Marriage was arranged by parents or the inheriting son. Marriage determined inheritance and economic status. The average age of women marrying was 12 to 15 in Europe while men were older. Divorce mostly did not happen. A sexual double standard existed for women to have relationships outside the marriage. Wives had no legal power. Women managed the households. A large portion of mothers died in childbirth. Prostitution and brothels are a large part of everyday life for men.
1450 - ~1650
Elderly, midwives, and spinsters were targeted as witches and killed. Caused by religious uncertainties.
Women & the Reformation
1517 - ~1648
Social changes caused by the Reformation. Women were expected tp be obedient and subservient to their husbands. Their main job was to bare children. With the Reformation, being a nun was no longer option in Protestant countries. Religion could also no longer be controlled by mothers in their household.
Mary Astell, English Feminist
Publishes essay "In Defense of the Female Sex". She was the first to advocate for the idea that women are just as rational as men.
Women & Marriage
Less women were unmarried during the childbearing time.
Women’s March on Versailles
Armed women marched and pleaded about starving children at the Palace of Versailles. The royal family was forced to return to Paris.
Declaration of Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
Written by Olympe de Gouges in France, but ignored by National Assembly and the majority of her contemporaries.
Mary Wollstonecraft, British Feminist
Publishes "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman". She was an advocate of women's rights, an advocate of coeducation with men. Her thoughts resulted in the birth of the modern feminist movement for women’s rights.
“The Woman Question” - Querelle des femmes
This was a debate over the role of women in society. During this time period, women remained legally inferior to men and economically defined by their husbands and fathers.
Cottage system run primarily by women in their houses during the pre-industrialization movement. Women were producers of goods in their own homes.
1803 - 1844
She was a female utopian socialist who advocated for equality between men and women. She combined socialism and feminism.
Women & the Napoleonic Code
Under Napoleonic Code harder to divorce for women, women punished for adultery, everything belonged to husbands, less equal, women can’t open bank accounts without husbands, husband reestablished as the head of the family
1820 - 1910
During the Crimean War she insisted on strict sanitary conditions as a nurse which saved lives. She helped make nursing a profession for trained middle class women.
Women & Coal Mines Act
This British industrial reform act prohibits underground work for all women. Some women protested against this act because mining paid higher wages than other jobs open to women.
Ten Hours Act
This act in Britain passed many reforms including the limitation women’s work day to 10 hours.
1867 - 1934
Discovered polonium in 1898 and radium in 1910. She was the 1st woman to win a Nobel Peace Prize in physics and chemistry. She died of leukemia from radiation given off during her research.
1870 - 1952
She was the 1st Italian woman to receive a medical degree at the University of Rome. She created a new system of childhood education based on natural and spontaneous activities where students learned at their own pace. She was a professional woman and an unwed mother.
Women reach universities and professional schools and women’s colleges were formed.
Women and men’s literacy rates become equal during this time period.
"The New Woman" Ideal
Renounced traditional feminine roles, want freedom outside household and new roles besides wives and mothers
Women’s Social & Political Union
This union was established by Emmeline Pankhurst. These women were militant in their demands for equality. They heckled politicians & held public demonstrations
Women given right to vote in Finland and Norway.
Women and WWI
1914 - 1918
New roles for women evolved during the war. Women also began to demand for the right to vote.
Women & Russian Revolution
1917 - 1925
The Bread Riots in Russia were led by women. Universal suffrage was granted to women and civil equality was established between men and women. Alexandra Kollontai and Zhenotdel fought for women’s rights and social reforms. Abortion was also legalized.
Women in Sweden, Great Britain, Germany, Poland, and Austria got the right to vote.
Virginia Woolf, Writer
Publishes "A Room of One’s Own". She utilized stream of consciousness and inner monologue and is a feminist and modernist.
Women & WWII
1939 - 1945
Women join resistance movements against the Nazis, women encouraged in Germany and Italy to stay home and have more children, women contribute to the war effort by serving as nurses and medics, Night Witches - Soviet women fighter pilots
Women & Welfare
The British welfare system was based on the idea that women should stay home with their families. Women received subsidies for having children, but no benefits if they worked. Business owners were encouraged to pay women less so they would not join the workforce.
Women given the right to vote in France and Italy.
~1946 - ~1964
Fertility rate doubled in Europe.
Female Media Portrayal
Women were usually shown on television staying home with their children and being housewives.
Women's Liberation Movement
1960 - ~Present
The start of mainstream feminism. This was a political and social rights movement for women. Green Parties also emerged from women’s liberation movements. They were based on environmentalism and social justice and were popular in the 1970s. Women’s studies courses became popular throughout Europe, and women began to ally with antinuclear and ecological movements.
Abortion Legal in France
Abortion became legal in France.
1450 - ~1600
Art movement based on individualism. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spread along with scientific innovation and artistic expression. Famous artists include Michelangelo, Da Vinci, and Raphael.
1450 - ~1580
An art movement focused on religious piety. Famous artists are Dürer, Van Eyck, and Brueghel.
~1600 - ~1750
This art movement represented a return to the church and dramatism. Existed along with the Catholic Reformation.
~1700 - ~1750
An art movement that focused on extravagance and wealth.
~1770 - ~1830
This art movement represented a return to classical antiquity. Artists were concerned with the imitation of Greek and Roman art. Existed at the same time as Napoleon.
~1800 - ~1850
This art movement was concerned with emotion and passion. Famous artists included Goya and Delacroix.
~1830 - ~1870
This art movement represented the rejection of romanticism. Subjects were generally common people doing work and landscapes. Everyday life was celebrated. The most famous artist was Millet.
~1867 - ~1886
This art movement was concerned with light, choppy brushstrokes and was most prevalent in France. Small details were accentuated. Famous artists were Monet, Renoir, Manet, and Cezanne.
~1880 - ~1905
This art movement is more detailed than impressionism, and features the start of pointillism. Famous artists are Cezanne and van Gogh.
~1905 - ~1908
In this art movement color is more important than line or subject. Famous artists are Matisse and van Gogh.
~1905 - ~1925
This art movement is characterized as being modern. Artists often analyzed the human psyche and focused on anxiety. This movement was most prevalent in Spain, Russia, and Holland. The influence of Freud was important on these artists. The most famous artists are Munch and van Gogh.
~1907 - ~1914
This art movement contains some African characteristics and cubes are very important. The art is often fragmented. The most famous artist is Picasso.
~1909 - ~1944
This art movement is full of speed. Works are often focused on urban subjects. This movement was most prevalent in Germany.
~1915 - ~1922
This art movement was concentrated on the absurd. The movement is most prevalent in Germany. Art is not logical.
~1920 - ~1960
This art movement is characterized by the belief in the practical application over the aesthetic value of an object.
~1924 - ~Present
This art movement has no reason. Marxist ideals are often showcases. This movement was most prevalent in Holland, Germany, and France. The subconscious is very significant and hysteria is often showcased.
~1940 - ~1960
This art movement is characterized by the importance of shape and color. Can lead to subjective interpretations. The most famous artist is Pollock.
~1950 - ~1970
This art movement is focused on the bitterness from WWII. Random objects are often subjects.
~1960 - ~Present
This art movement is characterized by paintings that look like photographs. This art movement was most prevalent in Great Britain. Everyday objects were often the subjects.
~1965 - ~1970
This art movement is characterized by geometric and abstract patterns.
Motivation of Interaction
1450 - 1500
This was an exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between America and the rest of the world during this time period.
Goods of Africa and Asia began to make their way into medieval castles during this time period.
Slaves began to be brought from Africa to Europe.
1450 - 1750
This is an economic philosophy that emphasizes competition for wealth, which was measured in terms of who had the most gold and silver.
1450 - 1648
Trade with Turks that included many cities in Europe and the Middle East.
Portuguese Sugar Plantations
1490 - 1550
These plantations were run by slaves from Africa.
He was the Spanish explorer who discovered North America.
Treaty of Tordesillas
This treaty divided the New World into Portuguese and Spanish Spheres of Influence.
Conquistadors from Portugal and Spain
These conquistadors were motivated by anti-Muslim sentiments. This was a period of expansion in the Middle East. The Portuguese destroyed Arab shipping routes and established a monopoly on the spice trade in this region.
1502 - 1750
This is a term that signifies the trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
Cortés arrived in Mexico.
Arrives in South America.
1541 - 1552
Francis Xavier led expeditions that went to India, China, and Japan.
Jesuits in China
1582 - 1610
Jesuits tried to make parallels between Christian and Confucian concepts to attract followers. Matteo Ricci was the founding father of this missionary.
1583 - 1591
Trade began by the Portuguese in China and the Spice Islands.
East India Trading Companies
1602 - 1799
This was a joint stock company that maintained control of trade in India.
Colonies began to be established in North America.
1699 - 1701
She was an entomologist. She went to other colonies to get plant and animal samples. She displays the many scientific reasons for exploration during this time period.
1700 - 1799
This is a belief that no culture is superior to another because culture is a matter of custom, not reason, and culture derives its meaning from the group holding it.
7 Years War
1756 - 1763
This was a war between Great Britain and France. Both nations were hoping to get territory in India and North America.
1776 - 1783
This event was caused by tensions between Great Britain and its colonies in North America.
Haitian Slave Revolt
1791 - 1804
This revolt was led by Toussaint l'Ouverture.
1800 - 1899
Expansion led to new markets for European goods. Vast colonial empires were created throughout the globe. The best markets were in the East, Africa, and the Americas.
This was a statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere by the United States President Monroe.
He was a British biologist who introduced the ideas of natural selection and evolution. he traveled to South America to study animal species.
1859 - 1869
This was a successful canal that was jointly owned by the British and the French.
Second Napoleonic Regime
1864 - 1867
This regime was concerned with Mexican intervention. They wanted to dominate Mexican economy with French goods.
1870 - 1914
New Imperialism was motivated by Social Darwinism and nationalism. Europeans were motivated by their want to civilize what they considered as savage and inferior races. Europeans were also motivated by economic reasons, because imperialism led to new markets were European goods could be sold.
Early Zionist Movement
1904 - 1914
1,000 jews migrated to Palestine during this time period.
World War I
1914 - 1918
Some European countries entered the war to gain others colonies. The war resulted in French and British mandates abroad. US and Japan also became allies.
World War II
1939 - 1945
This was a global conflict that was motivated by many factors and profoundly influenced the economies and people of Europe.
International Monetary Fund
This is an international organization of 183 countries that promotes cooperation and exchange between nations, and works to try and aid the growth of international trade.
This is a body of countries that assembled to insure human rights, peace, and civility throughout the world.
This was a plan that the United States came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to Western and Southern Europe.
Acts of Terrorism
1970 - 1989
During this period, both right and left wing terrorist groups flourished.
Great Britain's Political Parties
War of the Roses
1455 - 1487
This conflict involved the Ducal House of Lancaster and Ducal House of York. Many other aristocratic families were also drawn into the conflict. By the end of the conflict, the Tudor dynasty was established.
1517 - 1564
This event led to a change of religion to the Church of England under Henry VIII. Henry VIII became the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
English Civil War
1642 - 1651
This was a conflict between the monarch and the Parliament over religious differences. Puritans disapproved of James I, and most gentry were puritans who made up a majority in the House of Commons.
1653 - 1658
Cromwell instituted a military dictatorship. The Parliament’s new model army was made up of Independents, who were extreme Puritans.
1678 - 1714
Tories supported the monarchy and opposed the Whigs.
1680 - 1850
The Whigs supported the Parliament and opposed the Tories.
1688 - 1689
James II abdicated and William and Mary were put on the throne.
1714 - 1901
The Hanoverian dynasty took over the Stuart dynasty. Hanoverians were Protestant and did not speak English and did not understand the British government.
1830 - 1840
Aristocrats pushed for reform during this time period.
Conservatives opposed the Liberal Party.
Overtakes Liberals as the main opposition to the Conservative Party
The Liberals won a landslide victory. Pensions were established and secondary education was expanded.
This was the first government headed by the Labour Party under Ramsay MacDonald.
1929 - 1931
Labour Party in Power, does not fix he problems of the Great Depression
1940 - 1945
Churchill assumed the role of Prime Minister after Neville Chamberlain resigned.
The Labour Party once again defeated the Conservatives.
Churchill was Prime Minister along with a Conservative government.
1964 - 1970
The Prime Minister was Harold Wilson.
This was a surprise Conservative victory.
1974 - 1979
The Winter of Discontent at the end of 1979 led to Margaret Thatcher's election.
1979 - 1990
Thatcher was Prime Minister with a Conservative government. She ended social welfare programs and improved economy. Her popularity fell and she resigned.
1990 - 1997
Major was a Conservative. He forced Margaret Thatcher to resign.
1997 - 2010
The New Labour movement was led Tony Blair. A national minimum wage was established.
Recessions and Depressions
Mini Ice Age & Plague
1450 - ~1800
This was a cooling that caused agricultural problems at times and led to major economic downturns.
Inflation & Price Revolution
1520 - ~1640
The was a major economic problem. Wages remained low but prices increased.
Spain's Economic Decline
1571 - 1650
Phillip III and Phillip IV overspent without enough exports coming out of Spain. There was also an oversupply of priests and monks.
1610 - 1715
Louis XIII and Louis XIV's were very expensive and they plunged France into debt.
Speculators traded tulip bulbs for extraordinary sums of money, until, without warning, the market for them spectacularly collapsed.
Decline of Dutch Republic
Struggle between the oligarchies and the House of Orange. The Dutch Republic lost its spot as a leader of European trade.
1719 - 1720
This was a finacial scheme by France that led to inflation and a stock market crash in 1720.
South Sea Bubble
This was a speculation mania that ruined many British investors in 1720.
Crisis of 1763
during war - dutch banks gave loans - after war - prices dropped from abnormally high war prices, bankruptcy, exacerbated by economic boom and new foreign credit expansion - dutch bankers backing the credit were over leveraged
Crisis of 1772
Two english banks failed and the Credit Boom ended.
1787 - 1789
Bread prices were high and there were a series of bad harvests. Food shortages and unemployment were big issues. This led to discontent and a crisis.
Panic of 1796
1796 - 1797
UK - land speculation failure in US, Bank Restriction Act 1797 - removed the requirement for the Bank of England to convert banknotes into gold
Danish State of Bankruptcy
Denmark declared bankruptcy at end of Gunboat War which was between Denmark and Great Britain.
Post Napoleonic Depression
France was in debt because of Napoleon's wars.
Panic of 1825
A pervasive British recession in which many banks failed, including the Bank of England. This arose in part out of speculative investments in Latin America, including the imaginary country of Poyais.
National Workshops in France
Program to try and employ unemployed workers.
Economic Depression in UK
1857 - 1858
This circumvented the requirements of the Peel Banking Act of 1844, which required gold and silver reserves to back up the amount of money in circulation. Surfacing news of this circumvention set off the Panic in Britain. The Law of Limited Liability, which was passed in 1863, encouraged investment for middle class workers.
1866 - 1867
International financial downturn that accompanied the failure of Overend, Gurney and Company in London, and the "corso forzoso" abandonment of the silver standard in Italy.
The Long Depression
1873 - 1895
Prices, wages, and profits all fell. The term unemployment was coined. This time period was characterized by slumps in agricultural profits.
Russia's War Economy
1911 - 1917
Russia had an ineffective war economy. There was a collapse in international trade and domestic revenues. More money printing fueled inflation. Bad winter led to a breakdown in food supplies.
Russia & the Bolsheviks
1918 - 1921
Russia's postwar industrial output was less than 20 percent of the prewar level. Whole sectors of the economy were destroyed. Lenin tried to fix this with him National Economic Plan.
Unique for it’s duration and severity and its uneven recovery throughout Europe and abroad.
Countries in Great Depression
1930 - ~1932
UK (ends 1932), France (ends 1932), Sweden (ends 1932), Denmark (ends 1933)
Russia & Stalin
Destruction of the agricultural sector caused by the “total collectivization” policy. Low world prices for Russian raw exports.
Early Cold War Russia
1946 - 1953
As the Cold War begins, resources are prioritized to heavy industry, nuclear weapons, and the Space Race. Agriculture and light industries lagged, and food and essentials remained in short supply.
Virgin Land Campaign
1954 - 1963
Khrushchev aimed to boost agriculture by cultivating an extra 35 million hectares of virgin lands. This resulted in short term gains and ultimately failed.
1970s Energy Crisis
1970 - 1980
This period was characterized by substantial petroleum shortages, real and perceived, as well as elevated prices.
Secondary Banking Crisis of 1973
1973 - 1975
A dramatic crash in British property prices that caused dozens of small ("secondary") lending banks to be threatened with bankruptcy.
1973 Oil Crisis
1973 - 1974
The embargo both banned petroleum exports to the targeted nations and introduced cuts in oil production. Ultimately, oil prices were raised.
Early 1980s Recession
1980 - 1985
Started by the defense spending from the United States during the 1980s.
Black Monday refers to Monday, October 19, 1987, when stock markets around the world crashed, shedding a huge value in a very short time, then recession of the early 1990s.
Great Russian Depression
1989 - 1996
This was the first wave of the Great Russian Depression (the death throes of the planned economic system). All structural problems of the late Soviet planned economic system were aggravated by vague reforms and decreasing oil prices. Unbalanced financial system and overall deficit of consumer goods.
Next came the second wave of the Great Russian Depression (the transition from a planned to a market economy). The complete absence of “market experience”, distorted structure of the economy, low competitiveness of Russian goods and services and incompleteness of market reforms resulted in the Russian economy's output declining by roughly half.
Finnish Banking Crisis of 1990s
1991 - 1993
This crisis was caused by weak regulation and bank-specific problems in Finland.
Swedish Banking Crisis
1991 - 1992
The housing bubble in Sweden deflated during 1991 and 1992, and resulted in a severe credit crunch and widespread bank insolvency.
Russian Financial Crisis
1998 - 1999
The ruble was devalued. Domestic debt was defaulted.