"In moving north... the SCLC had to contend with apathy, skepticism, and outright hostility"
"housing was perhaps the strongest and most visible expression of racial discrimination in the North"
"where housing was concerned, racial discrimination in the North lost its subtlety; it was raw and open"
Fairclough says MLK used the "brilliant tactic" (as he had in the South) of non-violently provoking violent response
"on one level, Daley simply outfoxed King. Yet the SCLC's failure in Chicago had deeper causes"
-> SCLC was Southern mainly, so didn't know how to effectively mobilise so many people (1.5 mil black people in Chicago)
-> used to dealing with imbred retards like Bull Connor -> Mayor Daley was "a subtle, skillful politiican, who opposed the Civil Rights Movement with kind words and smart gestures rather than fire hoses and billy clubs" => part of the politicla machine
-> North was far more "hard-edged" and "secular -> black church not as much prestige + influence
-> Ralph Abernathy siad "we were particularly disturbed by the youth gangs" -> brutal
But Fairclough says the "more profound" reason for the failure was "white people, not blacks"
-> "sympathy for the civil rights movement seemed to evaporate whn it crossed the Mason-Dixon line"-AF
Bayard Rustin said the Civil Rights movement now had to go "from protest to politics"
"the first and only real attempt... to mount a major campaign of nonviolent direct action in the north"-AF
-> confirmed that "white racism was too deep, and too violent, to be susceptible to the moral appeal of nonviolent protest"
"In the north, bitterness and disillusionment seemed to rule"-AF
Harlem high school student told a group of visiting high schoolers from Mississippi "turning the other cheek is a load of trash. Up here we understand what snake is biting us" -> north followed Malcolm X far more