Period 1&2


Origins of Sudanic Civilization

7500 bce

Not much is known about Africa during this period but later during the 8th - 15th century they had powerful empires like Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.

Era of Sumerian Dominance in Mesopotamia

3200 B.C. - 2350 B.C.

Food shortages in the foothills bc of population growth caused people to move to Sumer. The uncontrolled water supply in the river valley led farmers to develop irrigation systems like levees, canals, and reservoirs. The growth of Sumerian cities caused conflict over water rights so they built walls and dug moats around city-states.

Beginning of Harappan Decline

1900 B.C.E.

The following were causes of Harappan decline: floods (repeated ones would force people to flee), earthquakes (this would've led to erosion), plague (obvious), foreign invasion (Aryan m=invasion because they used iron weapons), etc.

Reign of Hammurabi

1792 bce - 1750 bce

Hammurabi was the 6th king in the Babylonian Dynasty in Central Mesopotamia. He expanded his kingdom, overthrowing Larsa, Eshunna, Assyria, and Mari. One effect of his rule was Hammurabi's code. The main idea behind that was basically an eye for an eye.

Vedic Age

1500 BCE - 500 BCE

The Aryans were central Asian people who spoke Indo-European. They brought to India a religion based on the worship of many gods and goddesses. The Vedic Age is said to be when the basic foundations of Indian civilization were laid down.

Olmec Society

1200 BCE - 100 BCE

The earliest well-defined group in Mesoamerica. Achievements include advanced architecture, sculpture art, number system, a solar calendar, long distsance trade routes, etc.

Zhou Dynasty

1122 bce - 256 bce

Was founded after the Shang Dynasty ended. Major accomplishments include Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism.

Reign of King Solomon

970 bce - 930 bce

King Solomon was brought to power because of his dad, King David, who appointed him. King Solomon was known as "wisest of all men" becuase during his 40 year rule it was a time of peace and prosperity.

Invention of Iron metallurgy in Sub-Saharan Africa

900 bce

Copper and brass were widely used but with the steady spread of iron came the many uses for it. It's durability made it ideal for farming tools and weaponry. It was also used for coins and currency.

Roman Republic

509 BC - 27 BC

The Roman Republic was when Rome was expanding. It expanded through conquering and alliances. It spread to the whole Italian Peninsula then to North Africa, Spain, and France. Inthe 21st century they spread to all of France, Eastern Mediterranean, and Greece. They affected those areas through cultural diffusion.

Greco-Persian Wars

492 bc - 449 bc

Series of wars fought by Greek city-states and Persia. Even with the Persians mighty strength, the Greeks won. Ensuring that Greek culture survives.

Period of Warring States

403 BCE - 221 BCE

Caused by the war between various states after the Zhou Dynasty. It ended with the Qin conquering them all and reuniting them.


200 - 700

The civilization of North coast of Peru. An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples.

Maya Society

300 ce - 1100 ce

You can't really say what caused an empire but the Maya Empire was a powerful number of city-states. The fall of the Maya is still sort of a mystery but they left behind key cultural and scientific things like calendars.

Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1806

A loose federation of mostly German states and Principalities. Led by an emperor elected by the princes