AP Euro Diplomacy

Events

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

Failure in diplomacy since the war was declared as the French throne could not be passed down via a female and Edward was too arrogant to take no for a answer

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

attempt at peace that the Pope made for Spain and Portugal
divided New World mostly South America into separate spheres for Spain and Portugal, although South America belong more to Spain (the Pope was doing the dividing)

Enlightenment

1650 - 1800

• Dramatic increase in size of armies and navies didn’t mean more destructive wars in 18th century since religious ideology was no longer the reason for many wars
• Since armies depend on increase tax revenues, rulers see destruction of civilian taxpayers as dumb, and the technology and customary tactics of age created system of warfare; generals rely on elaborate and clever maneuvers than direct confrontation in war to save armies
• System of formalities accepted by all sides allow defeated opponents to withdraw without being captured or destroyed, which encourage construction of vast fortresses to secure roads and supplies needed by armies
• Professional standing army became necessary

Cavour and Bismarck

1859 - 1871

Crazy political geniuses who can unite entire countries by provoking the enemy, winning against them and taking the land back. Unification of Italy and Germany because of them

WW1

1914 - 1918

Complete failure in diplomacy since the ultimatum issued to Serbia was impossible to fulfill and the alliances, war was inevitable.

pre WW2

1930 - 1939

Appeasement was practiced in the hopes of stopping another war (Ex: Chiang Kai Shek gave Northern China to the Japanese and Britain gave Adolf Hitler the Sudentenland)

Cold War

1947 - 1991

Containment- stop spread of communism (Ex: Vietnam, Korean War, Marshall Plan)
Detente- friendly relations (Ex: Nixon (visit to Moscow and China), Salt 1 and 2)
Brinkmanship- US policy 1950’s; Go to edge of all out nuclear war (push until the edge but don’t go to war) (Ex: U-2 incident, Cuba, Star Wars)