In 1979, the U.S. finally recognizes China as China and not Taiwan as China.
China became one of the fastest growing economies in the world during this time due to new technologies.
In the 1980's the United States and China had signed many trade agreements between each other.
In the spring of 1989, hundreds of thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators gathered at Tiananmen Square.
Tank Man had blocked an exit for a tank to leave and then mysteriously disappeared. In 1990, a Chinese official had said that Tank Man was never killed.
In 1997, Honk Kong was returned to China from the British.
He was born in Taipei on January 1, 2006. He is the 80th lineal descendent.
In summer of 2008, China had hosted the Summer Olympics.