Cold War and End of 20th Century

Events

First Wave Feminism

Approx. 1914 - Approx. 1960

Trend toward independence - very important
Suffrage
Legal issues
Middle class women
WW1 and industrialization opening up jobs
Women’s Social and Political Union
National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies

WWI

1914 - 1919

USSR

1922 - 1991

WWII

1939 - 1945

The Western Renaissance

Approx. 1945 - Approx. 1968

economic prosperity
social transformation
Christian Democrats: progressive intellectual Catholics
Socialism/Communism: esp. popular in France, Italy, and Great Britain
Euro-federalism
... despite post-war challenges esp. in Germany
- inflation, black markets, pessimism, advancement of USSR border

Postwar Social Transformations

1945 - 1968

During the war -
efficient technology: radar system, electronic computers, jet aircrafts
Manhattan Project - FDR

After war -
"Big Science"
military-industrial complex
science and engineering increase in importance
"The Brain Drain" of Europe

Changing Class Structure
- new middle class ideals of working together, big organizations, salaried jobs
- more democratic, but also insecure
- but gov't social security reforms
- rising standard of living

The Yalta Conference

1945

USA, Great Britain, Russia
2 zones: East and West Germany
German reparations to Russia
Russia going to declare war on Japan
pro-Russian free elections in Eastern Europe (which Stalin later eliminated)

Cold War

1945 - 1991

Decolonization

1945 - 1965

particularly colonies in Africa and Asia

emergence of NEO-COLONIALISM

Russian Famine

1946 - 1947

Stalin focused on investments in industry and military
housing and agriculture not prominent considerations
about 1 million deaths from starvation

Truman Doctrine

1947

ideology of communist containment

Marshall Plan

1948 - 1952

Tito-Stalin Split

1948

Josip Tito: communist leader of Yugoslavia
... an Eastern and Western influenced state
- focus on building functioning state rather than arms race

The Second Sex (Beauvoir)

1949

Simone de Beauvoir, France
- foundation for modern feminist movement
- controversial
- on list of the Catholic Church's forbidden texts
- Criticized patriarchy
Traditional marriage- man works, woman does housework
Her solution - marriage combination of two separate halves with indepedent existences
Need open relationship, freedom, happier
Jean Paul Sarte relationship - together as lovers and companions but with other people at certain points (meaning of open relationship)

connection to WWII
- women expected to do housework again
- after baby boom, harder to have job
inspired B. Friedan

North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed

1949

Korean War

1950 - 1953

bloody
struggle against communism
parallels with Vietnam

De-Stalinization (Khrushchev)

1953 - 1964

Khrushchev -

His speech at the 20th Congress - first time openly defy Stalin
            Loosens Stalin’s foreign policy to take away East vs. West
                Advocates peaceful co-existence
Agricultural reforms - resources from industry to agriculture
Raises Soviet standard of living
Loosened censorship on arts

eventually deposed by opponents in government

stagnating economy, infighting, military spending

Civil Rights Mov't

1954 - 1968

Warsaw Pact formed

1955

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

President Johnson wants to "save" Vietnam
plan to break will of North Vietnam through bombing
first televised war
losing American support

President Nixon brings US out of War

communism wins?

1956 Revolutions

1956

Poland (new government)
Hungary (crushed by Soviet troops when attempt)

Polish discontent

Approx. 1956 - Approx. 1989
  • 1956 riots
  • failing economy in 1960s, inflation
  • 1970 strike

The Space Race

1957 - 1975

Treaty of Rome

1957

creating European Economic Cooperation (EEC) - France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
failed because of conservative push-back
root of modern day European Union

Second Wave Feminism

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1980

Women’s movement
Focused on laws in workplace, maternity leave, etc.
Three main causes
Changes in motherhood patterns
Rise in strong advocates
Protests in US over other topics, civil rights, stimulated the Women’s Movement

Youth and Counterculture

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1975

began in the USA and UK
- spread to Western World
- strongly influenced by Civil Rights Movement and Vietnam War
- percentage of sex at young ages went up between 1945 and 1953
- Bob Dylan
- rejecting 1950s complacency

The Feminine Mystique (Friedan)

1963

Betty Friedan
- women are dissatisfied because have to conform to the standards instituted by men

Russian Social Revolution "as Brezhnev slept"

Approx. 1964 - Approx. 1982

Growth of urban pop, access to edu, more scientists, engineers, highly skilled workers, more indep thinking
Set stage for Gorbachev and downfall of USSR

Civil Rights Act 1964

1964

Lyndon B. Johnson

Re-Stalinization (Brezhnev)

1964 - 1982

Brezhnev

  • bloodless revolution after Khrushchev
  • talks about Stalin's functional and good methods

  • boosted military spending, modernization

  • Détente policy

  • decline of living standard

  • rarely followed Soviet "dualist thinking" (only in 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia)

reduced freedom for artists/writers, Stalinist actions against dissent

Persecution of Jews in 60s and 70s

Voting Rights Act 1965

1965

Lyndon B. Johnson

Brezhnev Doctrine

1968

USSR has right to invade other communist countries if those countries aren't doing communism right

Vietcong Tet Offensive

1968

North Vietnam attacked South Vietnam
decline in morale

Paris Protests (education)

1968

occupied buildings
took over University of Paris
Demanded better curriculum and student voice
Worked, but gov’t cracked down on future protests of this sort
Clash between police and college students

Détente Policy

Approx. 1969 - Approx. 1980

lessening of Cold War tensions
alternative to Truman Doctrine of containment
Nixon
West Germany
SALT II
HELSINKI ACCORDS

Final Act of Helskini Conference

1975

70s/80s Move toward Conservatism

1975 - 1990

pessimism in US
- due to "stag-flation" from funds spent abroad during war
- low economic growth
- high unemployment
- inflation

move toward Reagan in US, Thatcher in UK
more conservative, more practical

Soviet-Afghan War

1979 - 1989

"mujahideen" vs. Soviet Army and Democratic Republic of Aghanistan

ended with withdrawal of Soviet troops

death of Josip Tito

1980

regional and ethnic conflicts within Yugoslavia after his death

Solidarity

1980 - 1989

under Lech Walesa
- Polish trade union
- peaceful
- supported by US labor leader Kirkland
- funding for underground movement
by 1981 - 9.5 million members

but Party outlawed and driven underground

Gorbachev's Reforms

1985 - 1991

Reform and restructure economy
Directing government aid toward army
Thus failed to address needs of Soviet Population
“Perestroika” - government price controls slightly weakened, more independence for state enterprises
“Glasnot” - publicity, reducing government censorship, free speech
Explained Chernobyl - Gorbachev admitted and explained
Eventually pushed open Russia as a society

first free elections since 1917
... led to revolts for more political freedom
- nationalist demands (Baltic Region, Caucasus

Withdrew Soviet Troops from Afghanistan
reduced East-West tensions

Fall of Berlin Wall

1989

Revolutions of 1989

1989 - 1990

Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania

revival of nationalism

End of Cold War

1989 - 1991

Gorbachev and Bush

Malta 1989
- Discussions - Gorbachev needed to bring Cold War to end
Bush “ we stand at the threshold of a new era of US-Soviet relations”
In 1990 - 22 European countries and Soviet Union and US in Paris - agreed to scale down arms, existing borders were legal and valid
1991 - pledge - major treaty to reduce arm missiles - Start I Agreement
East and West tensions disappearing
Yeltsin took power and made it Russia - considered as Russia

Gulf War

1990 - 1991

Iraq invasion of oil-rich Kuwait
US under Bush intervenes - Operation Desert Shield

Boris Yeltsin (Russian president)

1990 - 2000

"Help Russia become Russia"

1992 Economic Shock Therapy
- price rise, monopolies privatized, rise of robber barons

utilizing military force to suppress resurgent communism

growing acceptance of free elections
despite not well enforced laws and weak parliament - more faith in electoral process

moderate foreign policy (except Checnya conflict over independence of Muslim nationalist)

German Reunification

1990

won 50% vote at elections
communists pushed to fringe parties

agreement between Gorbachev and Kohl
- Germany affirmed it had peaceful intentions
Won’t develop nuclear, biological weapons
Allowed Soviet troops to leave East Germany gradually and with dignity
Loans to Soviets - because Kohl wanted to use aid to increase favor

Yugoslav Wars

1991 - 2001

Bosnian War

1992 - 1995

Bosnia-Herzegovina
30% Serbs didn’t want to live under Bosnian Muslims
Bosnian genocide
Mainly Serbs responsible - ethnic cleansing
3 million refugees

Bosnian serbs invade Muslim safe area
US needs to intervene
Dayton Accords in Ohio between Croatian armies and Serbs

Bosnian Serbs forced to remain a loose federal state

Maastricht Treaty

1992

Signed in 1992 led by Mitterrand and Kohl
Single currency
Financial standards for member states before joining
Common foreign policy including defense
Set the year for complete monetary union by 1999

The End of History and the Last Man (Fukuyama)

1992

"the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the West and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government."

Velvet Divorce

1993

Czechoslovakia - Czech Republic and Slovakia
peaceful move under president Vaclav Havel

European Union

1993 - Present

started as a monetary union under Chirac and Kohl: decrease national budget deficits, low inflation, stop accumulation of national debt

Britain initially opposed
France ratifies, but popular opposition, strikes, etc

Integration of East and West Germany under Kohl was problematic
Eastern workers not payed as much as Western European workers
W. Europeans didn’t want their jobs outsourced
Sweden, Finland, and Austria allowed in for strong economies
But Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary uncertain membership date