Complete AP Euro timeline

Cooper Gretzema

Units

First period (1450-1648)

1450 - 1648

2nd Period (1648-1815)

1649 - 1815

3rd Period (1815-1914)

1816 - 1914

4th Period (1914-Present)

1915 - Present

Big events

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, over the succession of the French throne.

Age of Plague

1349 - Approx. 1450

Plague, famine, and recurrent wars decimated the population. Feudal governments and papacy struggled against mounting chaos. Failures in institutions led to Western people fixing said institutions. Population dropped to an all time low, but by the 1500's had a more productive economy and more powerful technology. Overall a period of death and failure that led to revitalization and improvement.

Italian Renaissance

1350 - 1527

The Italian Renaissance (Italian: Rinascimento [rinaʃʃiˈmento]) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

Northern Renaissance in Europe

1450 - Approx. 1580

More secular than Italian Renaissance

New monarchs

1490 - 1510

New monarchs gained power and made their countries stronger by distracting the nobility with wars or not relying on them. Italy was not centralized, leading to the prince

Reformation

1517 - 1648

Time of questioning the catholic church, and taking the trend into politics and social change. Led to counter reformation

Wars of Religion

1524 - 1648

The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged in Europe from 1524 to 1648, following the onset of the Protestant Reformation in Central, Western and Northern Europe. The conflicts ended with the Peace of Westphalia recognizing three separate Christian traditions in the Holy Roman Empire: Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism, otherwise known as the Reformed tradition.

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1789

Time of great scientific advances and incorporating science into religion

Council of trent

1545

Revitalized catholic church
Legitimized the Jesuit order

Enlightenment

1700 - 1800

Time of human rational thought, social rights and contracts, and natural rights

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1850

Textile industry improved vastly and created jobs and urbanization

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond.

Age of Napoleon

1804 - 1815

Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815.

Decembrist revolt

1825

Army officers want to have a change in government because they cant rise up because they're not nobles. It fails, prequel to 1830 revolutions

2nd industrial rev

1850 - 1914

More focused on steel and production of bigger machines

Imperialism

1850 - 1914

More colonies, but European superiority belief and Social darwinism gave more justification

Bloody sunday

1905

citizens want democratic rights, Czar fires on people then gives the citizens
Duma

World War I

1914 - 1918

War between triple alliance and Triple Entente, Austria's prime minister assassinated, issue ulitmatum to serbia and cash german blank check, France gets taken and Germany loses. Treaty of Versaiis issued and german war guilt

World War II

1939 - 1945

Hitler invading other countries leads to second World War, Blitzkrieg used to take land quickly, led to disillusionment and anti-facist movement

Cold war

1945 - 1989

An intellectual war between America and Russia, the two super powers. Led to space race, many indirect wars and eventually the fall of communist russia

Social

Loss of population

1349 - 1470

Populations across western Europe lost a about a third of their population, driving costs down and creating the need for more jobs

Rise of gentry

1375 - 1450

The specialized agriculture brought prosperity to the land-owning nobility, but also to dwellers, lawyers, bureaucrats, and wealthy peasants began to invest in land in the countryside. These people made considerable profits and gave rise to a new middle class called the Gentry

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

Brutal persecution of females, on the basis of being witches

Role of men and women

1450 - 1648

Men and women worked in separate but complementary tasks
Renaissance and reformation led to questions of women's role
Delayed marriage and childbearing

German peasants revolt

1524 - 1525

Peasants' War, (1524–25) peasant uprising in Germany. Inspired by changes brought by the Reformation, peasants in western and southern Germany invoked divine law to demand agrarian rights and freedom from oppression by nobles and landlords.

Revolution of 1848: France, German States, Austria, Italy

1848

Most widespread revolutionary wave in European History, Communist manifesto shook up middle calss

Fin de Siecle

1850 - 1914

Emphasis on leisure time, consumerism led to the middle and upper classes mixing so they're almost indistinguishable from one another

1st Wave Feminism

1919 - 1930

Women during World War I had worked in factories and did the jobs of men and they started believing they were equal and fought for voting rights

The Second Sex

1949

Book written by Simone Beauvoir that explained women's role throughout history.

2nd Wave Feminism

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1980

Women started fighting for more equal rights in the workplace and posed questions about their body and the idea of abortion and birth control pills.

Solidarity

1977 - 1978

Polish dock workers revolted for more voting rights

Political

Ferdinand and Isabella

1479

Spanish Armada defeated

1588

In addition to inspiring nationalism, the defeat of the Spanish Armada gave England the practical freedom it needed to begin large-scale colonizing missions. Without the Spanish threat on the sea in the years after 1588, British ships could ply the waters between Europe and America to bring colonists and supplies to the new lands and return with the products of colonial labor. The event also had implications for the Protestant Reformation. A Protestant country, England, prevailed against the more powerful navy of a Catholic country, Spain.
The fact that a big part of the English defeat derived from bad weather gave some weight to the Protestant claim that their cause was supported by God. The loss of the money used to build the huge fleet of 130 ships in the Armada also weakened the Spanish ability to project power in its new colonies. Many historians view the failure of the Spanish Armada as the beginning of a long, slow decline of Spanish power that eventually resulted in a total loss of its vast empire.

Edict of Nantes

1598

Granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time. Henry IV signed it, and said the famous quote, "Paris is worth the mass"

Gustavus Adolphus dies

1632

Great protestant leader and phenominal military leader dies, huge blow against prodestants

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

Caused by animosity between parliment and the monarchy. The first time a king was executed for treason.

Glorious Revolution

1688

William of Orange invaded England with a Dutch fleet and took power without any bloodshed

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Fought between France and Austria over the spanish throne, Phillip took throne but renounced throne in France. First introduction to balance of power

7 years war

1756 - 1763

War between britain and france in the Americas, featuring significant impacts of native americans. Britain then tried to take sugar colonies, against France and Spain. Also in Inda. British won all of them. First global war

Napoleon crowns himself Emperor

1804

Congress of Vienna

1814

Meeting that reaffirmed conservative power and promoted balance of power, anti nationalistically

Revolution of 1830

1830

Romantic nationalist revolutions in 1830, ex. Poland, Portugal, France, Belgium, Italy

German Unification

1850 - 1871

German states excluding Austria unified under one crown, inspires nationalism

Franco-Prussian war

1870 - 1871

France feared the new power unified germany would have, fought war over balance of power

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

Regulated European colonization and trade in Africa, Germany emerges as an imperial power

Armenian Genocide

1915 - 1923

Ottomans systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians

Russian Revolution

8 March 1917 - 8 November 1917

Overthrow Czar Nicholas, Duma created. Then Lenin sent in, overthrows duma and institutes communism, get out of WW1, then Stalin takes power

Treaty of Versailles

1919

Treaty that levied heavy war raperations on Germany, screwed them over with inflation, Germany in chaos

Potsdam Conference

July 1945

Meeting between Stalin and Truman, said that Communism and Capitalism cant coexist

Student protests

1968

Russians sent in tanks to literally squash protests

Prague Spring

January 5, 1968 - August 21, 1968

Political liberilization in Czechoslovakia, put down by russians

European Union Created

1993

Union between Europeans for mutual defense and economic help

Intellectual

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, who was one of the earliest humanists. His rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. He is also known as the Father of Humanism.

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. Boccaccio wrote a number of notable works, including The Decameron and On Famous Women. He wrote his imaginative literature mostly in the Italian vernacular, as well as other works in Latin, and is particularly noted for his realistic dialogue which differed from that of his contemporaries, medieval writers who usually followed formulaic models for character and plot.

Printing Press

1440

First printing press invented, spurred spread of information and revitalized religion due to the printing of the bible

Copernicus

1473 - 1543

First book supporting the heliocentric theory, question the humanist belief that man was at the center of the universe

Hugo Grotius

1483 - 1645

Established foundations for international law, based on natural law

Machiavelli writes The Prince

1513

A book that outlined the ideal monarch in an era where Italy desperately needed to centralize to survive

Brahe

1546 - 1601

Invented best instrument for observing the stars before the telescope

Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author. He served both as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of England. Father of scientific method

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Invented the telescope, and proved the heliocentric theory. Also discovered new laws of gravity

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

Father of western philosophy and geometry

Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

Published theories on gravity and how it relates to astronomy. Believed that the world was rational and believed in a divine clockmaker type god

Cultural

Donatello

1386 - 1466

Renaissance artist, Created another david

Leonardo Da Vinci

1452 - 1519

Ideal renaissance man, inventor and artist. Painted mona lisa, last supper, vetruvian man

Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

Influential renaissance artists, created David, Creation of man, Risen Christ

Mannerism

1520 - 1600

Style that replaced plague era paintings with more realistic, accurate paintings

Baroque

1600 - 1750

Sweeping brushstrokes of mostly religious views, meant to revitalize interest for the church and inspire religious zeal and emotion in who viewed it

Interactions outside Europe

Henry the navigator

1450

Henry the navigator discovered Africa, Marking the beginning of a new era of exploration and colonization

Fall of Constantinople

1453

Use of gunpowder lead to its defeat

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1750

Rise of mercantilism pushes exploration, desire of new reasources like spices, luxury goods, and gold

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

America revolting against Britain and gaining independence because of taxation without representation

Economic

British east India Company

1600 - 1874

British international trade organization that trades spices and other luxury goods from India and Asia

Voc(Dutch East India Company)

1602 - 1799

The Dutch created a monopoly on trade and were the strongest trading empire. Brought much well to the Dutch and Amsterdam.

Bank of Amsterdam

1609

The first modern bank that brought much wealth to Amsterdam.

Adam Smith's "The Wealth of Nations"

1776

Book about how capitalism was the best form of economy because peoples own interests line up wit hthe interests of the goverment

Great Depression

1929 - 1934

Time of Economic ruin in Europe and America, led to rise of many facist leaders

Stock Market Crash

1929

American stock market crashes, starting Great depression

Religious

Spanish Inquisition

1479 - 1834

Systematic expulsion or forced conversion of all non-Christians in Spain to create a religious monotony in Spain

Concordat of Bologna

1516

French control over religion was not totally catholic, so allowed religious freedom

95 theses

1517

The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power of Indulgences are a list of propositions for an academic disputation written in 1517 by Martin Luther, led to people questioning the church and the start of the Reformation, started Lutheranism, and inspired peasant revolts

Charles V invades rome

1519

Holy roman empire invades and sacks rome, forces pope to relocate

Counterreformation

1530 - 1535

Catholics lead a counter to the reformation and try to fix their mistakes, but barely anything changes besides the influence of Jesuits.

Start of Calvinism

1541

John created Calvinism and the main belief was predestination. People believed god already decided everyone's path in life

Peace of Augsberg

1555

Augsburg, Peace of, 1555, temporary settlement within the Holy Roman Empire of the religious conflict arising from the Reformation . Each prince was to determine whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was to prevail in his lands

French wars of religion

1562 - 1598

The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the 16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestants) in the Kingdom of France.

30 Years War

1618 - 1648

A religious war between Catholics and Prodestants in Western Europe. At the end of the war, the rise of strong centralized authority made political power the prize instead of religious power.

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Ended the thirty years war, turning point into centralizing power