He realized that conditioned experiences could not provide lasting happiness or protection from suffering. After a long spiritual search he went into deep meditation, where he realized the nature of mind. He achieved the state of unconditional and lasting happiness: the state of enlightenment, of buddhahood. For the rest of his life, the Buddha taught anyone who asked how they could reach the same state. Today, 9-10% of people are Buddhist.
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
The three greatest philosophers- Socrates was accused and convicted of corrupting the youth, his only real crime was embarrassing and irritating a number of important people.
Athens experiences a government reform, and by 450 BCE their new form of government is finalized- which was democracy. (StabEC- Political Structures and forms of governance)
Roman Healthcare Peaks
Roman Healthcare peaks- A medical corpus was established, permanent physicians were fixed, the valetudinarium (military hospitals) were established, the first traces of systematic care for the wounded was founded. (IBHE- Technology)
Confucianism is adopted in Han China
Put particular emphasis on family and social harmony- The individual stands simultaneously in several different relationships with different people- changed family relationships (DevTranSS- Family and Kinship)
Allowed luxury goods to be exchanged all across Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Also allowed for cultural exchange- Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Islam, and Christianity (DICe- religions) and (CreEpIES-Trade)
Birth of Julius Caesar
July 13th, 100 BC
Expanded the Roman Republic through a series of battles. He is often remembered as one of the greatest military minds in history and is credited with laying the foundation for the Roman Empire.
As the first Roman emperor , Augustus led Rome’s transformation from republic to empire during the years following the assassination of his great-uncle and adoptive father Julius Caesar. He combined military might, institution-building and lawmaking to become Rome’s ruler, laying the foundations of the 200-year Pax Romana (Roman Peace) and an empire that lasted, in various forms, for nearly 1,500 years. (StabEC-Empires)
Roman Plumbing Peaks
This is when Plumbing reached its early apex in ancient Rome, which saw the introduction of expansive systems of aqueduct, tile wastewater removal, and widespread use of lead pipes. The Cloaca Maxima was built in the fourth century BC, and was largely reconstructed and enclosed under the authority of Agrippa as an aedile in 33 BCE. It still drains the Forum Romanum and surrounding hills. (IBHE-Technology)
Birth of Jesus of Nazareth
A Jewish teacher whom Christians recognized as their savior. He wanted peace between the Romans and the Jews.. Romans took this as a threat, despite its spiritual meaning, and executed him as a result. Followers later claimed that Jesus triumphed over death and rose from the grave, and that he died for his followers' sins. He started the greatest religious movement of all time. (DICe-Religion)
the Trung sisters who led the first national uprising against the Chinese, who had conquered them, in the year 40 CE. The Vietnamese had been suffering under the harsh rule of a Chinese governor called To Dinh. Some feel that if the sisters had not resisted the Chinese when they did, there would be no Vietnamese nation today.
Invention of paper in Han China
This allowed cheap production of something that could hold important information that was also lightweight.
Sassanid Empire founded
The Sassanid era is considered to be one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods. In many ways the Sassanid period witnessed the highest achievement of Persian civilization, constituting the last great Iranian Empire before the Muslim conquest.
Constantine the Great
Was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops in 206. Constantine rebuilt the city of Byzantium and renamed the city Nova Roma (New Rome), providing it with a Senate and civic offices similar to the older Rome. He earned his place as ruler of the Roman Empire by defeating Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. Following this, he became Western Augustus, ruler of the entire Western Roman Empire until his death in 337.
Gupta Empire founded
Gupta Dynasty re-united India; very strong mathematics accomplishments including inventing the numbers 1-9 and 0. Also important developments in medicine, astronomy and art.
Byzantine Empire founded
Emperor Constantine I came to power as emperor in 306 CE. He made the Greek city of Byzantium the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. The city was renamed to Constantinople. Constantine ruled as emperor for 30 years. Under Constantine, the Empire would thrive and become powerful. Constantine also embraced Christianity which would become a large part of the Roman Empire for the next 1000 years.
The peak of the Byzantine Empire occurred during the Justinian Dynasty. In 527 Justinian I became Emperor. Under Justinian I, the empire gained territory and would reach the peak of its power and wealth. Justinian also established many reforms. One major reform had to do with the law. First, he had all the existing Roman laws reviewed. These laws had been written down over the course of hundreds of years and existed in hundreds of different documents. Then he had the laws rewritten into a single book called the Corpus of Civil Law, or the Justinian Code. Justinian also encouraged the arts including music, drama, and art. He funded many public works projects as well including bridges, roads, aqueducts, and churches. Perhaps his best known project was the Hagia Sophia, a beautiful and massive church built in Constantinople.
Started from 581 and ended in 618, the Sui Dynasty lasted for only 38 years and had only three emperors. With a tyrannical second emperor - Emperor Yang, this dynasty was often compared to the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC). However, the whole nation was reunified and certain economic and political advances were achieved in the period.