AP Euro Religion

Events

Black Death and effects

1340 - 1358

Believe plague sent as punishment by god
Flagellants group of men and women who followed the path of Christ’s final days to end the suffering of the people
create hysteria and alarm Catholic Church by killing Jews and clergy who opposed them
some expect end of world, return of Jesus, and thousand year kingdom under his governance
1350, most of flagellant move. Destroyed
Rise of anti-Semitism with black death by accuse Jews of poisoning wells to cause plague- pogroms-organized massacres- worst in Germany
Papal Schism lead to decline in trust of church and papacy, but Christianity still strong
New pieties such as mysticism, hussittes, lollards, and modern devotion

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600

Many people used God as an excuse to convert the natives. It ended with missionaries and torture

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Luther’s German New Testament was spread via mouth
Lutheranism spread to both princely and ecclesiastical states in northern and central Germany as well as 2/3 of imperial cities
Peasant War- mid 1520s, peasants were unhappy due to the excessive taxes. They hoped that Luther would stand by them in their fight since he said everyone was equal under God
Thomas Muntzer enraged the public and Luther wrote pamphlet Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants which Luther used saying that the princes should smite the public
Luther knew that his reformation depended on the nobility so he supported nobility
Luther believed in transubstantiation, only 2 sacraments, and salvation by faith
Made more secular churches and Mass was replaced
Zwingli spread his ideas through preaching and was allowed to continue when he won a public debate in 1523
German and Swiss reformers disagree on Eucharist since Luther say it is symbolic while Zwingli says it is meant as a meal of remembrance
Anabaptists formed by lower classes who say government should not be followed only God, no taxes only God, complete separation of church and state
Anabaptists wanted adult baptism instead of infant baptism; also wanted to go back to the beginnings of Christianity in practices
Followed a democracy in which all believers were equal; the ministers were chosen by the community from members of the community
Eucharist was thought of as meal of remembrance
First Anabaptists called Swiss Brethren in Zurich spread their ideas through Southern Germany, the Austrian Habsburg lands and Switzerland but were constantly persecuted
Henry VIII broke with the church when his first wife Catherine of Aragon could not give him a male heir.
His advisors advised him to seek an annulment or divorce from the Pope but the Pope refused allow the divorce since Charles V’ army was outside Rome
Henry VIII breaks away from the church and creates the Anglican church, he then divorced Catherine and married Anne Boleyn
In 1534 the Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy agreeing that the king was the supreme head of the church (Treason Act also passed saying you can be killed in you deny king as head)
Thomas More challenged this (former lord chancellor and Christian humanist) He was killed due to his beliefs
Henry’s archbishop Thomas Cromwell helped sort out the administration and helped the monarchy’s financial situation by telling the king to take all the monasteries’ goods and sell them; this added immensely to Henry’s treasury
When Edward VI succeeded Henry the council or regency who ruled for him opted for a more Protestant church and changed the doctrines and traditions to Protestant
This caused opposition and when Mary took control of the throne she returned the country to its Catholic roots by marrying Phillip II of Spain and burning Protestants at the stake
However, there was much antipathy due to her actions especially for marrying the Spanish king so by the end of her reign Protestantism had taken a stronger hold on England and Catholicism could no longer be restored
John Calvin had a degree in law and theology and was highly influenced by Luther
He ran from France after the Affair of Placards (flyers against Mass ended up in the King’s palace and he decided to persecute Protestants)
He believed in predestination saying that God had already decided all their fates and whether they would end up in hell or heaven
When he took up a ministry spot in Geneva he was able to make Geneva a hub for Protestantism
Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the most widespread Protestant faith
Abolished or curtailed indulgences, the veneration of saints and relics, pilgramages, clerical celibacy, and monasticism so many holidays gone so time better kept with individual prayer
Some tried to abolish entertainment
Mysticism and monasticism came back and prevailed, since mysticism should be used to be a good Catholic
New orders were made and old orders were revived (old orders: Benedictines and Dominicans)
Jesuits created by Ignatius of Loyola a former soldier who became the soldier of God
Emphasized obedience to the papacy, a strict hierarchial order for the society, the use of education, and a dedication of engage in “conflict for God”
Spread Catholicism to the pagans of the New World and the East; Francis Xavier converted thousands in India then moved to Japan where he converted thousands on the southernmost islands
Italian Matteo Ricci converted thousands in China by drawing parallels between Confucianism and Christianity; the stories that were sent back made people more curious about the Eastern countries
Pope Paul III helped end corruption by appointing a reform commission; the commission returned and stated it was due to the corrupt policies of popes and cardinals
Compromise with the Protestants was not available anymore after the Roman Inquisition was established in 1542
Cardinal Caffa who called for the no compromise with Protestants became Pope Paul IV and increased the inquisition’s power so everyone was silenced and created Index of Forbidden Books
The Council of Trent made it impossible for reform after they stated a Catholic doctrine strictly against the Protestant one. The doctrine reinforced traditional Catholic values
They stated salvation was earned by good deads and faith, there were still sacraments, the clerical power was stronger than the laity and that indulgences were still ok but no selling them
The Huguenots (French Calvinists) and the Catholics in France were unwilling to compromise even though the Catholic were the majority the Calvinists were extremely well-organized and had many nobles also converted to their cause

Habsburg-Valois Wars

1521 - 1559

• Scandinavia become Lutheran stronghold once Fredrick I took over
• There were four Habsburg-Valois that cam about due to France being encircled by The Holy Roman Empire and Spain
• Rome was sacked by Charles V’s army after Pope Clement VII sided with Francis I of France
• Ottoman emperor came all the way to Vienna under Suleiman the Magnificent
• After 2nd Habsburg-Valois War Diet of Augsburg in 1530 is held after some very independent German states and their princes convert to Lutheranism. Charles threatened them so that in 1531 they decided to make the Schmalkaldic League to defend each other; this issue divided the empire into two about religious matters
• 1532-35 Charles against Ottomans
• 1535-38, 42-44 3rd and 4th Habsburg Wars in which France sided with Ottomans
• Peace with France 44, Turks in 45
• Charles defeated the Schmalkaldic League in 1547 until they came back with the help of the new French king (Henry II)
• Charles made a truce at Peace of Augsburg in 1555 stating that leaders can decide the religion of their people and borders are redrawn based on religion; gave Lutheranism a legal standing with Catholicism
• The Swiss Confederation started out as democratic republics and oligarchies until the Zwingli influenced city council reformed Zurich making it a theocracy since the government and church were connected
• The council abolished relics, replaced the liturgy, Mass and eliminated music; this later spread other Swiss cities
• Due to rising tensions that the forest canons of the Swiss Confederation (some states), German and Swiss reformers decide to get together and put aside their differences to form an alliance against the Catholics; alliance fail when they disagree about the Eucharist (see religion)
• Catholic cantons and Swiss Protestant Cantons fight, Zwingli is killed
• The city of Muenster became a haven for Anabaptists and many Melchiorites (a type of Anabaptists) who believed the world was ending (millenarianism)
• John of Leiden declared him king and Catholic bishop Wallbeck kicked out
• Wallbeck gathers a giant army and lays siege to the city. Leiden dies. The first attack fails since the bishop’s army attack at the wrong time and gets obliterated. But then the city is taken and the leaders of the Anabaptists get killed
• Due to this Dutch Anabaptism reverts to pacifist tendencies
• The descendants of the Anabaptists include Mennonites and Amish

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1687

• Roman Catholic Church didn’t like heliocentric system since threaten Scripture as well as entire conception of universe and place of God since humans no longer center of universe

Phillip II

1556 - 1598

Phillip II- King of Spain and son of Charles V; wanted to secure control over land inherited (Spain, Netherlands, Italy, and New World) through united Christendom (enforce Catholicism) with Spanish Inquisition and strong monarchical authority. Hoped to make Spain dominant power in Europe, but failed since after death Spain’s power decline, especially after revolt in Netherlands and war with England. Seen as “Most Catholic King” since believed was Christianity’s savior from Protestants which led to many wars being won (and lost in the end)
Revolt of the Netherlands- Netherlands under Spanish rule but very prosperous in commerce and textile industry, but were upset at Phillip II because didn’t want to lose their political freedom by him trying to strengthen Spain control over them (Northern states =7) Also got more upset since found out that the taxes they paid were going towards Spain’s interests. Lastly, religion finally set revolution since Northern Netherlands influence by Protestant Reformation, so there were Lutherans, Anabaptists, and Calvinists who got upset when Phillip II try to crush Calvinism. Revolt with William of Orange (William of Nassau/ William the Silent) who want to unify all 17 provinces and was realized in 1576 with Pacification of Ghent, but union not long because of religious differences. He still was able to lead Northern provinces against Spain with Union of Utrecht→United Provinces (protestant) and was recognized as independent in 1609 after 12-year struggle. (1648 officially)

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

• 39 Articles- Elizabeth issued it as a new confession of faith, defined theological issues midway between Lutheranism and Calvinism – was basically protestant but moderate and avoided overly subtle distinctions and extremes. Puritans and Catholics still oppose it. Puritans= Protestants within Anglican Church who wanted to remove any traces of Catholicism from Church of England (inspire by Calvinist theology

French Wars of Religion

1568 - 1592

• Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre(August 24 1572)- was supposed to be a marriage between sister of Valois king Charles IX and Henry of Navarre (Bourbon), so many Huguenots attend marriage. Guise family persuade king and mom (Catherine de Medici) that the gathering=threat, so decide to kill all of the Huguenot leaders there, but this led to civil war for about 3 days with frenzy killing of Huguenots (3000 dead once over). However, discredited the Valois family but didn’t end conflict
• War of the Three Henries 1588-1589: Henry, duke of Guise, in pay of Phillip II of Spain, seize Paris and force King Henry III (Valois) to make him chief minister, but Henry III assassinate Henry Guise to rid of influence and joined with Henry Navarre (Bourbon) to crush Catholic Holy League to recontrol Paris, but monk kill Henry III, so now Henry Navarre is king (now Henry IV of France) but converted to Catholicism so people accept him as ruler
• Edict of Nantes (1598)- end religious conflict in France since acknowledge Catholicism as official religion of France but Huguenots allowed right to worship in selected places in each district and keep fortified towns for their protection. Huguenots allowed to hold public offices as well.
Recognized the rights of Protestant minority and religious toleration out of political necessity
• French Religious Wars- fight between French Calvinists (Huguenots and came from all levels of society, with 40-50% being from nobility, but 10% of population) and Catholics
- Play role in rivaling families fighting for control of France (Bourbons= Calvinist, Valois&Guise= Catholic, Guise=ultra catholic who HATE Huguenots)
• Catherine de Medici was a Valois who was regent for her sons when King Henry II died since sons were weak and neurotic, and she attempted to make religious compromise to ease political tensions but failed since religious groups very intolerant

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Thirty Years War- (last of religious wars) started by religion, but began to become more secular and focus on politics for control of Europe leadership. 4 phases: BDSF
Since the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 didn’t include Calvinists but Calvinists were widespread and popular in many countries, the group was persecuted and cause splits in countries that led to religious war.
Bohemian Phase: 1618-1625 begin in Habsburg territory (Germany) where Archduke Ferdinand II (devout Catholic) try to convert Bohemian Estate nobles into Catholics when they were originally Calvinists. Nobles rebel against this in May 1618 by throwing 2 of the Habsburg governors and a secretary out the window (defenestration) in Prague= seat of Bohemian govt, elected Frederick V, a Protestant ruler of Palatinate. Since this upset religious and political power in central Europe, Ferdinand with Spain and Frederick with France fight at Battle of White Mountain outside Prague on Nov 8, 1620 where Ferdinand II won (HRE win while Czechs (Frederick) suffer defeat). Frederick ended up fleeing and going into exile in the United Provinces. Catholic win, but this was start of war
Danish Phase: 1625-1629 where King Christian IV of Denmark (Lutheran) leads army into Northern Germany with his anti-Habsburg and anti-Christian alliance with the United Provinces of England to help Protestants and secure some Catholic territories for his own family. However, Ferdinand II had Albrecht von Wallenstein (brilliant commander, Bohemian nobleman, and took advantage of Ferdinand’s victory to become country’s wealthiest landowner). With his help, Ferdinand able to defeat Protestant Army of Charles IV, who was also defeated by Tilly (another good general) → end of Charles IV rule in Baltic
From this, Ferdinand issue Edict of Restitution in March 1629 that prohibited Calvinist worship and restored all property from the Protestant princes or cities during past 75 years to Catholic Church
Swedish Phase: 1630-1635 marked entry of Gustavus Adolphus (king of Sweden from 1611-1632) into war. Revived Sweden and make it into a great Baltic power. Was also a military genius and had a well-equipped and well-trained army. Died in Battle of Lutzen against Wallenstein, but was a victory for Swedish and protestants; however, Swedish forces not effective in stay at Germany, and defeated although Wallenstein had died by assassination by Ferdinand, which drove Swedes out and Germany stay Catholic, but annul the Edict of Restitution since want to make peace with German Princes, but failed since…
French Phase: (1635-1648) French enter under command of Cardinal Richelieu and chief minister King Louis XIII since religion not significant as much now since Catholic French supporting the Protestant Swedes against Catholic Habsburgs of Germany and Spain (war more secular) End of war from battle of Rocroi in 1643 where French beat Spanish and end their military greatness
Peace of Westphalia- 1648 officially ended the 30 years war and war in Germany. Ensured that all German states, including Calvinist ones, were free to determine own religion. France gain parts of Western Germany while Sweden and German states of Brandenburg and Bavaria gain some territory as well. Austrian Habsburg rulers lose authority over Germany, but not much territory. Made it clear that religion and politics were separate, and HRE now collection of 300 individual states. Pope lose authority in govt since now political motives become guiding forces in public affairs

Enlightenment

1700 - 1800

• Peter tried to establish state control over the Russian Orthodox Church by getting rid of patriarch and put in a procurator who represented the interests of the tsar
• The Puritans in Parliament wanted a more Presbyterian government but James said no since the bishops of the current church were appointed by him so they were a great service to the crown
• When Charles I married Henrietta Maria (sister of Louis XIII) and Archbishop Laud attempted to impose more mass and imposed the Anglican Book of Common Prayer on the Scottish people they rose up in retaliation and Charles was forced to call Parliament into session to raise taxes to fight them
• During Charles II reign the Parliament tried to make everyone follow the reestablished Anglican Church but Charles issued the Declaration of Indulgence which suspended the laws Parliament had passed against Catholics and Puritans , the declaration was taken back and the Test Act stating only Anglicans can hold civil and military offices was passed
• James II favored Catholics and established a new Declaration of Indulgence making Parliament want to get rid of him
• The Toleration Act allowed Puritans the ability to freely worship
• Pagan practices went along with Catholicism so some people followed it
•• Peter tried to establish state control over the Russian Orthodox Church by getting rid of patriarch and put in a procurator who represented the interests of the tsar
• Catholicism was very important still and still central to the people but they still focused on relics and pilgrimages making some clergymen think they are more superstitious then religious
• Protestant churches became more organized and many people wanted to have a deeper religious experience
• Pietism in Germany was a result of deeper religious piety
• Count Nikolaus von Zinzendorf had a group of German clerics and he did not like the rationalistic approach of the Lutheran church
• England became fairly stable
• John Wesley was a Anglican minister who was deeply religious thinking he had achieved salvation by believing in God and continued to preach to the people even though the church was not happy they said this was superstitious nonsense
• Wesley tried to lower religion to the masses
Church enemy of progress
Travel accounts show people that Christianity not accepted everywhere in the world and perception of God isn’t only one that exists
Voltaire supported deism or the religious outlook like most other philosophers and built on Newtonian world-machine where God created universe but no direct involvement
Philosophes got rid of God in writing since secular orientation like in history where God was usually written about in events
Philosophes dislike Christianity a lot, and emphasize science and reason, shown in Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon where growth of Christianity was major reason for Rome’s collapse.
Music and art mainly religious although did differ a little bit as secularization increase and men of reason attack church, but many still Christian
Protestant Reformation solve relationship between church and state control, but Catholic Church still exercise lot of power in Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Habsburg Empire, Poland, Southern Germany and church was very rich
A decline in church power was seen ad the government wanted greater authority over the church and expelled the Jesuits (still and power) from Portugal, France, and Spain
Philosophes believe in religious toleration, but rulers did not believe as much and continued to persecute heretics but some progress made with Joseph II of Austria who passed the Toleration Patent of 1781 which recognized Catholicism public practice but allowed Lutherans, Calvinists, and Greek Orthodox the right to worship privately (all subjects equal)
Jews still not tolerated, mainly Poland allow toleration, but since many Jew restricted in movements, land, jobs, and forced to pay taxes and face lots of wrath; Jewish communities (pogroms) were looted and massacred which made them dependent on territorial ruler favors (Ashkenazic Jews)
Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain but were really good at banking and commercial activities but great for kings due to their experience (still insecure due to religion)
Enlightenment thinkers favored acceptance of Jews and said Jews and Muslims are humans that deserve full rights of citizenship despite religion; denounced persecution but still hostile and ridicule Jewish customs
Most saw solution to Jew persecution was to conversion to Christianity
Joseph II of Austria tried to enact new policy to Jews by freeing them of nuisance taxes and allow more movement and job opportunities, restricted from owning land and worshipping in public and encourage them to assimilate by learning German
Catholic parish church remain important center for life of entire community, but was highly selective and most people were superstitious and not devout to Catholicism despite Reformation
Pietism revival from more established Protestant churches that were more stable and rational and occur from desire to have deeper personal connection to God. Spread by Count Nikolaus von Zinzendorf who said true religious experience consist of mystical dimensions(personal experience of God) in one’s life. Opposed rational approach to religion from orthodox Lutheran clergy
Anglican church wasn’t popular to masses of people since not religiously exciting, and Puritans, Quakers, Baptists subdued
Deism grow and seem to challenge Christianity
John Wesley- Anglican minister who suffered from deep spiritual crisis then went under mystical experience→becvome missionary to English people bringing good tidings of salvation to all people despite opposition from Anglican church. Believed people can be saved by experiencing God and accept his grace
Preached to lower-class masses in open fields with charisma that provoke highly charged and sometimes violent conversion experiences where organized into “Methodist” societies or chapels where aid each other in doing good works that Wesley say important for salvation
Tried to keep Methodism in Anglican Church but once died Methodism separate and independent sect that compete with Christianity that probed need for spiritual experience not expunged by 18th century search for reason
• Earlier beggars were helped due to Christian duty begin to help them but now people viewed begging as a crime (idleness) and that to assist in this would be to assist in the crime; some people thought the state should get more involved but others did not think so

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

• Religion used to teach people how to read through middle class women’s movements such as the Sunday School Movement
• Russia follows church

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

• Assignats- a form of paper money the was issued based on the collateral of the newly nationalized Church property that was also secularized
• Civil Constitution of the Clergy- July 1790 was put into effect where both bishops and priests of Catholic Church had to be elected by people and paid by state, clergy required to swear oath of allegiance to Civil Constitution, lands were gone, and pay scales implemented int; pope forbade it so only 54% of French parish clergy took oath and most bishops refused
• Caused many people to be unhappy with the revolution and implement even more counterrevolution measures
- Cult of Supreme Being (Robespierre established it as a new form of deism didn't take off)
- Cult of Reason (worship reason instead also Robespierre)

2nd Great Awakening

1790 - 1840

• Protestant, religion! Methodists in US, Because they're getting kicked out of eng cuz they're not trusted, encouraged female preaching !! Which people saw as dangerous for conservative state
• Got through God with education for personal connection to God
• 2nd Great Awakening=take place in US; resurgence of Faith- temperance= anti booze and anti slavery→ moral sway to it → Imperialism (ex. India as show sati- wives jump onto husbands burning body so they both dead [Britain disgusted by it and validates imperialism because believe morally superior {similar to paternalism} who can improve them )

Napoleon

1804 - 1815

Brought back Catholicism in France
• Concordat between Nap and Pope Pious VII made it so that Catholic Church was able to depose bishops (not nominate), hold processions again and reopen seminaries; Pope acknowledges the Revolution’s accomplishments and agreed to let the confiscated church lands stay in their current hands; Catholicism is majority religion; equal rights for Protestants and all priests get paid by state
• Made sure church no longer enemy of Rev and made everyone with church land loyal to Nap

2nd Industrial Revolution

1850 - 1900

• Religion Threatened as state power grows; many begin to reject; also threatened by scientific revolution
• Bismarck (expels Jesuits from Prussia (1872), (1873) strengthened Prussian state over Catholic church, obligatory marriage in civil court) Kulturkampf
• State is afraid of church since it is an international force
• Pope Pious IX fights by making the German Catholic Church to rebel against them Syllabus of Errors (1864); Finds fault with progress, liberalism, and modernism; Attacks modernism, liberalism; Papal infallibility- Pope is never wrong
• Pope Leo XIII realizes that the church must change
• Women – more pious and attend church; 1854- Doctrine of Immaculate Conception claims that the Virgin Mary birthed Jesus without sex meaning she was free of original sin; only human being free of original sin and she is a woman so its big
• Bernadette Sourbirous sees a vision that the Virgin Mary asks her to drink from a spring that has curative properties so Pope Leo XIII uses the spring to get people to buy into it by bringing pilgrims by train and getting doctors to verify the medicinal properties of the spring

post World War 1

1920 - 1930

• Mussolini recognize Catholicism – Lateran Agreement 1929 (has everything but needs the people’s soul so make the agreement making the Vatican City its own country and the Pope has say on whether the people did something wrong but should shut up about what the party is doing)
• The Spanish Flue males some people think God is punishing them for WWI

Great Depression

1929 - 1939

• Russia became atheist under Stalin but he allowed people to pray again during WWII

Cold War

1947 - 1991

• Vatican II- John 23rd attempt to revive the Catholic religion via tolerance to other religions, put mass into vernacular and it works for a bit then fades away
I. Religion
• Decline in church attendance (1 out of every 10 British person go to church)
• VATICAN II (Pope Paul VI tries to realign people’s moral compass (travel, say birth control bad)
• Biblical literalism (in America, Protestant groups who say that if it’s in the Bible is it true; reason it comes back is because if Soviet is atheist, we should be godly)
• Cultural homogenization
• World religions spread, gain popularity (decline in Christianity)
• New places of worship in west
• Soviet Bloc = anti-religion•