4.1.1 All About Insulin

Events

1800s

1800

First tests conducted which detect sugar in urine

1848

1848

Researchers first discovered the link between glycogen, diabetes, and metabolism. A scientists makes the discovery that glycogen is secreted from the liver, and believes its the same sugar present in urine.

1869

1869

Langerhans discovers that there are specialized cells present in the pancreas that produce the insulin hormone - Islets of Langerhans

1889

1889

Researchers discovered that animals which had their pancreas removed would contract diabetes. At this time life expectancy with diabetes is very short - Under 10 years

1909

1909

The name insulin is given to the unknown pancreatic substance.

1911

1911

Benedict's Solution created and allows for more efficient testing of sugar in urine - easier diagnosis

1921

1921

Insulin is discovered officially when a scientist was able to isolate pancreatic insulin. Insulin injections was first given to animals and resulted in controlled diabetes.

1922

1922

Insulin allowed to be mass produced in North America - Successful test on young teenager (14 years) who could control diabetes with insulin injections

1940s

1940

A uniform insulin syringe is invented in this decade, leading to more sustainable management of diabetes. "Dip-and-Read" urine test created allowing for instant monitoring of blood glucose levels. Life Expectancy increased.

1959

1959

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes recognized. This allows people to know whether insulin would help their diabetes.

1964

1964

Strips are now used for testing blood glucose levels. A drop of blood is placed on the strip, and there would be a color change would be present depending on the concentration of blood glucose

1970s

1970

Blood glucose meter introduced (AMES), but for doctors used - expensive. Insulin pumps developed

1978

1978

First testing of recombinant DNA insulin - allowed for manufacturing of genetically engineered human insulin instead of insulin from animal pancreatic tissue

1983

1983

First biosynthetic human insulin introduced. Can now produce insulin in mass quantities. Blood glucose monitors "Reflolux" and "Accu-Chek" introduced. This allowed for easy self monitoring at home.

1986

1986

Insulin pen delivery systems introduced allowing for easier blood glucose control

1990s

1990

Defeat Diabetes Foundation established - prevention tactics. FDA approved first recombinant DNA human insulin. External insulin pumps became more available. This allowed for easier control as the individual didn't have to inject themselves constantly with insulin.

Today

2014

Millions of Americans have diabetes
Millions still remain undiagnosed
About 57 million are at risk for diabetes
Diabetes is still an extremely prevalent issue in todays society, even though the technology has come a long way from when it was first treated.