"The land between two rivers" Was the first civilized place. It was also known as the Fertil Crescent.
Long lasting river civilization. Known for Pharaohs and pyramids.
Wheels helped with lifting and transportation, made manual labor easier.
Fine homes and sewage. People lived better than they do in current India.
Monotheistic religion and one of the five major religions today.
Started along the Yellow River. First Chinese Dynasty.
At the time the Hebrews were nomadic and herded sheep.
Moses is a prophet of God he led the Jew out of Egypt.
One of the oldest religions and one of today's five major religions.
Lydia was a small kingdom established in Turkey.
Believed in the Mandate of Heaven, divine right to roll
This is the time when the Hebrews are Israel lead by the kings Saul, David and Soloman. They were desytoryed by the babylons
Great sailers; explored off the coastes and invented an alphabet
Isreal is split into two kingdoms
Divided into three periods; Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period
Cities were built on hills, they were called Polises. Each Polis had an Acropolis. A polis was a city-state like Athens and Sparta. Author Homer wrote the Odyssey and Hesiod wrote about the Greek gods. They had an alphabet.
The Great Wall of China was built and added to keep enemies out of China.
Siddhartha Gautama is the founder of Buddism which is finding Nirvana and escaping the universe through finding yourself.
Great Chinese philosopher started Confucianism
Representatives of the people governed these people were known as Senators. They had a similar religion to the Greeks
Rational thinking used math and science to answer natural questions. Philosophers like Socrates, Pluto and Aristotle
One of the five major religions, polytheistic.
King Philip conquered and combined all the city states. Alexander the Great expanded the Greek Empire. Philosophy revolved around finding individual happiness
Faught between Rome and Carthage. Rome built their first naval fleet and won the war.
Harsh rule. Centralized government. China got its name after the Qin
Carthage invaded Italy through Spain. Lead by Hanniable who rode elephants over the Pyrenees.
Centralized government like the Qin but not as harsh. Invented paper
Rome destroyed Carthage when it refused to move inland ten miles. Rome rebuilt the city into a tradig center
Tiberius Gracchus proposes land reform, gives wheat to the hungry, builds racetracks, institutes gladiators, and proposes that he be re-elected.
Conquered new land and becomes a powerful leader in Rome, all but ends the Roman Republic
Caeser was nominated to be Jupiter's high priest
Most of Rome burns to the ground.
Caesar was appointed dictator, elected consulate, resigned dictatorship
Appointed dictator of Rome again. Goes to the Middle East to put down a rebellion. Also, ends an uprising against Rome in Africa. Receives the Queen of Egypt as an extended houseguest
Elected to 4th term as consul (this time solo). Made his great-nephew Octavian his heir, with Brutus next. Established a 365 day year, with an extra day every 4 years. Put his face on coins
After the death of Ceaser. This is when Emperors ruled Rome. They improved infrastructure and gained new land for the Roman Empire
Mark Antony and Cleopatra the last Pharaoh of Eygpt kill themselves while they fight against Octavian
Octavian renames himself Cesar Augustus and becomes the first Roman emperor
Peace in Rome where Rome prospers
Jesus started Christianity and is believed to be the son of God.
Monotheistic one of the major religions today.
He was a Roman citizen that began preaching the word of God. He made Christianity a religion instead of a Jewish sect
Had two Roman Emperors. Hated Christians. In 305 he abdicates.
Diocletian killed and tortured Christians because they were blamed for the Oracle not hearing anything. Many Romans didn't support the edict.
Brought peace and supported Christians. He moved the capital of Rome to Constantinople.
Emperor Constantine makes the Edict of Milan to ending the persecution of Christians
Discuss the church and makes the Nicene prayer.
Constantine rebuilds Byzantine then renames the city to Constantinople.
Made Christianity the official religion. Last Roman Empire after him Rome split up into two Empires. Byzantine Empire and Western Roman Empire
The germanic tribe that took control of England. They were divided into small kingdoms and those kingdoms divided into shires or smaller distrits.
The time in between Rome and the Renaissance where growth and education slowed down. Many people did not live long. Other known as the Dark Ages.
Western Roman Empire was conquered by the germanic tribe Visigoths
Clovis becomes king the Franks a German tribe. He started the Merovingian dynasty.
Merovingian Dynasty was united by Clovis. He conquered other Frankish tribes making one large kingdom. France was named after the Franks.
Muhammad is born he is the founder of Islam
Built the Grans Canal, longest canal in the world
Prince Shotoku serves as regent in Japan. He spread Cunfusisim and brought more power for the Emperor in Japan.
Monotheistic and one of the major religions today.
Gabrial visits Muhammad and gives instructions and verses to tell people
Wealthiest and most powerful country in the world at the time. Famous poets like Li Po and Du Fu
Muhammad and his followers are harassed in Mecca. They leave and settle in Medina
Muhammad returns to Mecca and cleanses the city destroying idols and makes them worship Allah.
Reunited the Franks when the kingdom split after Clovis died.
Son of Pepin II (Charles the Hammer)
Emporer Leo 3 order the destruction of idols but they help spreed Christianity
Spanish Moors invade the Franks but Martel's cavalry stops the advance.
The dynasty for Franks started by Pepin the Short who was the son of Charles Martel.
King of the Franks. He was a great warrior, devout Christian, able administer and great advocate of learing. Created the Spanish March, area bewteen Islam and Christanity
Vikings plunder and ravage Europe. They are fierce warriors and great sailors. They settle in England, Iceland, Greenland and parts of North America and are known as Danes.
"Dwellers among the clouds" Nobles separated themselves from the rest of Japan. They stayed in Heian. Supported art, litrature, fashion and drama
Charlemagne is crowned Emperor of the Romans by the pope and becomes the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
The treaty ended the three-year civil war between the Frankish empire. It divided the Empire into three; Middle Kingdom, Western Kingdom and Eastern Kingdom.
It is a system of government where small independent rulers held control in their own regions.
The Middle kingdom of the Franks is divided up in between the Western and Eastern kingdoms.
Otto 1 is elected king by the Feudal lords in Germany.
After helping the pope defeat Roman nobles he crowns Otto Holy Roman Emporer as a reward.
Lost lots of land and Mongols were pressuring the borders, started using unpowered to fight. Women started to foot bind their feet.
The Empire made of tribes in Germany and Itlay. Otto the Great was crowned the first king.
Started by Hugh Capet he began the new line of Capetain dynasty in France.
The first full-length novel was written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu. It is about a prince who tries to find love. Many great Japanese works were written by women because only women wrote in Japanese.
Four great universities develop by late 1200, Paris, Oxford, Bologna, and Salerno. By the 1400s more universites develop and students have a veriety of education to chose from.
This is a style of archatecture. It is known for arches, domes, vaults and low horizantail lines. It is dark because of the heavey domed stone roofs and low walls . It takes after the Roman stlye.
Chivalry was a code of conduct used by knights about how they should act and treat people.
This includes the Crusades, the black death and the regrowth of cities and trade.
Saint Dominic a monk founded the Dominicans Friars. Friars lived and preached with the people. Friars were used to finding heretics.
After the Danish kings died the Anglo- Saxons chose Edward the Confesser as their king.
Thought the church was under his imperial power and kicked three popes out and chose three new ones.
In the west the Roman Catholic Church. In the East Eastern Orthodox Church. They split because of different views on who the lead the church and what should be allowed.
William of Normandy crosses the English Channel to England and defeated Harold of Wessex in the Battle of Hastings to become King William the 1 of England or William the Conqueror.
Henry IV meets Pope Gregory at Canossa in the winter to beg for mercy because he was excommunicated for trying to appoint bishops.
Lead by French and Italian lords they captured the city of Jerusalem. This opened trade between Europe and Aisa.
Song of Roland is a National epic or long poems about Charlemagne’s wars against the Moors. It talks of chivalrous values, loyalty, bravery, love and sorrow as many epics did at the time.
Navigators learn how to use magnetized needles. By the 1300's they began to make compasses with marked directions.
Ended the controversy, allowed the emperor to give fiefs to bishops, but only the pope could name the bishops
A new type of achratecture known for tall spires and flying butresses as well as archs. High thin walls with lots of windows and light. Many of the windows are stainglass and statues and scuplers are found everywhere. The idea is to try to reach the heavens.
led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany. It was a failure.
He tried to take four wealthy trade cities but was stopped when the cities formed the Lombard Leauge to fight against Frederick.
Fiercest Mongol leader
He took much of the land England had taken. He arrested the pope and when he died put a new one that would help him.
Minamoto clan beat out the other clans and named himself Shogun. He was the general who ruled in the Emporer's name.
Barbarossa, Philip, and Richard lead the crusade. They fought against Saladin. It ended in a truce between Richard and Saladin.
Pope Innocent III was the strongest Medieval pope, believe kings were servants to the church.
The Catholic Chuch was the wealthiest institution in Europe by 1200.
Skilled horsemen that shot arrows while riding lead by fierce warriors "golden horde." Much is known about the Mongols from Marco Polo; a merchant who was in the court of Kubli Khan
The crusaders attacked Zadar so they were excommunicated. To get back what they wanted the sacked Constantinople
Franciscan friars are founded by Saint Francis of Assisi
This was a failure. Merchants gave them passage on ships to the holy land but many sank and the rest were tricked and sold as slaves.
Signed by King John, the son of Elanor of Aquitaine. It gave rights the people to protect them. It also kept the king from having all the power.
Kublai Kahn tried to invade Japan but a typhoon ruined his plans
Was elected to be the Holy Roman Emperor. They were rulers of a small state in Switzerland.
Mongols try again and bring two armies, but more storms foiled them.
All crusades ended when the Muslims captured Acre the last Christian stronghold in the Middle East.
King Philip IV of France orders French clergy to pay taxes
Conquered the Byzantine Empire. They were a Muslim Empire. The Ottoman Empire ended after World War 1.
Renaissance means rebirth. It was the rebirth of art and learning. Both artistic and philosophical, looking to the past and the future.
Pope Boniface VIII refuses the french order. He was arrested by Philip for Heresy. After trial he was released then died.
After the death of Pope Boniface, King Philip chose the next pope, Pope Clement V and moved the church headquarters to Avignon.
A book written by two teachers they believed the pope only had power over the church.
The last Capetian king dies without an heir and this leads to the hounred years war.
Fought between England and France. King Edward III of England had land in France making him a vassel to the king. When the French king died the French assembly chose Philip VI to be the next king. Edward brought his army across the channel. For the next 116 years they continue to fight.
Started by Petrarch. It was the study of Greek and Roman literature to study grammar, history, poetry, rhetoric
Terrible plague that swept through Europe killing 1/3 of the population. It began in Asia and spread through the trade routes. It was bacteria found in fleas that speard to rats and people.
He tried to regain power for the Holy Roman Emperor. He changed the rules so only seven people elected the Emperor.
German cities were becoming wealthy and powerful from trade. Since there was no strong government in Germany wealthy cities started the Hanseatic League to regulate trade. There were posts all over Europe.
They defeated the Mongols. Invented the Junk ship. Moved the capital to Bejing. Made Social classes and made Confucianism the main religion
Pope Gregory XI moved the church back to Rome, but there would be two or three popes at a time. French and Italian
Written by Goeffrey Chaucer it is about traveling pilgims that tell stories to pass the time. They make fun of the wealthy and clergy
Prince of Portugal. He gathered the best geographers and navigators to map the oceans and start trade in Africa.
Flemish painters. Focused on more common people. Details were very important as were facial expressions.
Europeans start to travel the seas finding new lands and expanding their kingdoms.
Village people went on witch hunts, killing any young girl when something bad went wrong. This was due to superstitions they believed.
Joan of Arc was a girl who became a war hero and a saint. She helped the Charles the Dauphin become king. She was exectued by the English for wearing mens clothing. She was burned at the stake.
Portuguese Jesuits spred christanity to the Chinese
Removed the French and Italian pope, third abdicated and they elected a new pope.
Joan of Arc persuades a garrison commander to allow her an escort into the Dauphin's court in Chinon.
Joan is catured by the English while covering a retreat.
Wealthy merchant bankers family that ruled Florence a great trade city in Italy. They were also patrons of the arts. They were the richest family in Europe.
Rulers of the Holy Roman Emperor then Austeria. They were known for their jaws because of incest. They became powerful by marrying people with land and power.
He created a printing press with a moveable type. This made printing easier.
Known as the Renaissance man. He was a painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, scientist, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, botanist and writer. He was also interested in flight.
The House of York challenged the House of Lancaster for the throne of England. Henry Tudor of house Lancaster defeated House York
Ferdinand and Isabella united Spain in their marrige. They were joint rulers. Known as the Catholic monarchs.
A scientist who came up with the Hilo-centric theory which opposed the geocentric theory.
He conquered the Incas and claimed Ecuador to Chile for the Spanish.
He was the first person to Circumnavigate the globe by going around South America through Magellan's straight.
The princes Edward and Richard were imprisoned in the tower by thier uncle Richard III and decalred illigitament. They were the children of the late king Edward. It is believed they were murdered either by Richard III or Henry VII.
Cortes was a Spanish conquistador. He conquered the Aztec Empire in 1519
He sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and found the Indian Ocean. This made a direct route to India possible.
He was the first person to sail to the Americas, but never realized it believing it to be India. He made four separate trips opening the Atlantic Ocean in the West.
Becomes Holy Roman Emperor, his marriage gains lands in Netherlands, Luxemburg and Burgundy.
This moved the line made by the pope to divide the land for Spain and Portugal. It gave Portugal more land in South America.
King Henry VII sent John Cabot to sail to America he claimed Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and New England for England.
He was the first person to sail to India by going around Africa following Dias.
Europeans made economic changes in trade, joint stock companies and fixed values on money.
European countries wanted to colonize places that had a lot of gold, silver and raw materials that their home country didn’t have. This made the country more powerful and rich.
The Spanish Empire was at its strongest in the 1500's,
He was the King of the Spanish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. He had a lot of interests to keep up. He wealth was zapped by religious wars. He divided his reign in two. Spain going to his son and the Holy Roman Empire going to his brother.
Believed the Americas were new lands, not Asia. Because of this thought America was named after him.
King of England, started the Anglican Church. His daughter was Queen Elizabeth. He was known for his six wives. DIvorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived.
Written by Erasmus it criticized the ignorance and superstition among christians.
Machiavelli was a diplomat and historian in the court of Medici. He wrote the Prince which gives advice on how to be a successful ruler.
He was the person to find Florida and search for the fountain of youth.
the first to find the Pacific Ocean by crossing Panama.
Portuguese sailed around to Asia to reach China. They spread Christianity and start trading.
The Catholic church split in two. The new half becoming Protestant. The Catholic Church had become corrupted and many people left.
A catholic monk. He nails the 95 theses to the Wittenberg Cathedral door. The 95 theses were the 95 problems Luther had with the Catholic and requested they change.
Different religious groups in Germany and Switzerland appear but many die out because there are no real rules or leaders.
Pope Leo X declared Luther a heretic and excommunicated him. He was called before the Diet of Worms to retract his writing, but he never did making Luther an outlaw.
Prussia started as a small country lead by the Hollenern family. It broke from the Holy Roman Empire and became one of the major counties in Europe.
The Empire in India. Taj Mahal was built during their reign.
This was a list of books chosen that are harmful to the catholic faith or to good morals
This was the Catholic church's response to stop people from leaving the church. They attempted to reform the Catholic Church. The counter reformation was lead by Pope Paul III
Started in England by King Henry VIII. He left the Catholic church when the pope wouldn't grant a divorce to him and his wife.
Ignatius de Loyola founded the Jesuits. They were like a military that helped spread Catholicism.
This is the emergence of modern day science. People started to explain things through reason and theory rather than superstition.
It was a meeting of church members to clearly define beliefs.
Centered all the power and control in Russia to himself, calling himself Czar.
Became king after King Henry VIII died. He was sickly and died after six years.
Other known as "Bloody Mary" because she was catholic and killed many of the Protestants in England. She married Philip II of Spain. She died without having children.
The emperor and the princes signed the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed each German ruler to choose the religion for his state. His subjects either had to accept that religion or move
He controlled all of Spain. Raising taxes to fight against the Ottomans. He began the Spanish Inquisition. He also tried to use the Spanish Armada to attack England, which was a fail.
Greatest Mughal Emperor. He improved the tax system and supported the arts. He was tolerant of the different regions and helped improve the economy.
The Chinese allow the first trading station with Europeans.
She was one of the greatest rulers of England. Her reign was known as the "golden age" She defeated Philip II's armada and Mary Queen of Scots. She was also a Patron of the arts. Known as the Vergin Queen for never marrying, she was married to England.
Astronomer and philosopher who proved the Heliocentric theory. He helped play a role in the Scientific Revolution.
Cousin of Elizabeth. He combined Scotland and England and started House Stuart. Unpopular with Catholics and Puritans. He did not get along with Parliment because many of them were puritans. He made the King James version of the bible. He was never able to collect taxes and pay for programs.
Portugal is a small country and they didn't have the money to support the explorations and soldiers. In 1580 Spain took over Portugal. A hundred years later they regained their independance.
He was the first Bourbon King of France. Known as "good king Henry" He is assassinated by a fanatic.
A ruling family in France.
Granted freedom of worship and political rights regardless of faith. Started by Henry IV. King Louis XIV dissolved the Edict of Nantes.
They receive Indian charter from Queen Elizabeth.
The British Empire was considered the greatest colonial power in the world.
The British wanted silk and tea so they traded opium
A man named Tokugawa became shogun and changed the name.
Jamestown was the first colony of England in the New Wolrd.
Son of Henry IV he is the next king of France. He is sickly so had help from his chief adviser Cardinal Richelieu.
He was elected Czar. This started 300 years of Romanov rule. They increased Czar's power and Russia's border.
Started as a protest rebellion against the Holy Roman Emperor and spread to all the major European countries. The war resulted in new countries being formed.
Huguenot towns are attacked by the French government. In the end, they are not allowed fortified walls.
Best known for constructing the Taj Mahal. He also blended the Hindu and Islamic religions it was called Sikh.
The Shogun closed off Japan from the rest of the world
In 1640 African Americans were used as slaves in Barbados. Before 1640 the Irish were used.
Ruled Prussia during thirty years war, but was not considered the king.
Conflicts between Parliment and Charles I. In the end Charles I was executed. Parliment gained more power.
The Sun King. He built Versailles and gave the king more power. He believed in the divine right of kings. He is the perfect example of absolute power. He also gained more land for France.
Ming was conquered by the Manchurian's (Qing) They began to study philosophy. Stick government rule
The two treaties that ended the Thirty Years war. From the France receives more land.
Fought for Parliment during the English Civil War. Afterward, he became the Lord Protector becoming like a tyrant.
Louis fought four wars. The rest of Europe teamed up to prevent France from having so much power. The wars cost France lots of money.
Peter wanted to make Russia like the rest of Europe. He copied much of what Louis XIV did. He expanded borders and modernized Russia that was still stuck in the dark ages.
King after Frederick William. He imitated King Louis XIV.
William the Orange conquered England and overthrew King James II. Parliment supported William. He became co-ruler with Mary. They gave more power to Parliment.
By the early 1700's the French Army became the largest and most powerful army in Europe.
Peter the Great started a long war against Sweden, he was able to gain access to the Baltic Sea.
the time period when people believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature. Had to do with rationalism, natural law, and secularism.
Small farms became part of larger farms. So many small farmers had to give up their livelihood and move to the city.
The transition to new manufacturing and mass producing. Rural towns become urbanized.
The Spanish King died and Louis VIX grandson was next in line. The other countries of Europe fought France to make sure France wouldn't gain power from the alliance with Spain.
Son of Frederick I. He stopped imitating France and doubled the size of the army. It became the most efficent fighting force in the world. He also required all children to go to school.
Recognized Philip as king of Spain, but he had to renounce any claim to the French throne and it gave French American lands to England
Cathrine the Great forced her husband to abdicate in her favor. She is known for greatly expanding Russia's borders. She added 200,000 square miles of land. She even started colonizing Alaska.
Fought over Silesia which was part of Austria. Prussia signed the Pragatic sanction but invaded anyways. The Diplomatic revolution occurred which was the switching of alliances.
Expanded Prussia's borders. He made Prussia into a major power. He improved education and the economy.
Since she was a woman she couldn't become Holy Roman Emperor but her husband could. They remained co-rulers during their reign. She was the Empress. Known as "grandmother of Europe" she had eleven children. The Holy Roman Empire was also Austria.
Charles VI Holy Roman Emperor and leaves his lands to his daughter Maria Theresa.
Took place in Europe, North America, and India. Began when Prussia invaded France and Austria. Ended when Empress Elizabeth of Russia died.
The steam engine was invented this made factories work faster and helped with transportation.
A country in North America broke from the British Empire. Continues to be a major power.
King Louis XVI was killed lead by fascists. It was a time of chaos and death while trying to gain rights for the people of French.
Brought peace after the French Revolution. He became a dictator and expanded French. He was captured by the English and died on an island.
European rulers were reactionaries. They wanted to return to the way things were before the French Revolution and Napoléon
Metternich suppressed freedom of speech and the press, he wanted to prevent war and/or revolution and protect absolute monarchs. He was a prince of Austria.
Delegates from Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia met to decide the future of Europe after Napoléon
The war between the trading of opium of tea aginst the British. Opium was affecting over half the Chinese population. The Chinese lost
The Chinese tried to start a new dynasty to get rid of the British and Christianity The rebellion failed and only weakened the Qing even more.
Lead the independence movement in India against Britain. Known for his nonviolence movement.
Leads revolts in China.
Footbinding becomes illegal but doesn't stop until 1940's
The last emperor of imperial China abdicates.
The first world war that started using modernized warfare. The first war to use tanks, planes and machine guns, as well as chemicals.
This was the powder keg that helps start World War one. Austria- Hungry declares war on Serbia. Then Germany who was allied with Austria- Hungry declares war on France and Russia.
After Germany tried to get Mexico to join, America joins the Allies. They are known as Dough Boys.
Signed by the Allies and Germany. It ended World War 1 and blamed Germany for the war making them pay for everything.
The leader of the Chinese Communist. Founder of the People's republic of China. He made China into a world power. Speed up the industrialization in China.
China starts another five-year plan called the Great Leap Forward. This is a failure and 20 million people starve to death.
The Punic Wars Officially ended when mayors from both cities signed a treaty
Chinese students were protesting in Tiananmen Square. China tanks drove in to disperse the crowd. A man nicknamed Tank Man stood in their way. After that day he disappeared.