AP Euro Project Imperialism


European Exploration

1400 - 1600

European Exploration
Spain and Portugal relied heavily on goods form New World; Spain tries to exclude Britain and France doesn’t work, so conflicts arise over cargoes coming from New World and Asia due to competition
Anglo-Dutch trade wars and British-French Rivalry over India and North America become new pattern of worldwide warfare in 18th century
European economic axis of trade went to Atlantic Ocean from Mediterranean Sea
Middle Passage- the journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas; the middle

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1750

Europeans bring horses, cattle, and wheat to New World and bring back potatoes, chocolate, corn, tomatoes, and tobacco to Europe. Diet in Europe became better so population grew and people able to live off of smaller plots of land. Artisans also have new art supplies and dyes from new world
leg of the triangular trade route.
Triangular Trade- the trade of slaves connecting Europe, Africa, Asia and American continents that characterized the new Atlantic economy. Merchant ships from England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Dutch Republic traded European manufactured goods (cloths, gin, guns) to Africa for slaves. Then ships traded slaves for tobacco, molasses, sugar, rum, coffee, and raw cotton in Americas where go back to be sold in European markets
About 10 million slaves were transported to the Americas due to high death rate

Treaty of Tordesillas


divided New World mostly South America into separate spheres for Spain and Portugal, although most of South America belonged to Spain (the Pope was doing the dividing)

Fall of the Aztec and Incan civilization

1521 - 1532

Spanish conquer Aztec Empire because Hernan Cortez is considered as a god so they gave him gold and a palace to stay in, but they took Moctezuma (Aztec emperor) hostage to use as puppet. Got kicked out when they tried to interfere in a Aztec sacrifice ritual. Came back and spread (smallpox) leading to demise of Aztec empire, so Spanish able to gain control of Northern Mexico

Francisco Pizarro conquer Incan Empire after Atahualpa won the civil war. Captured him then killed him and took over empire after Incans get sick go to Cuzco and establish Lima for new colony of the Spanish Empire

Lead to an influx of gold and silver into the Old World from the New World

The conquering was done by conquistadors who were loyal to the crown and motivated by greed.

Portuguese and Spanish Empires

1581 - 1640

(lasted longer) Both set up empires in the Americas with Brazil under Portugal's rule. Spain is also a power, but it has to deal with the challenges of the Dutch, British and French to its empire.
Precious metal lead to the price revolution was set off and affect Spanish economy

The Dutch take Malacca (Malaysia) from the Portuguese


Dutch seized Portuguese fort in Moluccas and push them out of Spice trade, and Dutch continue to seize Portuguese coastal forts along trade routes throughout Indian Ocean
Since Dutch so aggressive, also push English out of Spice Trade, so Dutch able to consolidate political and military control over entire area
Dutch East India Company established pepper plantations helped bring Indonesia under control

Carnatic Wars/ British-French rivalry in India/ Seven Years War

1744 - 1763

fought between the British East India Company and the French East India Company mainly over the territories of India dominated by the Nizam of Hyderbad and the the Godavari region. Ends with a victorious Britain.
At end of the period during 7 years war (1756-1763) full control went to Britain
Britain= indirect rule of India that makes them lots of money (imperialism) control the Indian princes to control India; don’t send British troops to conquer India, send Indians to conquer Indians
Treaty of Paris 1763 is where the French leave India to the British
Sets up the British as the greatest colonial power

Opium Wars

1839 - 1860

between China and GB, early imperialism demonstration, Europe attesting to expand reach into Africa and Asia, desired or profit more important than money, so GB wants to make money, China tells GB to stop selling opium (found opium in India), British bomb (cannons) all Chinese ports, war ends 1852, Treaty of Nanking,
- British officially allowed to sell in 4 more Chinese ports (5 total),
- China forced to pay an indemnity (payment for war),
- get Hong Kong
- Continued to sell more opium as well
Following the unequal treaties China had to sign with Britain after the First Opium War. Ends with a defeat for China and now the sign the Treaty of Tianjin which states
Britain, France, Russia, and the U.S. would have the right to establish diplomatic legations (small embassies) in Peking (a closed city at the time)
Ten more Chinese ports would be opened for foreign trade, including Niuzhuang, Tamsui, Hankou, and Nanjing
The right of all foreign vessels including commercial ships to navigate freely on the Yangtze River
The right of foreigners to travel in the internal regions of China, which had been formerly banned
China was to pay an indemnity of four million taels of silver to Britain and two million to France.
Opening Tianjin as a trade port
Cede No.1 District of Kowloon (south of present-day Boundary Street) to Britain
Freedom of religion established in China
British ships were allowed to carry indentured Chinese to the Americas
Indemnity to Britain and France increasing to 8 million taels of silver apiece
Legalization of the opium trade

Sepoy Mutiny/ India's 1st War of Independence

1857 - 1858

British East India company who have sepoys who are hindu and muslim who don’t eat pork and beef and the bullets are in paper cartridge that to be water proof need to have beef and pork fat covering it, and to open cartridge they have to bite package → cultural insensitivity and fight (leads to the British Raj)
(centuries of indirect British rule and cultural insensitivity)

British Raj

1858 - 1947

Happens after the Sepoy Mutiny or the 1st Indian Independence War. India is put under the direct control of Britain rather than the British East India Company since Britian followed laissez-faire. Governemnt of India Act of 1858 proclaims Queen Victoria as the Empress of India; India is growing more and more nationalistic
India = Jewel of the Crown (GB’s most valuable colony) opium, coffee, indigo, cotton are produced and has a large native population; 300 million people
Indian National Congress = Indian people (elites) who are getting discriminated against and they are more educated; 2 groups one wants to use the European stuff to better themselves the others feel they are being abused and mistreated and need to get rid of the foreign invade
India gets Railroads, modern infrastructure; public services, warfare ceases* (between Muslim and Hindu and under the British they are all subhuman) but most Indians stay poor (out of 300 million only about 1 million are rich) and forced to grow cash crops (famine if your only growing cash crops) also a threat to culture

Meiji Restoration

1868 - 1912

the emperor becomes a figurehead while the shogun is the one you has power; japanese superiority and close off from trade but America comes and makes them open up the country for trade or war will come; creates the modernization/ westernization of Japan; the emperor is like the Pope to the JApanese people and he replaces the shogun during the Meiji Restoration; emperor in only position of power; they want to conquer not be conquered; the only people allowed before the US was the Dutch; the man who opened Japan up was Matthew Perry
Japan; westernize literature, clothing, etc. 1885 the Japanese create a constitution based off the German one acts like democracy but is really authoritarian; emperor is only a puppet and politicians pull the strings

Boer Wars

1880 - 1902

Between Dutch and British; 2 wars first (1880-81) boers win, 2nd (1899-1902)boers lose(solid resistance) in S. Africa; Boers(Dutch farmers) take land from Zulu(run into after going after diamonds; really brutal in Anglo-Zulu war and they win early on but lose later; hold off the Europeans for a while) /Xhosa (fight British and Dutch for 100 years); Britain takes Cape Town from Boers and the Boers go up to Transvaal

Berlin Conference/ Scramble for Africa

1884 - 1885

Fear war in Europe (of what they are doing in Africa)
Called by Bismarck (so they don’t fight each other; agree that if you have colony need access to sea; cartographers, etc. draw up the lines (no care for the ethnic groups; ban drinking and gun sales to natives
Europeans – unspeakable cruelty to natives; slavery gone but treat them like slaves; use Labor / intimidation (into the logic that they are slaves)

Congo Free State

1885 - 1908

Leopold II (Belgium) takes Congo (Congo Free State) (his colony the king owns it; African brutality; begins the scramble for Africa; civilizing mission (in the 23 years though) 10 million in 20 million die (the Africans))(spends half of the Congo capital on the Force Publique that basically makes sure that the people give them their rubber) (punish not only one person but punish everyone; cuts off one hand as punishment often) (Gets pushed after Belgium buys it from him 1908(the state) (rubber plants); Instant conflict with France (him being there access to the sea is needed)

Sino Japanese War

1894 - 1895

between China and Japan (both claim control over Korea and Japan seriously embarrass China and take Korea)

Boxer Rebellion

1899 - 1901

Occurs as a reaction to Western Influence (people starving feeling they are a conquered people so they need to fight back because the Qing dynasty isn’t doing anything)
The Society of the Righteous and harmonious fists (secret society (that is nationalist China for Chinese) and practices karate (called boxers because closest to karate in west)) attack and kill anything “western”, especially Christians (anyone converted, any westerns like western officials, etc.) (cuts off heads) and Empress Dowager Cixi encourages them
They are defeated by 7 Western nations (including USA) and completely massacre them (Italy, Russia, Germany, Britain(really the British empire), USA, France, Austria-Hungary and Japan))(called eight-nation alliance
Shows that the Qing dynasty is not in control and they are puppets for the Westerns

Russo Japanese War

1904 - 1905

spheres of influence in Russia; Japan wants Korea and Russia wants Manchuria but the Tsar does not want to sit down with the subhuman Japan so the Japanese decide lets go to war; make a modern navy using Britain as a model and Germany as a military model and model an economy after US to make them super strong
Start it after they eradicate the Russian naval forces in the Port of Arthur and Japan wins; Russia has to actually go and talk through it and Russia has to acknowledge Japan gets Korea in return they don’t have to pay war indemnity; Japan learns that Europeans won’t listen to them, they will underestimate them (so use it to advantage), take what you want by yourself with as little regard to Europe as Europe has to them, take by deceiving and lying
China- Foreign Interest peaks; Europe and Japan split apart China; China no longer has a say in what happens to China

Republic of China

1911 - 1949

Sun Yat Sen, leader of revolutionaries in china, Qing dynasty is overthrown after the Boxer Rebellion by the establishment of a republic based off of 3 principles (nationalism, democracy, socialism (everybody deserves food)


1914 - 1918

Colonies- Want rights (FOUGHT IN WAR); Rebel against Mandate System; Put down harshly



Colonies are needed for raw materials but it leads to food drops for the indigenous population this leads to strikes / independence movements up (India (textile company is good), Japan(non-European doing good) are doing good and fine)they are getting more and more upset because only option is independence, and their point is making cash crops which means a failure for your country
Some non-European countries make gains such as Turkey – Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) westernizes and leads Turkey to independence movement (ashes of Ottoman Empire; hold onto your independence to Europe doesn’t take them) (Constantinople is Istanbul, women get right to vote 1936, state is more secular)
• France is worried about birthrates and trying to hold onto French-Indo China more leads to resistance in places like Vietnam- Ho Chi Minh (I will create a communist nation for my own people and democracy only care about themselves, leads a rebellion and French crush it but he’s not dead and in 50’s they get rid of France and a Communist Vietnam)
Surge in Imperialism as imperial control increases (TAXES) (Dutch Republic, etc.)

Amritsar Massacre


the Sikhs have the holy site and it’s a holy day but the site is also for a peaceful unarmed protest conscription (but the British general Dire made it illegal to meet in large groups even if it was for religious sakes and fires into the crowd after surrounding them injuring thousands and killing a lot more people
Gandhi (uses this first moment to forever fight for full independence (used to be self-governing dominion that he wanted) since they won’t give what they want)

Salt March


In India, Mohandas Gandhi is a independence leader; Civil Disobedience (use nonviolence looks to suffragette movements, Buddha etc.); Satyagraha- peaceful disobedience (like boycotts)
Boycotts are orchestrated such as weaving your own cloth, not buying British cloth
The Salt March (March 12th, 1930 (for 24 days) a lot of Indians get salt from sea but then British make it illegal and this salt march is basically go to the coast and get salt and disobey the British (Gandhi and 80,000 Indians go to jail and others die and get beaten via the police) (don’t get anything but shows that the Indians are the winners because the news will show them as good and the British will look the worst (Britain, France, and US are looking bad and hypocritical and are holding on to a system that is not working so maybe democracy is a failure)


1939 - 1945

Axis = Germany, Italy, Japan
Japanese Internment; US Ex. Order 9066; Reflects anti-Japanese sentiments, distrust
Japanese Americans relocated (unappealing places and after the war is done they are sent back but everything is gone (shows xenophobism and racism) Unit 442nd (most decorated group in America’s army (Japanese people but sent to Italy and stuff not to Japan because you are afraid they may turn on you and African americans are truck drivers but some were pilots) (only 5 Japanese spies and they were all white)
Surprise attack by Japan Japan plans to take out the Pearl Harbor; try to decimate naval forces (navy fleet with bombers and sink a bunch of bombings because great recon)
US enters War (great tactical victory but a horrible strategical plan since it created the US as a enemy which is rage-filled and revengeful; the Japanese destroy a lot of bombers but not the aircraft carriers and all the repair depots and oil reserves are safe too)
Japanese mentality differs from West (mentality shapes what war turns into. Japanese mentality (western revolution leads to democracy and industrialization, depression leads to no democracy and racial superiority
Bushido- way of the warrior/samurai (the Japanese soldiers think of themselves as samurai (men (fight or die; no surrender))) (Japanese mentality in colonies is that they are dogs or less, mentality shifts when US gains upper hand leads to kamikaze pilots)
Kamikaze Pilots (pilots come ready to die and fly the plane full of fuel straight onto the American ships and sinks that ship; sacrifice) (kamikaze comes from the term divine wind (ex: Mongol invasion was evaded due to typhoons (so god’s wind helps them))
US response to the Kamikaze pilots is the firebombing Tokyo (kill 100,000 people and the Japanese still do not surrender, ex: when Pearl Harbor happened Japan got a enemy who would rather cause Japan to go extinct rather than let Americans die) (the two sides misunderstood each other a lot) (still Japan does not surrender
The war in the Pacific Theater wages on and the US strategy is island hopping (take island after island until we get close enough to Japan that we bomb or invade them; (bunch of “D-days” in the pacific)
Midway June- (naval battle) this is the point when the tide turned against the Japanese Midway the Japanese think they are doing a sneak attack on them but US cracks their code with Magic and destroy their depstroyers which Japan cannot rebiuld; turns the tide in the Pacific like Stalingrad in Europe – 1942
Coral Sea May (naval battles not on the islands; Coral sea stop the Japanese from going to Austrialia stop their advance
Guadalcanal – 1942 August (first island hopping)= shows how fanatically that the Japanese fight (bonzai fighting; straight up charge the enemy with their swords)
Iwo Jima – (Feb to March) 1945= 27,000 Japanese trying to make it a death trap for the Americans (they have been making the island a subterranean bunker (first take the mountain (6,000 marines die and only 200 Japanese men survive (only get them if they are knocked unconscious or they could not kill themselves) (bloodfeud between the Americans and Japanese as you lose the fact that they are human)
Okinawa – 1945= 7600 marines die; significant because Japan feels this island is actually part of Japan not just an imperial territory so there are Japanese civilians there (110,000 Japanese die) (women kill themselves on the other side of the island with their children (how do you defeat an enemy that is not afraid to die) (estimate that is we invaded Japan we would end up with almost 1 million dead American/British soldiers and 10 million Japanese soldiers (is this worth it and is there another option)
Manhattan Project- US to develop atomic bomb (because supposedly the Germans were supposed to but America blew up their plants) (build three but not fast enough for the Germans so they test it out in New Mexico with the Trinity Test July 16, 1945); Robert Oppenheimer directs; then condemns (super dangerous and will kill a bunch of people)
“The Decision” falls to Harry S Truman (do we drop it off the coast but they won’t surrender)
Victory in -Japan Day- Hiroshima bombed Aug 6, 1945 (gave a warning via flyers before hand but the Japanese do not leave and the only reason was for the Americans to feel better); Enola Gay drops “Little boy” U-235; death toll around 140,000
Nagasaki bombed Aug 9, 1945 (since they did not surrender and can’t bomb Hiroshima due to the cloud); “fat man” plutonium, death toll around 80,000 (another 80,000 later due to radiation)
Japan surrenders Aug 14 1945 (one of the reasons they surrender is that US blowed up 2 entire cities and did not lose a single person)
US Occupies after war, writes constitution (the US is still the only country to use a nuclear bomb)

Post WWII Era

1940 - 1959

after WWII Europe is war ravaged and cold war makes the countries uneasy, the colonial powers see that the West is not as powerful as before)
Independence movements after WWII try to “undo” imperialism
Problems ensue as people fight for independence; Religion, language, power = tension (Africa has a lot of dialects and ethnicity,

Indian Partition


India = Hindu, Pakistan = Muslim and both are independent; Population shift, violence (Gandhi Killed 1948) (as the Hindus tried to go to India and Muslims to Pakistan, hundreds of thousands dead in the riots as the people are trying to shift) (Gandhi assassinated when he tries to advocate for reconciliation between the Muslims and Hindus)


1954 - 1975

1954 Cien Bien Phu (important fort for France) falls so now France has to go and negotiate because they can not win so Geneva Conference 1954 decide that Vietnam divided at 17th parallel; Ho Chi Minh in North (SU backs); Ngo Din Diem in South (US backs) (not democratic or republic but not communist so US backs but he is not a good person)