AP Euro Family/ Social norms

Events

pre 1450

1348 - 1450

Malnourished people lead to plague causing many people to leave family behind to avoid it
Many Jews flee to Eastern Europe for safety (Poland because tolerant)
1358= Jacquerie (peasant revolt in northern France ) from economic and life destruction from plague, but also class tensions lead to peasant anger burn castles and murdered nobles, but failed
Hierarchy and religion still strong grasp on people, but some people start to doubt standards
English Peasant Revolt of 1381- due to rising taxes and expectations failed but no risen tax
More sanitary

Scientific Revolution

1500 - 1700

• Both scientific societies emphasized the practical value of scientific research, where people like science for profit or for military applications, but also sometimes for political interests
• Science and religion became more secularized since people felt that a split between religion and science is necessary since beliefs of two contradicted each other, and as new scientific beliefs formed, religious beliefs weakened

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Protestantism even removed the woman as the leader of religion in her home since the father was the ruler now
Family life became more central in Protestantism since priests could marry and mutual love between husband and wife was important however this was not reality and the traditional views persisted of obedience to her husband and taking care of her children

Enlightenment

1650 - 1800

• Poverty and prostitution were seen badly; there were huge differences between the classes
• Manners were used to control the people
discussion in coffee shop is cool
• The social classes were ones based off of inheritance rather than wealth or merit and intermarriage amongst the classes was not accepted easily
• Many Enlightenment thinkers criticized this social system claiming it was a hindrance to the progress of a society
• Society was still mostly rural in the eighteenth century so almost 85% of Europe’s population was the peasant population; there were differences though between peasants from area to the next such as the difference between free peasants and serfs legally. Peasants in France, Great Britain, northern Italy, the Low Countries, and Spain were legally free but not exempt from burdens and in some areas of France and Spain these free peasants lived worse than the serfs of Russia; they owned little to no land by 1789
• Small peasant land owners and tenant owners owed tithes (usually 1/3 of their crops) to the priest but 90% of that ended up in the aristocratic landowners hands and on top of that they had to pay more taxes such as hunting rights, dues, fees, and more tithes
• Eastern Europe continued to exist in a state of serfdom; in Germany the serfs were bound to the lord’s estate and could not move or marry without the lord’s consent and a tax and Russia had serfs who were borderline slaves; only in the Habsburg empire had a ruler attempted to improve the lives of peasants
• The village was the center of social life for peasants and was in charge of tax collection, had a schoolmaster, church, provided common procedures for harvest, and provided poor relief but they were still dominated by the wealthiest merchants and proved highly resistant to new agricultural innovations
• The diet of peasants did not change a lot from the Middle Ages with bread being the main supplement (still provided protein since germ and bran not removed) with drinks of water, wine, and beer then soups of grain and vegetables and foods like potato from the new world were also eaten
• Landlords in England leased their land to tenant farmers, while those in eastern Europe used the labor services of serfs, and nobles in Russia and Prussia served the state, but those in Spain and Italy had few official functions; due to economy also poor nobles may have declined into the unprivileged masses; although nobles tried to hold onto their privileges it was possible for a person with money to buy the land of the nobles and enter the nobility
• Versailles court life was an example to the rest of Europe who encouraged court life to be the center of court life; it manifested the common characteristics of participation in intrigues for the monarch’s favor, serene walks in formal gardens, and duels to maintain one’s honor
• In some countries, the nobles did not participate in court life at all and instead devoted their complete attention to their rural estates
• Death rates were still high especially for children due to the unsanitary conditions and this didn’t help the overcrowding due to rural influx even though they didn’t really get jobs so there was also a rise on poverty
• Poverty became huge as it constituted almost 10% of the population in Britain and France and prostitution was an alternative to begging

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

• Bourgeoisie / Proletariat- bourgeoise is middle class, Proletariat is working class. Working class not same as industrial middle class, (snobby upper class ppl) working class is trapped in poverty, new poor struggling group. Wants socialist communist Revolution. Both liberal, just different types of liberalism . WC socialist/communist
The Social Question- ppl figuring out how to make their society stable again after industrialization; series of question applied to society (what now to do with society, what role of the people in society, laissez faire vs morality); was the expression reflecting the widely shared concern over post-industrial changes to society; Mainly pushed by mid-class women pushing for reform to improve society from the IR (reacted/try to solve new issues brought up by IR (society, art, literature, religion respond to IR problems); Mainly focus on what now to do with colonial people and how to reform society and mind to be new (slavery)
• Temperance Movement- social problem, religiously fueled, if we get rid of alcohol consumption, society will become better; especially females (carry Nation- smashed the alcohol bottles and said she had a vision from God telling her to); try to prohibit alcohol (ex Carrie Hatchet america); Lower class targeted by middle class since saw alcohol as source of problems of society and occur from weakness of lower class); secular push for education occurred; strong Christian movement

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Before the French society was divided into 3 estates (the First Estate(clergy), Second Estate(nobility), and the Third Estate (everyone else)
The first two estates could outvote the Third
After the French Revolution entered the radical phase everyone was addressed as citizen and both men and women coud easily get a divorce now but there was a lot of killing as simple things like not cheering enough could get you killed.

Napoleon

1804 - 1815

• No official code until Nap created 7 most important is Civic Code; kept many revolutionary gains like equality of all citizens before the law, the right to choose professions, religious toleration, and the abolition of serfdom and feudalism
• In the Radical phase divorce was easier for men and women, fathers had less control over their children (no prison), and all children could inherit property
• Most of this legislation was gone under Napoleon. Fathers’ control over the family was restored and women were treated as minors in court making it extremely difficult for them to able to get a divorce.
• Napoleon instituted new officials for the 83 departments of France; prefects were most important (elected by first consul himself; depended on central gov)
• Merit based aristocracy mostly military officers
• Liberty was turning into despotism due to the protection of land and conscription
• Freedom of speech was limited and only 13 out of 73 newspapers remained
• Anne Germaine de Stael was French writer who opened up a salon and wrote many works but Napoleon didn’t like her criticism so he exiled her and banned her work Wrote Corinne and On Germany
• On Germany= praise Germany for continuing to participate in the Enlightenment even after France stopped; France stopped after Rev/Nap.

Year of Revolution

1848

Countries such as France, Austria, and Italy experienced revolutions that year. For the latter two it was due to national problems (nationalism) as for France it was because they were not satisfied with Louis Phillipe
Britain and Russia were the only ones who did not have to deal with the revolutions

2nd Industrial Revolution

1850 - 1900

• Best Circles- aristocrats mix with nouveau riche (new rich; aristocrats with title bourgeois with money); prearranged and methodical marriage is now common; blur between the lines (political marriage becomes common
Social Darwinism (we are the greatest because we are at the top (most fit) and those at the bottom will die because nature supports the upper classes (most fit)) reinforces theses circles existence and also makes them want to show it off to show how different they are since it means they are the fittest in society (enjoy recreational sports)
• labor unions - organization to represent the collective interests of workers in negotiations (protect the collective interests of the union; helps if someone is to go to court and needs backing)(other unions can also help and strike because there is something that you are trying to fight for or protect); millions of people in the unions; some business owners do not like it because it hurts profit, etc. while other think it is good because it means you can make sure they never go to the strike stage
• Strike - a refusal to work organized by a body of employees in protest for workforce gain; at the time very violent since the strikers will hurt/kill those who replaced them and sometimes the govt. is called in to put down the people from revolting; usually result in violence
• New Unionism- unskilled workers(workers who do trivial jobs that can be easily replaced since the job does not need specific training) (skilled workers are more valued (need training for some jobs and if they go on strike that is bad but not the same for unskilled)); general strikes since all sorts of unskilled workers band together sometimes nationwide such as the match girls striking for other unskilled workers like the dock workers so they are able to win bigger issues; they can create a better organization since companies are getting bigger as well

pre WW1

1900 - 1914

• Lots of tension in society since lots of controversial topics like homosexuality and women’s rights
Homosexuality = new personality type (more feminine and men are more attracted to arts and the same sex; some people treat it as a third intermediate sex, others think it is a higher step in evolution (small minority), others think it is horrible and against God
• Crisis in masculinity(1907-1909 (Kaiser William II’s inner circle may be homosexual and crossdressing and William goes and says this is not true)) (not enough to just go to war but also be manly while doing it; crisis to military masculinity so they send men off to do war and kill the indigenous people in Africa and Asia
• Nationalism Rises (Zionism (return to home (Jerusalem (about 185000 people)))

Total War

1914 - Present

• Total War since citizen involvement in war effort (two fronts (warfront and Homefront (the citizens manufacturing stuff for people) (lot of sacrifice and need for belief (people need to fight at the home front and must do it willingly, how do we keep the people interested)
• Homefront is manufacturing / production and making sacrifices / rationing (human beings of a nation, and time are resources, everything must be funneled into the war and killing the enemy while keeping yourself alive) (how to make the citizens be willing to support)(industries and government work since govt. takes over completely of the manufacturing) (pose the question is someone at the home front a civilian or combatant? If combatant they can be killed)
• Politics change as war upsets political order, war is focus, country comes first
• Liberalists, socialists, all others restrict activism (why are all these people okay with it (patriotism and nationalism)) (liberals will be okay with some government control, and socialists look for worker rights in their country, and feminists have feminist newspapers with their country name( (even people of different religions are just one nationality now, A-H is pulled apart due to nationality)
• More gov’t control; economy, politics, society (shame you, guilt you, and bribe you and the people are okay with it at least for the first few years)

propaganda is used to convinve the population

World War I

1914 - 1918

• Struggles at Home because Europe not ready for long war
• News of war/casualties very upsetting and Shortages persist as FOOD, LABOR, SUPPLIES are short in supply (can’t have supply and demand in war so more productivity) (no productivity in Russia though and men were sent to fight without guns even so Russia is falling behind and it pushes you; can force people to do conscription and fight for the war; cut how much you eat and use so everything is sent to the troops; in Western nations you have canteens where you can get food and care) (Sedition laws- illegal to criticize the war effort or the government because it would cause soldiers to die) (starting to run low on food (Turnip Winter in Germany; British blockade works and Germans only have turnips and are starving but people still fighting and working because they care; blame the Jews for it)
• Gov’t relief helps some but rural areas usually ignored; If you break rationing rues you get punishment and are publicly shamed
• Workers struggle, rich OK (workers getting poorer rich richer, colonial people brought in so more desperation)

post World War 1

1920 - 1930

• Mass Culture Spreads as culture & information to the masses via radio(the family gathers around it), film(Hollywood), newspaper
• Can result in artistic movements (mass access to it via film and radio) = representing fears or desires
• Can be used in politics propaganda, control (authoritarian turns into totalitarian who has total control to be inside your head and you make the people live and breath and love the way they are living)

Great Depression

1929 - 1939

• Birthrate down as people cannot support a large family and multiple children
• Capitalism and Democracy in crisis since they are not doing as well and maybe the Nazis, Fascists, and Soviets are right
• In Germany the society is changed as Aryans are believed to be the master race (they should marry, have children)
• Hitler Youth (get kids to be fanatical believers of the cause; these kids will become the SS officers during WWII (evil being trained into children)); monitor and report your own family
• Nazi Racism begins; Nurmberg 1935 deprives Jews of citizenship as their seen as an inferior race, scapegoat
• T4 project eliminates weak (use carbon monoxide to kill the handicapped and old)

post WW2

1945 - 1950

• Rebirth of the West = Restore democracies; France = De Gaulle (Chief Liberal Minister)(wanted conservatism but people opposed) & 4th Republic (capitalism will help democracy); Female suffrage (still unsteady republic; has some communism)

Cold War

1947 - 1991

America is extremely afraid of Communism (people begin to see it as "evil")
• Welfare State Developing; Gov’t responsible for well being of citizens (primary forefront; wellfare state gets huge push because birth rate too low and living conditions need improvement; gender bias becomes more apparent)
• Want good health, large population; give – medical benefits, pensions, day care, energy, housing…etc (give as much as you can to women so they can be housewives; gear the women to staying home because they get maternity leaves so jobs do not hire them; leads West Germany to have a high percentage of old women who are poor (pension is cut when you are married)
• Russia (birthrate low due to spending so much money for the military so no consumer goods); bringing people up; every western block gets free healthcare (except US) England does a bunch of studies to see how children grow better
• Italy gets 20 days paid vacation, Sweden 29 days paid vacation
• Civil Rights in its prime (racial segregation, etc.) Rosa Parks- sits in the front of bus (white part) bug plan to protest against segregation in Montgomery. Alabama, she is arrested and in response civil rights activists boycott the bus. Led by MLK using Soulforce.
• MLK Jr- Soulforce (civil disobedience) (leads the bus protest)
1. LBJ – Civil Rights Act of 1964 (forcing desegregation of public facilities across the country) (need federal legislation to make sure that the states listen) (can now have federal troops to desegregate places, ex; mobs try to attack buses that are desegregated, so federal troops are needed to protect) (also media picks up on the violence (civil disobedience (makes them seem evil (who are against it) turn the other cheek)))
2. Freedom summer, Voting Rights Act 1965(get rid of discriminatory voting (like literacy test in South)) (Great Society (legislation that will help the minority and the welfare state))
3. CR changes à Separatists, more violence (mobs are attacking, Black Panthers (ultra militant in Oakland who belive that the California Oakland Police are out to get them and they get into the media, but in a negative way and this is everything MLK is afraid of (it’s hate not love)
4. New Left (fighting for gay rights, racial rights, all rights)
5. CR influences
a. Cesar Chavez (leads Mexican American farmworkers in a strike against the California , AIM(American Indian Movement; Native American (sovereignty of Native American lands and people; preservation of the culture; enforcement of all treaties with the USA(which are not being honored), Women’s Movement, NOW (first wave of Betty Friedan (Feminine Mystique (1963) interviews with housewives who say they are very unhappy because they want more freedom which creates NOW (National Organization of Women (equal work, pay, abortion and domestic abuse rights, social equality and treatment) (include gays and lesbians to fight for decriminalization of sex and love; very boundary pushing; in Catholic Italy you get more birth control, abortion, divorce, etc.)
6. Malcolm (says any hand laid on you black or white doesn’t have that right)
• Immigration to Europe from 3rd world guest workers at first; no welfare state benefits; Do unpleasant jobs (temporary)
• Many stay and apply for citizenship (better than their own country)
- terrorism is common now
Television boom 1950s-70s
• Publicly funded programming
• Aim = no “American” commercialism (by 1974 France has 80% families with TV and Europe did not want so they make their own dramas, but as America put sit on the air waves no one can really avoid it so you can watch it) (even in most rural parts of Russia 70% are watching TV (most popular is shows about foreign lands)
• High minded programming
• Satellites = worldwide transmission
• Cultural homogenization
• Everywhere is “linked”
c. Computers
• Becoming smaller, less expensive
• “cottage industry” reborn (no longer have to clock into work due to TV and computer; can work from home)
• Tasks, communication easier and faster (does this make you more effective at life or are we being programmed by the machines (dependency questioned))
• MINITEL in France (predecessor of World Wide Web (initially makes reservations, stocks)) (is it good?)
d. Family
• Varied households, divorce rate up
• Appliances, TV change daily life
• Shift in parenting
• Prolonged economic dependence of children (used to be that children would have a job early on) (a “teenager” is developed since back then they would be an adult who would already be married with a job)
• Emphasis on psychological development (learn that perhaps there are psychological effects on your children; you are a good parent of your kids are happy not if they survive; more costly for the parents now; no parent has really had to do it now; to make sure your child loves their life)
e. Generation gap (see things different than parents)
• Prolonged adolescence
• Products marketed specifically to teens (want things; live a very passionate life; need, need, need, and parents want to buy this for their children; girls and boys get different marketing)
• Largest new market
• Break from traditional values (untraditional is that the new conqueror is the man but role of women is still traditional (faints at the man and calls and flirts, but still subservient to man)
Student Activism
• Counterculture movement against many issues (New Left)
• Vietnam War, draft
• Authority, tradition
• Communism, “east”
• Racism, sexism
• Also want better education system (in Italy protesting leads to a death) (students criticizing everything like the makeup of the university and the curriculum (like why should I know history (no professors over 40 no trust over 30) (drug use big especially marijuana (late ‘60s is halogenic drugs the cocaine then crack))
• Lot of adults who are looking down at them because they are a silly little joke since they are still being marketed to (who are supposed to be making changes) (some ripples, Green Party, ecological)
• Called “New Left”