AP Euro Industrialization

Events

post Black Death

1358

New inventions after black death- Clock, eyeglasses, paper, gunpowder, and cannons
clock allowed people to regulate life more and value time
gunpowder and cannons change European warfare, although first invented by Chinese

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

• Industrial Revolution- started in the late 1700’s, expands greatly in 1800’s. Increasingly turn to machines for work. It was a gradual, but dramatic change; Industrialization=factories; Urbanization=move to cities (these 2 were major components of IR); lots of disease and overpopulation
- Working class created and middle class (bourgeoisie ) changed to be more manufacturing→ plays into ideologies
- There was no control exercised over the consequences of IR (no govt. intervention because everyone believed in “laissez-faire” with the invisible hand from Adam Smith’s philosophy that no intervention eventually leads to stability since supply and demand will balance out and occur naturally); brings up questions of morality but just mainly focus on $ (laissez-faire ideology occur)
- Great Britain because of the Northern industrialists in the Parliament so they were able to vote for pro-IR laws but not Russia due to the iron fist and a strict autocracy (also had serfdom) (benefits of British they had the Parliament that had gradual change, Industrialists, colonies, etc. )
- Russia didn’t have it because very strict autocracy and hold off from westernization; tsar autocracy, serfdom, resist change and westernization; Britain support people changing life, people had say in govt. People trusted govt. → able to make dynamic change
• Putting out / domestic system- Was the roots of industry (Cottage industry)
• Putting out= work put out by country to cities who buy from the country workers (textile work done by hand at home by families) This wasn’t centralized, but was in existence before the IR and into the IR; sets up factory system
• Proto-Industry was founded in Britain and was a pre-factory industry that was in country and had factory workers → increases supply to meet demands→ inventions made to help speed up production to meet those demands
- Flying shuttle- John Kay: make $ off of textiles (cloth); it fly across weaving to increase speed of production and profit for weaver; improved weaving but needed thread to increase production so
- Water frame- Richard Arkwright: spinning water frame to spin thread using the power of water to be more efficient at spinning thread →
- Powerloom-Edmund Cartwright: steam engine powered by coal, so water isn’t needed and is more efficient. This led to
- Steam Engine-James Watt: powered by coal, pumps water out of coal mines and led to the Bessemer process-Sir Henry Bessemer who developed the process to get carbon out of iron and led to steel; steam engine allowed coal to travel to cities to use better iron to transport methods like trains
- Cotton gin-Eli Whitney: he also made interchangeable parts that allowed machine parts to be easily replaced and advanced technology to make good guns ; his work brought up questions of morality since cotton was labor intensive and helped Am. South; Consequences= better guns and Civil War (America)
• Luddites· only England, Luddites- hand loom weavers that were put out of work from the new factories; name from Ned Ludd (fictional character) who was seen as symbol for group; Smashed/destroyed/burned down factories and machines and it became such a big problem that govt. interferes with army to control group; Since luddites destroyed private property and not public, govt. allowed to interfere without going against laissez-faire ideology by Adam Smith; British govt Made it illegal to destroy machinery, and if did, it was punishable by death; were people (working class- proletariats) → felt didn’t have representation or voice in govt. Raged at family starving and they have no job; capable to capital punishment morality questioned (all right to die for private property but not for employers employing kids in mines, etc.)
• Working class- poor and working class lumped together; called proletarians; is the low class with factory work
• Factory Act of 1833- tried to improve protection of child workers
- 9-13 yrs old- work max 9 hrs
- 13-18 yrs old- work max 12 hrs
- under 9 years- can’t work
- kids can’t work at night and were provided 2 hrs of school a day= good since learning able to get out of factory job and better jobs
- Employers had to provide age certificate of workers but only had 4 factory inspectors to enforce this reform for all GB area
- Employers didn’t like since decrease $ production and some kids didn’t like since they might be only source of $ for family and limiting their work hours limits the pay they need to survive
• Mines Act of 1842- kids under age of 10 can’t work in coal mines since coal mines were dangerous (collapse) and working there shorten lifespan from inhaling coal dust or can disfigure body from pushing heavy coal carts up out of mine shaft; went against laissez faire and was passed in England (to a small degree show that willing to listen to lower class to prevent revolution)
• Urbanization- people move to cities close to factories for jobs (increased since more and more people move from rural areas to cities close by factories looking for jobs); lead to more disease, prostitution; Both rural and urbanization population increase because overall growth of population (stresses fact that cities grow from emigration, but babies still made in rural); lower death rate as well; but cities lifespan decrease
- City problems= alcohol, prostitution (middle class views) overcrowding, sanitation, hygiene, houses built not to code
- - Urbanization tied to industrialization in Britain but not in Russia because serfs not allowed to move around since tied to land but in England able to move around in classes and look for jobs elsewhere

pre IR

1800

• Britain and Dutch Republic focus more on their navies than their armies, but despite large number of ships, conditions on ships were poor and diseases were common
• Textiles and woolen cloth=important product of European industry
• Cottage industry- Merchant capitalist entrepreneur brought raw materials and rural workers spun into refined products
• Cottage industry was a family business that allowed them to earn wages

2nd Industrial Revolution

1850 - 1900

• The development of the steam engine lead to thermodynamics
• Frenchman Louis Pasteur formulated the germ theory of disease which was extremely useful in the development of modern medicinal practices; he launched the study of bacteriology; his study of a disease threatening the wine industry lead to pasteurization in 1863 and in 1877 turned his attention to human diseases and in 1885 created a vaccination for rabies with the concept of vaccination being applied for other diseases as well
• In chemistry Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table
• Englishman Michael faraday created a primitive generator that laid the way for electricity
• These innovations created a general acceptance of the scientific method and the sciences which helped create more secularization; materialism (the belief that everything mental, spiritual, or ideal was simply a result of physical forces) grew
• Charles Darwin was Naturalist who studied plants and animals abroad the H.M.S. Beagle; his study affected him to believe animals and plants had evolved over time and that natural selection was also a major part of it
• He wrote about his theory in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
• In The Descent of Man he applied natural selection to humans as well; this was highly controversial and went against the beliefs at the time and a world based off of moral values but people began to accept his beliefs later
• The first application of natural science in medicine was in Paris hospitals where active physical examinations of patients were coupled with detailed autopsies
• Robert Koch was successfully able to show how a certain bacteria was the causative agent for a certain disease by affecting certain species with a disease then affecting others with the disease from the infected creatures; Koch and his students identified the specific organisms of at least twenty-one diseases
• Joseph Lister developed the antiseptic principle and used carbolic acid as a disinfectant for wounds; this radically transformed surgery wards
• Soon chloroform was used as a antiseptic agent for operations
• Preventive medicine was practiced in result to the cholera outbreaks by providing clean water, adequate sewage disposal, and less crowded housing conditions and the discovery of germs lead to greater preventive measures such as pasteurization and purification
• Auguste Comte (1798-1857) System of Positive Philosophy created a system if “positive knowledge” based in a hierarchy of all the sciences; math foundation then physical sciences, earth sciences, and biological sciences, top was sociology (science of human society incorporating economics, anthropology, history, and social psychology for Comte)
• Charles Darwin- English naturalist (amateur scientist) On the Origin of Species; Evolution- life on the planet has taken shape over a long long period of time; mankind took hundreds of thousands of years to get to where they are now; this goes against creationism since it’s supposed to be that God created them, etc.; Natural Selection – those that are more adept at surviving survive and reproduce and those that are not don’t; Survival of the FITTEST; basically says the world is violent and we are simply trying to survive
• Social Darwinism (Herbert Spencer 1820-1903); Theories applied to society; some humans are more fit to survive than others; Lower classes die off since the people who are rich, strong are the ones at the top; Using science to create pseudoscience since the Victorians can sleep well at night without worrying about all the dead people their empire is creating
• The Second Industrial Revolution-More areas of Europe experienced industrial activity, and industrial processes increased in scale and complexity. Consumerism heightened, Mass Marketing, more efficient methods of transportation, new industries develop; Leisure time and leisure spaces developed; Developments foster control of empires (weapons, transportation, communication, medicine)
• Industrialization brought a continuous new supply of products to the market; the new industry attracted people to the cities where they became more educated through formal schooling and informal schoolers
• Citizen’s took pride in their countries’ conquests and enjoyed the colonial goods coming into Europe; they later began demanding greater participation in the political process
• Industrial output soared in the West as industrialization spread from Britain to the resto of Europe and brought a continuous new supply of products to the market
• Citizens took pride in their country and enjoyed the new colonial goods
• Raw materials from around the world fed the new products of industry and many workers’ wages increased; the steady advance of industry and the development of a consumer economy gave rise to the service sector, laying the foundation for further changes in work life

New weapons such as faster rifles and tanks are invented, very important for ww1

WW1

1914 - 1918

War ministries constantly produce more and more weapons

WW2

1939 - 1945

New tank models, submarines, and tactics like blitzkrieg helped make it a very deadly war