AP European Thematic Timeline

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Period One

1450

Period Two

1648

Period Three

1815

Period Four

1914

Women

Witchcraft Craze

1450 - Approx. 1650

Elderly, midwives, and spinsters were targeted as witches and killed. Caused by religious uncertainties.

Women in the Middle Ages

1450 - Approx. 1550

Marriage was arranged by parents or the inheriting son. Marriage determined inheritance and economic status. The average age of women marrying was 12 to 15 in Europe while men were older. Divorce mostly did not happen. A sexual double standard existed for women to have relationships outside the marriage. Wives had no legal power. Women managed the households. A large portion of mothers died in childbirth. Prostitution and brothels are a large part of everyday life for men.

Women & the Reformation

1517 - Approx. 1648

Social changes caused by the Reformation. Women were expected tp be obedient and subservient to their husbands. Their main job was to bare children. With the Reformation, being a nun was no longer option in Protestant countries. Religion could also no longer be controlled by mothers in their household.

Mary Astell, English Feminist

1696

Publishes essay "In Defense of the Female Sex". She was the first to advocate for the idea that women are just as rational as men.

Women & Marriage

1700

Less women were unmarried during the childbearing time.

Women’s March on Versailles

1789

Armed women marched and pleaded about starving children at the Palace of Versailles. The royal family was forced to return to Paris.

Declaration of Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen

1791

Written by Olympe de Gouges in France, but ignored by National Assembly and the majority of her contemporaries.

Mary Wollstonecraft, British Feminist

1792

Publishes "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman". She was an advocate of women's rights, an advocate of coeducation with men. Her thoughts resulted in the birth of the modern feminist movement for women’s rights.

Cottage System

1800

Cottage system run primarily by women in their houses during the pre-industrialization movement. Women were producers of goods in their own homes.

“The Woman Question” - Querelle des femmes

1800

This was a debate over the role of women in society. During this time period, women remained legally inferior to men and economically defined by their husbands and fathers.

Flora Tristan

1803 - 1844

She was a female utopian socialist who advocated for equality between men and women. She combined socialism and feminism.

Women & the Napoleonic Code

1804

Under Napoleonic Code harder to divorce for women, women punished for adultery, everything belonged to husbands, less equal, women can’t open bank accounts without husbands, husband reestablished as the head of the family

Florence Nightingale

1820 - 1910

During the Crimean War she insisted on strict sanitary conditions as a nurse which saved lives. She helped make nursing a profession for trained middle class women.

Women & Coal Mines Act

1842

This British industrial reform act prohibits underground work for all women. Some women protested against this act because mining paid higher wages than other jobs open to women.

Ten Hours Act

1847

This act in Britain passed many reforms including the limitation women’s work day to 10 hours.

Marie Curie

1867 - 1934

Discovered polonium in 1898 and radium in 1910. She was the 1st woman to win a Nobel Peace Prize in physics and chemistry. She died of leukemia from radiation given off during her research.

Higher Education

1870

Women reach universities and professional schools and women’s colleges were formed.

Maria Montessori

1870 - 1952

She was the 1st Italian woman to receive a medical degree at the University of Rome. She created a new system of childhood education based on natural and spontaneous activities where students learned at their own pace. She was a professional woman and an unwed mother.

"The New Woman" Ideal

1900

Renounced traditional feminine roles, want freedom outside household and new roles besides wives and mothers

Literacy Rates

1900

Women and men’s literacy rates become equal during this time period.

Women’s Social & Political Union

1903

This union was established by Emmeline Pankhurst. These women were militant in their demands for equality. They heckled politicians & held public demonstrations

Female Suffrage

1913

Women given right to vote in Finland and Norway.

Women and WWI

1914 - 1918

New roles for women evolved during the war. Women also began to demand for the right to vote.

Women & Russian Revolution

1917 - 1925

The Bread Riots in Russia were led by women. Universal suffrage was granted to women and civil equality was established between men and women. Alexandra Kollontai and Zhenotdel fought for women’s rights and social reforms. Abortion was also legalized.

Female Suffrage

1918

Women in Sweden, Great Britain, Germany, Poland, and Austria got the right to vote.

Virginia Woolf, Writer

1929

Publishes "A Room of One’s Own". She utilized stream of consciousness and inner monologue and is a feminist and modernist.

Women & WWII

1939 - 1945

Women join resistance movements against the Nazis, women encouraged in Germany and Italy to stay home and have more children, women contribute to the war effort by serving as nurses and medics, Night Witches - Soviet women fighter pilots

Women & Welfare

1942

The British welfare system was based on the idea that women should stay home with their families. Women received subsidies for having children, but no benefits if they worked. Business owners were encouraged to pay women less so they would not join the workforce.

Female Suffrage

1945

Women given the right to vote in France and Italy.

Baby Boom

Approx. 1946 - Approx. 1964

Fertility rate doubled in Europe.

Female Media Portrayal

1950

Women were usually shown on television staying home with their children and being housewives.

Women's Liberation Movement

1960 - Approx. Present

The start of mainstream feminism. This was a political and social rights movement for women. Green Parties also emerged from women’s liberation movements. They were based on environmentalism and social justice and were popular in the 1970s. Women’s studies courses became popular throughout Europe, and women began to ally with antinuclear and ecological movements.

Abortion Legal in France

1979

Abortion became legal in France.

Art Movements

Northern Renaissance

1450 - Approx. 1580

An art movement focused on religious piety. Famous artists are Dürer, Van Eyck, and Brueghel.

Renaissance

1450 - Approx. 1600

Art movement based on individualism. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spread along with scientific innovation and artistic expression. Famous artists include Michelangelo, Da Vinci, and Raphael.

Baroque

Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1750

This art movement represented a return to the church and dramatism. Existed along with the Catholic Reformation.

Rococo

Approx. 1700 - Approx. 1750

An art movement that focused on extravagance and wealth.

Neoclassicism

Approx. 1770 - Approx. 1830

This art movement represented a return to classical antiquity. Artists were concerned with the imitation of Greek and Roman art. Existed at the same time as Napoleon.

Romanticism

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1850

This art movement was concerned with emotion and passion. Famous artists included Goya and Delacroix.

Realism

Approx. 1830 - Approx. 1870

This art movement represented the rejection of romanticism. Subjects were generally common people doing work and landscapes. Everyday life was celebrated. The most famous artist was Millet.

Impressionism

Approx. 1867 - Approx. 1886

This art movement was concerned with light, choppy brushstrokes and was most prevalent in France. Small details were accentuated. Famous artists were Monet, Renoir, Manet, and Cezanne.

Post Impressionism

Approx. 1880 - Approx. 1905

This art movement is more detailed than impressionism, and features the start of pointillism. Famous artists are Cezanne and van Gogh.

Expressionism

Approx. 1905 - Approx. 1925

This art movement is characterized as being modern. Artists often analyzed the human psyche and focused on anxiety. This movement was most prevalent in Spain, Russia, and Holland. The influence of Freud was important on these artists. The most famous artists are Munch and van Gogh.

Fauvism

Approx. 1905 - Approx. 1908

In this art movement color is more important than line or subject. Famous artists are Matisse and van Gogh.

Cubism

Approx. 1907 - Approx. 1914

This art movement contains some African characteristics and cubes are very important. The art is often fragmented. The most famous artist is Picasso.

Futurism

Approx. 1909 - Approx. 1944

This art movement is full of speed. Works are often focused on urban subjects. This movement was most prevalent in Germany.

Dada

Approx. 1915 - Approx. 1922

This art movement was concentrated on the absurd. The movement is most prevalent in Germany. Art is not logical.

Functionalism

Approx. 1920 - Approx. 1960

This art movement is characterized by the belief in the practical application over the aesthetic value of an object.

Surrealism

Approx. 1924 - Approx. Present

This art movement has no reason. Marxist ideals are often showcases. This movement was most prevalent in Holland, Germany, and France. The subconscious is very significant and hysteria is often showcased.
Dali

Abstract Expressionism

Approx. 1940 - Approx. 1960

This art movement is characterized by the importance of shape and color. Can lead to subjective interpretations. The most famous artist is Pollock.

Pop Art

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1970

This art movement is focused on the bitterness from WWII. Random objects are often subjects.

Photorealism

Approx. 1960 - Approx. Present

This art movement is characterized by paintings that look like photographs. This art movement was most prevalent in Great Britain. Everyday objects were often the subjects.

Op Art

Approx. 1965 - Approx. 1970

This art movement is characterized by geometric and abstract patterns.

Motivation of Interaction

Hanseatic Leage

1450 - 1648

Trade with Turks that included many cities in Europe and the Middle East.

Mercantalism

1450 - 1750

This is an economic philosophy that emphasizes competition for wealth, which was measured in terms of who had the most gold and silver.

Portuguese Slaves

1450

Slaves began to be brought from Africa to Europe.

Medieval Trade

1450

Goods of Africa and Asia began to make their way into medieval castles during this time period.

Columbian Exchange

1450 - 1500

This was an exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between America and the rest of the world during this time period.

Portuguese Sugar Plantations

1490 - 1550

These plantations were run by slaves from Africa.

Christopher Columbus

1492

He was the Spanish explorer who discovered North America.

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

This treaty divided the New World into Portuguese and Spanish Spheres of Influence.

Conquistadors from Portugal and Spain

1500

These conquistadors were motivated by anti-Muslim sentiments. This was a period of expansion in the Middle East. The Portuguese destroyed Arab shipping routes and established a monopoly on the spice trade in this region.

Triangular Trade

1502 - 1750

This is a term that signifies the trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.

Hernán Cortés

1519

Cortés arrived in Mexico.

Francisco Pizarro

1530

Arrives in South America.

Portuguese Empire

1532

In Brazil

Jesuit Expeditions

1541 - 1552

Francis Xavier led expeditions that went to India, China, and Japan.

Jesuits in China

1582 - 1610

Jesuits tried to make parallels between Christian and Confucian concepts to attract followers. Matteo Ricci was the founding father of this missionary.

Porutegeuse Expeditions

1583 - 1591

Trade began by the Portuguese in China and the Spice Islands.

East India Trading Companies

1602 - 1799

This was a joint stock company that maintained control of trade in India.

English Colonies

1607

Colonies began to be established in North America.

Maria Merian

1699 - 1701

She was an entomologist. She went to other colonies to get plant and animal samples. She displays the many scientific reasons for exploration during this time period.

Cultural Relativism

1700 - 1799

This is a belief that no culture is superior to another because culture is a matter of custom, not reason, and culture derives its meaning from the group holding it.

7 Years War

1756 - 1763

This was a war between Great Britain and France. Both nations were hoping to get territory in India and North America.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

This event was caused by tensions between Great Britain and its colonies in North America.

Haitian Slave Revolt

1791 - 1804

This revolt was led by Toussaint l'Ouverture.

Industrialization

1800 - 1899

Expansion led to new markets for European goods. Vast colonial empires were created throughout the globe. The best markets were in the East, Africa, and the Americas.

Monroe Doctrine

1823

This was a statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere by the United States President Monroe.

Charles Darwin

1831

He was a British biologist who introduced the ideas of natural selection and evolution. he traveled to South America to study animal species.

Suez Canal

1859 - 1869

This was a successful canal that was jointly owned by the British and the French.

Second Napoleonic Regime

1864 - 1867

This regime was concerned with Mexican intervention. They wanted to dominate Mexican economy with French goods.

New Imperialism

1870 - 1914

New Imperialism was motivated by Social Darwinism and nationalism. Europeans were motivated by their want to civilize what they considered as savage and inferior races. Europeans were also motivated by economic reasons, because imperialism led to new markets were European goods could be sold.

Early Zionist Movement

1904 - 1914

1,000 jews migrated to Palestine during this time period.

World War I

1914 - 1918

Some European countries entered the war to gain others colonies. The war resulted in French and British mandates abroad. US and Japan also became allies.

World War II

1939 - 1945

This was a global conflict that was motivated by many factors and profoundly influenced the economies and people of Europe.

United Nations

1945

This is a body of countries that assembled to insure human rights, peace, and civility throughout the world.

International Monetary Fund

1945

This is an international organization of 183 countries that promotes cooperation and exchange between nations, and works to try and aid the growth of international trade.

Marshall Plan

1947

This was a plan that the United States came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to Western and Southern Europe.

Acts of Terrorism

1970 - 1989

During this period, both right and left wing terrorist groups flourished.

Great Britain's Political Parties

War of the Roses

1455 - 1487

This conflict involved the Ducal House of Lancaster and Ducal House of York. Many other aristocratic families were also drawn into the conflict. By the end of the conflict, the Tudor dynasty was established.

English Reformation

1517 - 1564

This event led to a change of religion to the Church of England under Henry VIII. Henry VIII became the Supreme Head of the Church of England.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

This was a conflict between the monarch and the Parliament over religious differences. Puritans disapproved of James I, and most gentry were puritans who made up a majority in the House of Commons.

Oliver Cromwell

1653 - 1658

Cromwell instituted a military dictatorship. The Parliament’s new model army was made up of Independents, who were extreme Puritans.

Tories

1678 - 1714

Tories supported the monarchy and opposed the Whigs.

Whigs

1680 - 1850

The Whigs supported the Parliament and opposed the Tories.

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

James II abdicated and William and Mary were put on the throne.

Hanoverians

1714 - 1901

The Hanoverian dynasty took over the Stuart dynasty. Hanoverians were Protestant and did not speak English and did not understand the British government.

Industrial Reform

1830 - 1840

Aristocrats pushed for reform during this time period.

Conservatives

1834

Conservatives opposed the Liberal Party.

Labour

1900

Overtakes Liberals as the main opposition to the Conservative Party

Liberal

1906

The Liberals won a landslide victory. Pensions were established and secondary education was expanded.

Labour

1924

This was the first government headed by the Labour Party under Ramsay MacDonald.

Labour

1929 - 1931

Labour Party in Power, does not fix he problems of the Great Depression

Winston Churchill

1940 - 1945

Churchill assumed the role of Prime Minister after Neville Chamberlain resigned.

Labour

1945

The Labour Party once again defeated the Conservatives.

Winston Churchill

1951

Churchill was Prime Minister along with a Conservative government.

Labour

1964 - 1970

The Prime Minister was Harold Wilson.

Conservative

1970

This was a surprise Conservative victory.

Labour

1974 - 1979

The Winter of Discontent at the end of 1979 led to Margaret Thatcher's election.

Margaret Thatcher

1979 - 1990

Thatcher was Prime Minister with a Conservative government. She ended social welfare programs and improved economy. Her popularity fell and she resigned.

John Major

1990 - 1997

Major was a Conservative. He forced Margaret Thatcher to resign.

New Labour

1997 - 2010

The New Labour movement was led Tony Blair. A national minimum wage was established.

Recessions and Depressions

Mini Ice Age & Plague

1450 - Approx. 1800

This was a cooling that caused agricultural problems at times and led to major economic downturns.

Inflation & Price Revolution

1520 - Approx. 1640

The was a major economic problem. Wages remained low but prices increased.

Spain's Economic Decline

1571 - 1650

Phillip III and Phillip IV overspent without enough exports coming out of Spain. There was also an oversupply of priests and monks.

French Debt

1610 - 1715

Louis XIII and Louis XIV's were very expensive and they plunged France into debt.

Tulipmania

1637

Speculators traded tulip bulbs for extraordinary sums of money, until, without warning, the market for them spectacularly collapsed.

Decline of Dutch Republic

1702

Struggle between the oligarchies and the House of Orange. The Dutch Republic lost its spot as a leader of European trade.

Mississippi Company

1719 - 1720

This was a finacial scheme by France that led to inflation and a stock market crash in 1720.

South Sea Bubble

1720

This was a speculation mania that ruined many British investors in 1720.

Crisis of 1763

1763

during war - dutch banks gave loans - after war - prices dropped from abnormally high war prices, bankruptcy, exacerbated by economic boom and new foreign credit expansion - dutch bankers backing the credit were over leveraged

Crisis of 1772

1772

Two english banks failed and the Credit Boom ended.

Pre-Revolutionary France

1787 - 1789

Bread prices were high and there were a series of bad harvests. Food shortages and unemployment were big issues. This led to discontent and a crisis.

Panic of 1796

1796 - 1797

UK - land speculation failure in US, Bank Restriction Act 1797 - removed the requirement for the Bank of England to convert banknotes into gold

Danish State of Bankruptcy

1813

Denmark declared bankruptcy at end of Gunboat War which was between Denmark and Great Britain.

Post Napoleonic Depression

1815

France was in debt because of Napoleon's wars.

Panic of 1825

1825

A pervasive British recession in which many banks failed, including the Bank of England. This arose in part out of speculative investments in Latin America, including the imaginary country of Poyais.

National Workshops in France

1848

Program to try and employ unemployed workers.

Economic Depression in UK

1857 - 1858

This circumvented the requirements of the Peel Banking Act of 1844, which required gold and silver reserves to back up the amount of money in circulation. Surfacing news of this circumvention set off the Panic in Britain. The Law of Limited Liability, which was passed in 1863, encouraged investment for middle class workers.

Economic Recession

1866 - 1867

International financial downturn that accompanied the failure of Overend, Gurney and Company in London, and the "corso forzoso" abandonment of the silver standard in Italy.

The Long Depression

1873 - 1895

Prices, wages, and profits all fell. The term unemployment was coined. This time period was characterized by slumps in agricultural profits.

Russia's War Economy

1911 - 1917

Russia had an ineffective war economy. There was a collapse in international trade and domestic revenues. More money printing fueled inflation. Bad winter led to a breakdown in food supplies.

Russia & the Bolsheviks

1918 - 1921

Russia's postwar industrial output was less than 20 percent of the prewar level. Whole sectors of the economy were destroyed. Lenin tried to fix this with him National Economic Plan.

Great Depression

1929 - 1939

Unique for it’s duration and severity and its uneven recovery throughout Europe and abroad.

Countries in Great Depression

1929 - Approx. 1933

Italy (ends 1933), Belgium (ends 1932), Netherlands (ends 1933), Switzerland (ends 1933), Poland (ends 1933), Czechoslovakia (ends 1933)

Countries in Great Depression

1930 - Approx. 1932

UK (ends 1932), France (ends 1932), Sweden (ends 1932), Denmark (ends 1933)

Russia & Stalin

1933

Destruction of the agricultural sector caused by the “total collectivization” policy. Low world prices for Russian raw exports.

Early Cold War Russia

1946 - 1953

As the Cold War begins, resources are prioritized to heavy industry, nuclear weapons, and the Space Race. Agriculture and light industries lagged, and food and essentials remained in short supply.

Virgin Land Campaign

1954 - 1963

Khrushchev aimed to boost agriculture by cultivating an extra 35 million hectares of virgin lands. This resulted in short term gains and ultimately failed.

1970s Energy Crisis

1970 - 1980

This period was characterized by substantial petroleum shortages, real and perceived, as well as elevated prices.

1973 Oil Crisis

1973 - 1974

The embargo both banned petroleum exports to the targeted nations and introduced cuts in oil production. Ultimately, oil prices were raised.

Secondary Banking Crisis of 1973

1973 - 1975

A dramatic crash in British property prices that caused dozens of small ("secondary") lending banks to be threatened with bankruptcy.

Early 1980s Recession

1980 - 1985

Started by the defense spending from the United States during the 1980s.

Black Monday

1987

Black Monday refers to Monday, October 19, 1987, when stock markets around the world crashed, shedding a huge value in a very short time, then recession of the early 1990s.

Great Russian Depression

1989 - 1996

This was the first wave of the Great Russian Depression (the death throes of the planned economic system). All structural problems of the late Soviet planned economic system were aggravated by vague reforms and decreasing oil prices. Unbalanced financial system and overall deficit of consumer goods.
Next came the second wave of the Great Russian Depression (the transition from a planned to a market economy). The complete absence of “market experience”, distorted structure of the economy, low competitiveness of Russian goods and services and incompleteness of market reforms resulted in the Russian economy's output declining by roughly half.

Swedish Banking Crisis

1991 - 1992

The housing bubble in Sweden deflated during 1991 and 1992, and resulted in a severe credit crunch and widespread bank insolvency.

Finnish Banking Crisis of 1990s

1991 - 1993

This crisis was caused by weak regulation and bank-specific problems in Finland.

Russian Financial Crisis

1998 - 1999

The ruble was devalued. Domestic debt was defaulted.