"The land between two rivers" Was the first civilized place. It was also known as the Fertil Crescent.
3100 b.c. - 31 b.c.
Long lasting river civilization. Known for Pharaohs and pyramids.
First wheel is used
Wheels helped with lifting and transportation, made manual labor easier.
2600 b.c - 1600 b.c
Fine homes and sewage. People lived better than they do in current India.
1812 b.c - Present
Monotheistic religion and one of the five major religions today.
1750 B.c - 1500 B.C
Started along the Yellow River. First Chinese Dynasty.
Aberham leaves Ur
At the time the Hebrews were nomadic and herded sheep.
1526 BC - 1406 BC
Moses is a prophet of God he led the Jew out of Egypt.
1500 B.C - Present
One of the oldest religions and one of today's five major religions.
1200 B.C - 546 B.C
Lydia was a small kingdom established in Turkey.
1122 BC - 256 B.C
Believed in the Mandate of Heaven, divine right to roll
1000 B.c. - 800 b.c
Great sailers; explored off the coastes and invented an alphabet
1000 B.C - 597 B.C
This is the time when the Hebrews are Israel lead by the kings Saul, David and Soloman. They were desytoryed by the babylons
Isreal is split into two kingdoms
800 BC - 500 BC
Cities were built on hills, they were called Polises. Each Polis had an Acropolis. A polis was a city-state like Athens and Sparta. Author Homer wrote the Odyssey and Hesiod wrote about the Greek gods. They had an alphabet.
800 B.C - 31 B.C
Divided into three periods; Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period
Great Wall of China
771 B.C - 1500
The Great Wall of China was built and added to keep enemies out of China.
Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
563 BC - 483 BC
Siddhartha Gautama is the founder of Buddism which is finding Nirvana and escaping the universe through finding yourself.
Birth of Confucius
Great Chinese philosopher started Confucianism
509 B.C - 476 A.D
509 BC - 27 BC
Representatives of the people governed these people were known as Senators. They had a similar religion to the Greeks
500 B.C - 323 B.C
Rational thinking used math and science to answer natural questions. Philosophers like Socrates, Pluto and Aristotle
483 B.C - Present
One of the five major religions, polytheistic.
323 BC - 31 BC
King Philip conquered and combined all the city states. Alexander the Great expanded the Greek Empire. Philosophy revolved around finding individual happiness
First Punic War
264 BC - 241 BC
Faught between Rome and Carthage. Rome built their first naval fleet and won the war.
221 BC - 206 BC
Harsh rule. Centralized government. China got its name after the Qin
Second Punic War
218 BC - 201 BC
Carthage invaded Italy through Spain. Lead by Hanniable who rode elephants over the Pyrenees.
206 BC - 220 AD
Centralized government like the Qin but not as harsh. Invented paper
Third Punic War
149 BCE - 146 BCE
Rome destroyed Carthage when it refused to move inland ten miles. Rome rebuilt the city into a tradig center
Beginning of the End of Roman republic
Tiberius Gracchus proposes land reform, gives wheat to the hungry, builds racetracks, institutes gladiators, and proposes that he be re-elected.
Juluis Caesar's lifetime
100 BC - 44 BC
Conquered new land and becomes a powerful leader in Rome, all but ends the Roman Republic
Jupiter's high priest
Caeser was nominated to be Jupiter's high priest
Most of Rome burns to the ground.
48 B.C - 46 B.C
Appointed dictator of Rome again. Goes to the Middle East to put down a rebellion. Also, ends an uprising against Rome in Africa. Receives the Queen of Egypt as an extended houseguest
Caesar was appointed dictator, elected consulate, resigned dictatorship
Elected to 4th term as consul (this time solo). Made his great-nephew Octavian his heir, with Brutus next. Established a 365 day year, with an extra day every 4 years. Put his face on coins
Battle of Actium
Mark Antony and Cleopatra the last Pharaoh of Eygpt kill themselves while they fight against Octavian
31 B.C - 476
After the death of Ceaser. This is when Emperors ruled Rome. They improved infrastructure and gained new land for the Roman Empire
27 BC - 180 AD
Peace in Rome where Rome prospers
First Roman Emperor
Octavian renames himself Cesar Augustus and becomes the first Roman emperor
Birth of Christ
Jesus started Christianity and is believed to be the son of God.
Paul of Tarsus becomes a Christian
He was a Roman citizen that began preaching the word of God. He made Christianity a religion instead of a Jewish sect
40 A.D - Present
Monotheistic one of the major religions today.
Franks move into Rhine Valley
284 - 305
Had two Roman Emperors. Hated Christians. In 305 he abdicates.
Edict against Christians
302 A.D - 303 A.D
Diocletian killed and tortured Christians because they were blamed for the Oracle not hearing anything. Many Romans didn't support the edict.
305 A.D. - 337 A.D
Brought peace and supported Christians. He moved the capital of Rome to Constantinople.
Edict of Milan
Emperor Constantine makes the Edict of Milan to ending the persecution of Christians
Council of Nicaea
Discuss the church and makes the Nicene prayer.
Constantine rebuilds Byzantine then renames the city to Constantinople.
379 - 395
Made Christianity the official religion. Last Roman Empire after him Rome split up into two Empires. Byzantine Empire and Western Roman Empire
449 - 1066
The germanic tribe that took control of England. They were divided into small kingdoms and those kingdoms divided into shires or smaller distrits.
476 ad - 1328 ad
The time in between Rome and the Renaissance where growth and education slowed down. Many people did not live long. Other known as the Dark Ages.
Fall of Western Roman Empire
September 4, 476
Western Roman Empire was conquered by the germanic tribe Visigoths
481 - 751
Merovingian Dynasty was united by Clovis. He conquered other Frankish tribes making one large kingdom. France was named after the Franks.
481 - 511
Clovis becomes king the Franks a German tribe. He started the Merovingian dynasty.
Birth of Muhammad
Muhammad is born he is the founder of Islam
589 - 618
Built the Grans Canal, longest canal in the world
Prince Shotoku is regent
593 - 621
Prince Shotoku serves as regent in Japan. He spread Cunfusisim and brought more power for the Emperor in Japan.
600 - Present
Monotheistic and one of the major religions today.
Gabriel visits Muhammad
Gabrial visits Muhammad and gives instructions and verses to tell people
618 - 907
Wealthiest and most powerful country in the world at the time. Famous poets like Li Po and Du Fu
Muhammad leaves Mecca
Muhammad and his followers are harassed in Mecca. They leave and settle in Medina
Muhammad returns to Mecca
Muhammad returns to Mecca and cleanses the city destroying idols and makes them worship Allah.
687 - 714
Reunited the Franks when the kingdom split after Clovis died.
718 - 741
Son of Pepin II (Charles the Hammer)
Destruction of Icons
Emporer Leo 3 order the destruction of idols but they help spreed Christianity
Moors invade Franks
Spanish Moors invade the Franks but Martel's cavalry stops the advance.
751 - 987
The dynasty for Franks started by Pepin the Short who was the son of Charles Martel.
768 - 814
King of the Franks. He was a great warrior, devout Christian, able administer and great advocate of learing. Created the Spanish March, area bewteen Islam and Christanity
790 - 1066
Vikings plunder and ravage Europe. They are fierce warriors and great sailors. They settle in England, Iceland, Greenland and parts of North America and are known as Danes.
794 - 1185
"Dwellers among the clouds" Nobles separated themselves from the rest of Japan. They stayed in Heian. Supported art, litrature, fashion and drama
Charlemagne as emperor of the Romans
Charlemagne is crowned Emperor of the Romans by the pope and becomes the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Treaty of Verdun
The treaty ended the three-year civil war between the Frankish empire. It divided the Empire into three; Middle Kingdom, Western Kingdom and Eastern Kingdom.
Feudal system develops in Europe
It is a system of government where small independent rulers held control in their own regions.
Middle Kingdom divides
The Middle kingdom of the Franks is divided up in between the Western and Eastern kingdoms.
Otto 1 is elected king by the Feudal lords in Germany.
Otto becomes Holy Roman Emperor
After helping the pope defeat Roman nobles he crowns Otto Holy Roman Emporer as a reward.
960 - 1279
Lost lots of land and Mongols were pressuring the borders, started using unpowered to fight. Women started to foot bind their feet.
Holy Roman Empire
962 - 1806
The Empire made of tribes in Germany and Itlay. Otto the Great was crowned the first king.
Capetain dynasty replaces the Carolingians
987 - 1287
Started by Hugh Capet he began the new line of Capetain dynasty in France.
1000 - 1150
This is a style of archatecture. It is known for arches, domes, vaults and low horizantail lines. It is dark because of the heavey domed stone roofs and low walls . It takes after the Roman stlye.
1000 - 1400
Four great universities develop by late 1200, Paris, Oxford, Bologna, and Salerno. By the 1400s more universites develop and students have a veriety of education to chose from.
Tale of Gengi
The first full-length novel was written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu. It is about a prince who tries to find love. Many great Japanese works were written by women because only women wrote in Japanese.
High Middle Ages
1000 - 1500
This includes the Crusades, the black death and the regrowth of cities and trade.
1000 - 1400
Chivalry was a code of conduct used by knights about how they should act and treat people.
Dominicans are founded
Saint Dominic a monk founded the Dominicans Friars. Friars lived and preached with the people. Friars were used to finding heretics.
Edward the Confessor
1042 - 1066
After the Danish kings died the Anglo- Saxons chose Edward the Confesser as their king.
King Henry III
1046 - 1056
Thought the church was under his imperial power and kicked three popes out and chose three new ones.
Church splits in two
In the west the Roman Catholic Church. In the East Eastern Orthodox Church. They split because of different views on who the lead the church and what should be allowed.
Battle of Hastings
William of Normandy crosses the English Channel to England and defeated Harold of Wessex in the Battle of Hastings to become King William the 1 of England or William the Conqueror.
Henry IV meets Pope Gregory at Canossa in the winter to beg for mercy because he was excommunicated for trying to appoint bishops.
1096 - 1099
Lead by French and Italian lords they captured the city of Jerusalem. This opened trade between Europe and Aisa.
Song of Roland
Song of Roland is a National epic or long poems about Charlemagne’s wars against the Moors. It talks of chivalrous values, loyalty, bravery, love and sorrow as many epics did at the time.
1100 - 1300
Navigators learn how to use magnetized needles. By the 1300's they began to make compasses with marked directions.
Concordat of Worms
Ended the controversy, allowed the emperor to give fiefs to bishops, but only the pope could name the bishops
1140 - 1400
A new type of achratecture known for tall spires and flying butresses as well as archs. High thin walls with lots of windows and light. Many of the windows are stainglass and statues and scuplers are found everywhere. The idea is to try to reach the heavens.
1145 - 1149
led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany. It was a failure.
1152 AD - 1190 AD
He tried to take four wealthy trade cities but was stopped when the cities formed the Lombard Leauge to fight against Frederick.
1162 - 1227
Fiercest Mongol leader
King Philip Captains
1180 - 1223
He took much of the land England had taken. He arrested the pope and when he died put a new one that would help him.
1185 - 1550
Minamoto clan beat out the other clans and named himself Shogun. He was the general who ruled in the Emporer's name.
1187 - 1192
Barbarossa, Philip, and Richard lead the crusade. They fought against Saladin. It ended in a truce between Richard and Saladin.
Pope Innocent III
1198 - 1216
Pope Innocent III was the strongest Medieval pope, believe kings were servants to the church.
1200 ce - 1450 ce
Skilled horsemen that shot arrows while riding lead by fierce warriors "golden horde." Much is known about the Mongols from Marco Polo; a merchant who was in the court of Kubli Khan
The Catholic Chuch was the wealthiest institution in Europe by 1200.
1202 - 1204
The crusaders attacked Zadar so they were excommunicated. To get back what they wanted the sacked Constantinople
Franciscan Order Established
Franciscan friars are founded by Saint Francis of Assisi
This was a failure. Merchants gave them passage on ships to the holy land but many sank and the rest were tricked and sold as slaves.
Signed by King John, the son of Elanor of Aquitaine. It gave rights the people to protect them. It also kept the king from having all the power.
Mongols attack Japan 1
Kublai Kahn tried to invade Japan but a typhoon ruined his plans
Was elected to be the Holy Roman Emperor. They were rulers of a small state in Switzerland.
Mongols attack Japan 2
Mongols try again and bring two armies, but more storms foiled them.
The End of the Crusades.
All crusades ended when the Muslims captured Acre the last Christian stronghold in the Middle East.
French Clergy pay Taxes
King Philip IV of France orders French clergy to pay taxes
1299 - 1923
Conquered the Byzantine Empire. They were a Muslim Empire. The Ottoman Empire ended after World War 1.
1300 - 1600
Renaissance means rebirth. It was the rebirth of art and learning. Both artistic and philosophical, looking to the past and the future.
Pope Boniface VIII
Pope Boniface VIII refuses the french order. He was arrested by Philip for Heresy. After trial he was released then died.
1309 - 1377
After the death of Pope Boniface, King Philip chose the next pope, Pope Clement V and moved the church headquarters to Avignon.
Defender of Faith
A book written by two teachers they believed the pope only had power over the church.
Last Capetian King Dies
The last Capetian king dies without an heir and this leads to the hounred years war.
The Hundred Years War
1337 - 1453
Fought between England and France. King Edward III of England had land in France making him a vassel to the king. When the French king died the French assembly chose Philip VI to be the next king. Edward brought his army across the channel. For the next 116 years they continue to fight.
Started by Petrarch. It was the study of Greek and Roman literature to study grammar, history, poetry, rhetoric
1347 - 1351
Terrible plague that swept through Europe killing 1/3 of the population. It began in Asia and spread through the trade routes. It was bacteria found in fleas that speard to rats and people.
Emperor Charles IV
He tried to regain power for the Holy Roman Emperor. He changed the rules so only seven people elected the Emperor.
1358 - 1669
German cities were becoming wealthy and powerful from trade. Since there was no strong government in Germany wealthy cities started the Hanseatic League to regulate trade. There were posts all over Europe.
1368 - 1644
They defeated the Mongols. Invented the Junk ship. Moved the capital to Bejing. Made Social classes and made Confucianism the main religion
1377 - 1417
Pope Gregory XI moved the church back to Rome, but there would be two or three popes at a time. French and Italian
The Canterbury Tales
1386 - 1400
Written by Goeffrey Chaucer it is about traveling pilgims that tell stories to pass the time. They make fun of the wealthy and clergy
Henry the Navigator
1394 - 1460
Prince of Portugal. He gathered the best geographers and navigators to map the oceans and start trade in Africa.
1395 - 1441
Flemish painters. Focused on more common people. Details were very important as were facial expressions.
Exploration and Expansion
1400 - 1800
Europeans start to travel the seas finding new lands and expanding their kingdoms.
1400 - 1700
Village people went on witch hunts, killing any young girl when something bad went wrong. This was due to superstitions they believed.
Joan of Arc
1412 - 1431
Joan of Arc was a girl who became a war hero and a saint. She helped the Charles the Dauphin become king. She was exectued by the English for wearing mens clothing. She was burned at the stake.
Portuguese land in China
Portuguese Jesuits spred christanity to the Chinese
Council of Constance
Removed the French and Italian pope, third abdicated and they elected a new pope.
Joan visits the Dauphin's court
Joan of Arc persuades a garrison commander to allow her an escort into the Dauphin's court in Chinon.
Joan was captured
Joan is catured by the English while covering a retreat.
1434 - 1737
Wealthy merchant bankers family that ruled Florence a great trade city in Italy. They were also patrons of the arts. They were the richest family in Europe.
1438 - 1740
Rulers of the Holy Roman Emperor then Austeria. They were known for their jaws because of incest. They became powerful by marrying people with land and power.
He created a printing press with a moveable type. This made printing easier.
Leonardo da Vinci
1452 - 1519
Known as the Renaissance man. He was a painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, scientist, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, botanist and writer. He was also interested in flight.
War of the Roses
1455 - 1485
The House of York challenged the House of Lancaster for the throne of England. Henry Tudor of house Lancaster defeated House York
Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
Ferdinand and Isabella united Spain in their marrige. They were joint rulers. Known as the Catholic monarchs.
1473 - 1543
A scientist who came up with the Hilo-centric theory which opposed the geocentric theory.
1478 - 1541
He conquered the Incas and claimed Ecuador to Chile for the Spanish.
1480 - 1521
He was the first person to Circumnavigate the globe by going around South America through Magellan's straight.
Princes in the tower
The princes Edward and Richard were imprisoned in the tower by thier uncle Richard III and decalred illigitament. They were the children of the late king Edward. It is believed they were murdered either by Richard III or Henry VII.
1485 - 1547
Cortes was a Spanish conquistador. He conquered the Aztec Empire in 1519
He sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and found the Indian Ocean. This made a direct route to India possible.
1492 - 1504
He was the first person to sail to the Americas, but never realized it believing it to be India. He made four separate trips opening the Atlantic Ocean in the West.
1493 - 1519
Becomes Holy Roman Emperor, his marriage gains lands in Netherlands, Luxemburg and Burgundy.
The Treaty of Tordesillas
This moved the line made by the pope to divide the land for Spain and Portugal. It gave Portugal more land in South America.
King Henry VII sent John Cabot to sail to America he claimed Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and New England for England.
Vasco de Gama
He was the first person to sail to India by going around Africa following Dias.
1500 - 1558
He was the King of the Spanish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. He had a lot of interests to keep up. He wealth was zapped by religious wars. He divided his reign in two. Spain going to his son and the Holy Roman Empire going to his brother.
The Spanish Empire was at its strongest in the 1500's,
Start of Colonies
European countries wanted to colonize places that had a lot of gold, silver and raw materials that their home country didn’t have. This made the country more powerful and rich.
1500 - 1700
Europeans made economic changes in trade, joint stock companies and fixed values on money.
Believed the Americas were new lands, not Asia. Because of this thought America was named after him.
1509 - 1547
King of England, started the Anglican Church. His daughter was Queen Elizabeth. He was known for his six wives. DIvorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived.
Praise of Folly
Written by Erasmus it criticized the ignorance and superstition among christians.
the first to find the Pacific Ocean by crossing Panama.
Ponce de Leon
He was the person to find Florida and search for the fountain of youth.
Machiavelli (The Prince, pub. 1513)
Machiavelli was a diplomat and historian in the court of Medici. He wrote the Prince which gives advice on how to be a successful ruler.
Portuguese reach China
Portuguese sailed around to Asia to reach China. They spread Christianity and start trading.
Martin Luther Begins Reformation
A catholic monk. He nails the 95 theses to the Wittenberg Cathedral door. The 95 theses were the 95 problems Luther had with the Catholic and requested they change.
1517 - 1648
The Catholic church split in two. The new half becoming Protestant. The Catholic Church had become corrupted and many people left.
1520 - 1530
Different religious groups in Germany and Switzerland appear but many die out because there are no real rules or leaders.
Diet of worms
Pope Leo X declared Luther a heretic and excommunicated him. He was called before the Diet of Worms to retract his writing, but he never did making Luther an outlaw.
1525 - 1947
Prussia started as a small country lead by the Hollenern family. It broke from the Holy Roman Empire and became one of the major counties in Europe.
1526 - 1857
The Empire in India. Taj Mahal was built during their reign.
This was the Catholic church's response to stop people from leaving the church. They attempted to reform the Catholic Church. The counter reformation was lead by Pope Paul III
Index of Forbidden Books
1530 - 1966
This was a list of books chosen that are harmful to the catholic faith or to good morals
Ignatius de Loyola founded the Jesuits. They were like a military that helped spread Catholicism.
Started in England by King Henry VIII. He left the Catholic church when the pope wouldn't grant a divorce to him and his wife.
1543 - 1687
This is the emergence of modern day science. People started to explain things through reason and theory rather than superstition.
Council of Trent
It was a meeting of church members to clearly define beliefs.
1547 - 1553
Became king after King Henry VIII died. He was sickly and died after six years.
Ivan the Terrible
1547 - 1584
Centered all the power and control in Russia to himself, calling himself Czar.
1553 - 1558
Other known as "Bloody Mary" because she was catholic and killed many of the Protestants in England. She married Philip II of Spain. She died without having children.
The Peace of Augsburg
The emperor and the princes signed the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed each German ruler to choose the religion for his state. His subjects either had to accept that religion or move
1556 - 1605
Greatest Mughal Emperor. He improved the tax system and supported the arts. He was tolerant of the different regions and helped improve the economy.
1556 - 1598
He controlled all of Spain. Raising taxes to fight against the Ottomans. He began the Spanish Inquisition. He also tried to use the Spanish Armada to attack England, which was a fail.
The Chinese allow the first trading station with Europeans.
1558 - 1603
She was one of the greatest rulers of England. Her reign was known as the "golden age" She defeated Philip II's armada and Mary Queen of Scots. She was also a Patron of the arts. Known as the Vergin Queen for never marrying, she was married to England.
1564 - 1642
Astronomer and philosopher who proved the Heliocentric theory. He helped play a role in the Scientific Revolution.
1566 - 1625
Cousin of Elizabeth. He combined Scotland and England and started House Stuart. Unpopular with Catholics and Puritans. He did not get along with Parliment because many of them were puritans. He made the King James version of the bible. He was never able to collect taxes and pay for programs.
Spain overtook Portugal
1580 - 1680
Portugal is a small country and they didn't have the money to support the explorations and soldiers. In 1580 Spain took over Portugal. A hundred years later they regained their independance.
1589 - 1795
A ruling family in France.
King Henry IV
1589 - 1610
He was the first Bourbon King of France. Known as "good king Henry" He is assassinated by a fanatic.
Edict of Nantes
1598 - 1685
Granted freedom of worship and political rights regardless of faith. Started by Henry IV. King Louis XIV dissolved the Edict of Nantes.
English Colonial Expansion
1600 - 1760
The British Empire was considered the greatest colonial power in the world.
British East India Company
They receive Indian charter from Queen Elizabeth.
British began to trade with China
The British wanted silk and tea so they traded opium
1603 - 1868
A man named Tokugawa became shogun and changed the name.
Jamestown was the first colony of England in the New Wolrd.
1610 - 1643
Son of Henry IV he is the next king of France. He is sickly so had help from his chief adviser Cardinal Richelieu.
1613 - 1645
He was elected Czar. This started 300 years of Romanov rule. They increased Czar's power and Russia's border.
Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
Started as a protest rebellion against the Holy Roman Emperor and spread to all the major European countries. The war resulted in new countries being formed.
1627 - 1628
Huguenot towns are attacked by the French government. In the end, they are not allowed fortified walls.
1628 - 1658
Best known for constructing the Taj Mahal. He also blended the Hindu and Islamic religions it was called Sikh.
Japan isolates from Europe
The Shogun closed off Japan from the rest of the world
Frederick William The Great Elector
1640 - 1688
Ruled Prussia during thirty years war, but was not considered the king.
In 1640 African Americans were used as slaves in Barbados. Before 1640 the Irish were used.
English Civil War
1642 - 1649
Conflicts between Parliment and Charles I. In the end Charles I was executed. Parliment gained more power.
King Louis XIV
1643 - 1715
The Sun King. He built Versailles and gave the king more power. He believed in the divine right of kings. He is the perfect example of absolute power. He also gained more land for France.
1644 - 1912
Ming was conquered by the Manchurian's (Qing) They began to study philosophy. Stick government rule
Peace of Westphalia
The two treaties that ended the Thirty Years war. From the France receives more land.
1653 - 1658
Fought for Parliment during the English Civil War. Afterward, he became the Lord Protector becoming like a tyrant.
Wars of Louis XIV
1667 - 1713
Louis fought four wars. The rest of Europe teamed up to prevent France from having so much power. The wars cost France lots of money.
Peter the Great
1679 - 1725
Peter wanted to make Russia like the rest of Europe. He copied much of what Louis XIV did. He expanded borders and modernized Russia that was still stuck in the dark ages.
1688 - 1689
William the Orange conquered England and overthrew King James II. Parliment supported William. He became co-ruler with Mary. They gave more power to Parliment.
1688 - 1713
King after Frederick William. He imitated King Louis XIV.
1700 - 1900
The transition to new manufacturing and mass producing. Rural towns become urbanized.
Small farms became part of larger farms. So many small farmers had to give up their livelihood and move to the city.
1700 - 1800
the time period when people believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature. Had to do with rationalism, natural law, and secularism.
Russia's war with Sweden
1700 - 1721
Peter the Great started a long war against Sweden, he was able to gain access to the Baltic Sea.
By the early 1700's the French Army became the largest and most powerful army in Europe.
War of Spanish Succession
1702 - 1713
The Spanish King died and Louis VIX grandson was next in line. The other countries of Europe fought France to make sure France wouldn't gain power from the alliance with Spain.
Treaty of Utrecht
Recognized Philip as king of Spain, but he had to renounce any claim to the French throne and it gave French American lands to England
Frederick William I
1713 - 1740
Son of Frederick I. He stopped imitating France and doubled the size of the army. It became the most efficent fighting force in the world. He also required all children to go to school.
Cathrine The Great
1739 - 1796
Cathrine the Great forced her husband to abdicate in her favor. She is known for greatly expanding Russia's borders. She added 200,000 square miles of land. She even started colonizing Alaska.
Charles VI dies
Charles VI Holy Roman Emperor and leaves his lands to his daughter Maria Theresa.
1740 - 1780
Since she was a woman she couldn't become Holy Roman Emperor but her husband could. They remained co-rulers during their reign. She was the Empress. Known as "grandmother of Europe" she had eleven children. The Holy Roman Empire was also Austria.
Fredrick II (The Great) (Prussia)
1740 - 1786
Expanded Prussia's borders. He made Prussia into a major power. He improved education and the economy.
War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 1748
Fought over Silesia which was part of Austria. Prussia signed the Pragatic sanction but invaded anyways. The Diplomatic revolution occurred which was the switching of alliances.
Seven Years War
1756 - 1763
Took place in Europe, North America, and India. Began when Prussia invaded France and Austria. Ended when Empress Elizabeth of Russia died.
The steam engine was invented this made factories work faster and helped with transportation.
1776 - Present
A country in North America broke from the British Empire. Continues to be a major power.
1789 - 1799
King Louis XVI was killed lead by fascists. It was a time of chaos and death while trying to gain rights for the people of French.
1799 - 1815
Brought peace after the French Revolution. He became a dictator and expanded French. He was captured by the English and died on an island.
Congress of Vienna
1815 - 1820
Delegates from Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia met to decide the future of Europe after Napoléon
Age of Metternich
1815 - 1848
Metternich suppressed freedom of speech and the press, he wanted to prevent war and/or revolution and protect absolute monarchs. He was a prince of Austria.
European rulers were reactionaries. They wanted to return to the way things were before the French Revolution and Napoléon
1839 - 1842
The war between the trading of opium of tea aginst the British. Opium was affecting over half the Chinese population. The Chinese lost
1850 - 1864
The Chinese tried to start a new dynasty to get rid of the British and Christianity The rebellion failed and only weakened the Qing even more.
1869 - 1948
Lead the independence movement in India against Britain. Known for his nonviolence movement.
Leads revolts in China.
The last emperor of imperial China abdicates.
Footbinding becomes illegal but doesn't stop until 1940's
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
This was the powder keg that helps start World War one. Austria- Hungry declares war on Serbia. Then Germany who was allied with Austria- Hungry declares war on France and Russia.
World War I
1914 - 1918
The first world war that started using modernized warfare. The first war to use tanks, planes and machine guns, as well as chemicals.
America Joins World War 1
After Germany tried to get Mexico to join, America joins the Allies. They are known as Dough Boys.
Treaty of Versailles
Signed by the Allies and Germany. It ended World War 1 and blamed Germany for the war making them pay for everything.
1949 - 1976
The leader of the Chinese Communist. Founder of the People's republic of China. He made China into a world power. Speed up the industrialization in China.
The Great Leap Forward
1956 - 1960
China starts another five-year plan called the Great Leap Forward. This is a failure and 20 million people starve to death.
Official end of the Punic Wars
The Punic Wars Officially ended when mayors from both cities signed a treaty
June 5, 1989
Chinese students were protesting in Tiananmen Square. China tanks drove in to disperse the crowd. A man nicknamed Tank Man stood in their way. After that day he disappeared.