AP European History Timeline



3 c.e

is a modern term used to designate the period of Platonic philosophy beginning with the work of Plotinus and ending with the closing of the Platonic Academy by the Emperor Justinian in 529 C.E.


1100 - 1500


1300 - 1600

Hundred Years' War, Fall of Byzantine Empire --> Ottoman

1337 - 1453

Italian Renaissance

1375 - 1527

Printing Press ---> Cultural trends like Italian Renaissance to spread to Northern


Bartholomew Dias sailed to tip of Africa


New Monarchs: Professional army/centralized bureaucracy

1470 - 1550

Northern Renaissance: More religious ---> Protestant Reformation

1480 - 1550

Vasco de Balboa reached the coast of India


Commercial Revolution 1500-1700

1500 - 1700

Old Imperialism in the New World 1500-1600

1500 - 1600

Scientific Revolution, Copernicus to Newton 1500-1700

1500 - 1700

The Prince: collapse of Italian independence (France and Spain fight for dominance)


Utopia by Thomas More: All property held in common


Reformation 1517-1648

1517 - 1648



Hernan Cortes (Spanish) lands on coast of Mexico/Aztec Empire


Diet of Worms: Luther is excommunicated


-Baptism and communion
-Reject transubstantiation

Anabaptism: deny infant baptism


Peasants' Revolt = Luther's Conservatism, also allied with German Princes for confiscation of Church land


Francisco Pizarro: Inca Empire takoever


Act of Supremacy by Henry VIII


-Confiscated Church lands and monasteries

Calvinsim, rapidly spread in

1540 - 1549

Nicholas Copernicus wrote Concerning rev. of heavenly spheres, suggest earth revolve around sun


Catholic Counter Reformation

1545 - 1563

Nothing changes except they emphasize it more
-Index of prohibited books
-Papal Inquisition
-Placing limits on selling of Church offices/simony
-Baroque style, since mannerism failed religiously
-Society of Jesuits, example of Poland being reCatholized

Golden Age of Spain 1550-1650

1550 - 1650

Height of Habsburg Power under Charles V


Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary)

1553 - 1558

Charles V gives Philip Spain and possessions in New world, Italy, Netherlands


Religious Wars: Spanish Armada 1588, French Civil Wars 1562-1594, 30 Years' War 1618-1648

1562 - 1648

Ends with Treaty of Westphalia

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots


Fall of Spanish Armada


Edict of Nantes


Issued by Henry IV that allowed Calvinists rights

Baroque Art 1600-1700

1600 - 1700

Constitutionalism in England

1600 - 1700

-English Civil War 1642-49
*Royalists vs. Parliament
*Charles I executed
*Oliver Cromwell
-Glorious Revolution, 1688
-Act of Union, 1707: Great Britain is created

Golden Age of Netherlands/Dutch Republic

1600 - 1700

-War with England leads to decline
-Mainly a sea power with shipbuilding and a huge fleet
-Amsterdam is Europe's financial center. Amsterdam exchange bank in 1609 shifts power from Italy to Dutch provinces
-Religious toleration (mainly Calvins)
-Political power was passed onto wealthy merchants, no absolute ruler
-Dutch East Indies Company replaced Portuguese and gained control of India/spices
-Dutch artists focused on painting everyday life, portraits, landscapes

Petition of Rights: Parliament forces Charles to sign, king cannot demand loan without parliament consent and must meet frequently


Edict of Restitution: Outlawed Calvinism and made Lutherans give back land/seizure of property


Church condemn Galileo's work


Charles I forces Calvinist Scotland to adopt Episcopal Church and English Book of Common Prayer and calls short Parliament for funds


Age of Absolutism, begins with Louis XIV in 1643

1643 - 1750

The Commonwealth by Oliver Cromwell (military dictatorship) ---> Charles II

1649 - 1660

Principia Mathematica


Newton Publishes Principa


Bill of Rights: Parliament approval for taxation


-Armies can't be raised without consent, power to suspend laws illegal, Monarchs swear to uphold Protestantism

Enlightenment 1700-1800

1700 - 1800

Agricultural Revolution 1700s, leads up to population explosion and Industrial Revolution

1700 - 1750

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1713

King of Spain died. Louis' grandson was going to the throne. But then there was war between France, England, Holland, Italy, Austria, Bradenburg

Pragmatic Sanction


Edict issued by Charles VI to ensure Maria Theresa inherited his land after he died

Treaty of Utretch


Ended War of Spanish Succession and allowed Philip to remain king of Spain but not of France

Enlightened Despotism 1750-1800

1750 - 1800

-1800 for Napoleon
-Frederick the Great 1740-1748
-Catherine the Great 1762-1796
-Joseph II 1780-1790
-Absolutism in Easter Europe 1600-1700: Rise of Prussia, Russia, Austria. Fall of Ottoman Empire, Poland, and the Holy Roman Empire

Industrial Revolution in England 1750-1850

1750 - 1850

-Political stability following glorious revolution
-Religious tolerance
-Expanded population --> low wages
-Agricultural revolution of 1700s, methods of using all fields rotation, and turnips and beets to feed animals
-Textile manufacturing could be expanded using technological advances
-Enclosure Act
-Transportation: sea trade and railroads
-Coal and Iron
-Steam engine for mines ---> more steam engines for mines/coal
-Change from putting out system to people migrating to factories

Romanticism 1780-1850

1780 - 1850

Utopian Socialism

1780 - 1848

-Reaction to capitalism and industrialization

French Revolution 1789-1799

1789 - 1799

Age of Montesquieu: National Assembly 1789-91, Legislative Assembly 1791-92

1789 - 1792

Age of Rousseau: National Convention 1792-1795, Directory 1795-1799

1792 - 1799

Napoleon Consul 1799-1804

1799 - 1804

Napoleonic Era, Age of Voltaire 1799-1815

1799 - 1815

Napoleon Empire 1804-1815

1804 - 1815

Congress of Vienna 1815


Holy Alliance Formed


-Supporters of the Dual Revolution: Repression of liberalism and revolution to prevent war
-Russia, Prussia, Austria

Restoration and Revolution


e.g. Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France. Attack of principle rights of man and natural law as dangerous to social order. Wanted slow gradual change over time
Conscription into armies
Getting rid of French soldiers in land/unification
Grimm Brothers record old fairytales to reveal traditional German spirit
individual's natural rights
form parliamentary bodies
limiting the power of the state by emphasizing the individual's right to enjoy religious freedom, press, and equality under law
-Socialism from the French revolution. Jacobins taking political equality further and want economic equality. Against capitalism because it overemphasized production, underemphasized distribution, and brought suffering from low wages

Concert of Europe/Age of Metternich/Conservatism 1815-1848

1815 - 1848

-Spain had rebellion over King Ferdinand VII who promised to honor liberal constitution, but persecuted and had absolute power leading to rebellion in 1820s. France and holy alliance put that rebellion down
-Italy: King Ferdinand of Naples made promises in exile to rule as constitutional monarch, but held on to absolute powers. Neapolitan army officers joined with bourgeoisie and worked with secret national society Carboni to oppose monarch. Metternich wanted to put down rebellion ---> Troppau Protocol, stating great European powers had the right to intervene in military situations. Austrians troops put that down too.
-Greek revolt of 1821 to free the birthplace of democracy from Eastern despotism. Britain, France, Russia aided Greeks and they gained independence from Ottoman Empire in 1832
Russia: Alexander I attempted reforms but grew reactionary, died. Nicholas I stepped up to throne in 1825, and in confusion military officers attempted to revolt (Decembrist revolt) put down rapidly. Nicholas I ruled with an iron fist
-Great Britain: Peterloo Massacre

Six Acts


Eliminate foreign importation of grain, leading to more profit for aristocrats who owned land and more money peasants had to pay for grain

Peterloo Massacre


-Peaceful protesters for parliamentary reform in Manchester was broken up by soldiers

Hebert Spencer: Survival of the fittest, justification for governments to abandon poor, Europeans racially better than Asian and Americans

1820 - 1903

Greek war of Independence

1821 - 1832

-Greeks fight against Ottomans for Independence and asks for aid of European powers
-Britain, France and even Russia ask them to surrender. Metternich and Holy Alliance side with Ottoman

Union ban lifted: Unions formed by skilled laborers and unskilled


The Revolution of 1830 (July Revolution)


-Louis XVIII returns to throne in French (restoration of Bourbons) Constitutional Charter of 1814 was a liberal constitution, but it was not democratic and king still held all the power/loyalty of ministers. 1824 Charles X takes over and wanted to repudiate the Charter and in 1830, used military adventure in Algeria to rally support for his position. following victories in Algeria, he took steps to reestablish the old order, he opposed Republican, liberalism, and constitutionalism. He forbid attack against the Church. Popular reaction/Revolution in Paris forced the collapse of the government and Charles fled. Workers wanted a republic, bourgeoisie wanted a constitutional monarchy, which happened. Louis Philipe claimed the throne, accepted the Charter, but ruled just like his cousin had.

Reform Bill of 1832


-House of Commons becomes a dominate house and increase in voting rights
-Passed by Whigs

Factory Act of 1833: Reduced number of hours children could work/improved conditions


Zollverein formed by Prussia, abolishing tariffs in German trade


Queen Victoria of England

1837 - 1901

-unprecedented onslaught of industrial, social, cultural, political, scientific change

Chartism/Charter of 6 points, (workers still dissatisfied after reform bill)

1838 - 1848

-People in Britain didn't like conservatism so they had the Charter which had 6 points in 1838

Opium War

1839 - 1842

Friedrich Nietzsche: God is dead. Reject ideals of enlightenment. Break free from traditional morality

1844 - 1900

Great Famine Ireland

1845 - 1851

-Dependency on potato was extremely high and many left the country immigrating to England or the U.S.

Age of Realpolitik 1848-1871

1848 - 1871

Revolution of 1848 in France


-1840s were hard economically and tense politically
-Government's unwillingness to consider reform led Louis Philipe to abdicate in 1848. Revolutionaries quickly established universal male suffrage and other push towards variety of reforms
-Voting in April produced a new constituent assembly made of moderate republicans
-Socialist revolution in Paris
-Conflict between moderate republicans and radicals came head to head in 1848. Three days of fighting left thousands dead and moderates in control
-Louis Napoleon elected president, created conservative government, and assumed dictorial powers in 1851, making himself emperor in 1852

The Communist Manifesto: struggle between social classes


-working class had to prepare by establishing socialist parties, so helped organize first international in 1864, in order for protection, advancement, emancipation of working classes

Second French Empire 1852-1871

1852 - 1871

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

-Controversy over who had access to religious sites to Christians in Jerusalem
-Fear among French and British of Ottoman weakness encourage Russia access to Mediterranean by occupying port of Istanbul
-Russia defeated ---> humiliation/lowing of prestige

Sigmund Freud

1856 - 1939

-Interpretation of Dreams: Dreams revealed inner working of the subconscious world

-Sexuality in infantile forms

Unification of Italy 1859-1870

1859 - 1870


1860 - 1890

International Working Men's Association (First International)


-Europe's working class believed liberal reform was too slow and limited, turning to labor unions and socialist parties-Karl Marx helped form the union

Unification of Germany 1864-1871

1864 - 1871

Repeal of corn laws


Robert Peel was a Tory but sided with Whigs to repeal them

Social Darwinism

1865 - 1900

-certain members of species inherit traits over time make them more successful in struggle for survival "Natural selection"

Women's Rights Petitioning

1866 - 1870

Second Industrial Revolution 1867-1914

1867 - 1914

-Steel, electricity, oil, chemicals, transpotation

Suez Canal


-Great Britain took advantage of Egyptian ruler's financial distress and purchased a controlling interesting in the canal. Led to British occupation and annexation of Egypt
-In order to provide greater security for Egypt, Britain expanded further down south.
-France accepts British occupation of Egypt and Britain supports French expansion into northwest Africa

Women stayed relatively quiet

1870 - 1905

New Imperialism

1870 - 1914

-Shift from indirect commercial influence to direct political control of foreign lands in Africa and Asia
*Need for raw materials in expanding industrial industry
*Need for new markets to sell European manufactured goods and invest in newly created capital
*The technological innovation in weaponry and transportation that promoted European military adventurism
*Nationalism that unified European nations and gave them sense of historical identity. E.g. French who were defeated by the Prussians in 1870
*Traditional identity of European political elites who competed for fame and glory through conquest
*Need for competing political elites to win support for newly politicized and enfranchised masses.
-Guise of Christian missionaries
-Spheres of influence

Upsides to imperialism:
-E.g. India: irrigation systems, railways, cities were all products of British rule. Nationalism and political liberty were concepts they brought which the natives used for their liberty.
-Belgian Congo exploitation by king Leopold II established a massive colony many times the size of Belgium and took profits for himself. Millions were enslaved, killed, maimed in the crazed pursuit

Third French Republic 1871-1940

1871 - 1940

Age of Mass Politics

1871 - 1914

Three Emperor's League


Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia

Congo trading outposts and treaties with locals established

1876 - 1885

Dual Alliance


-Bismarck's alliance with Austria
-Germany was the Austria was the horse

Southeast Asia dominated by France


-Established Union of Indochina: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia

Italy asks to join Dual Alliance to become Triple Alliance


Asks to join Austria and Germany

Fabian Society

1884 - Present

-Great Britain
-Heat and water should be owned by state and regulated by experts

Berlin Conference


-Rush of European powers to claim interest and sovereignty over portions of Africa in the first half of the 1880s, culminating in 1885 at which they laid out rules for officially claiming of African territories.

Indian National Congress


-British created British East India Company, a private trading company that used economic and military power to influence local politics
-Led to Sepoy Rebellion of 1857
-Led to nationalistic Indian feelings

Second International

1889 - 1916

Dreyfus Affair


-French officers wrongly accused Alfred Dreyfus a young Jewish captain of treason
-Liberalists and socialists came to his defense
-Strong ultranationalist and anti-semitic feelings were apart of the French establishment

Creation of Palestine, independent Jewish State


-Caused by Zionism

Boxer Rebellion


-Chinese nationalism and resistance to foreign influence

Triple Entente: Britain, France, Russia


World War I

1914 - 1918

Schleiffen Plan


-As soon as Russia mobilized in the East, Germany would military thrust to Paris to knock French out of the war
-Austrians crack down on Serbian nationalism and declare war after Ultimatum, Russia mobilizes to support Serbs, triggering plan

German Social Democrats


-Most successful socialist party in Europe
-Revisionist socialism which urged Socialist parties to cooperate with bourgeois liberals to gain points for working class

Russian Revolution



1917 - 1924

Russian Revolution 1917


-Russian was bad at war, Nicholas was bad at leading. Nicholas was killed
-Rasputin was corrupting the queen
-Strikes and revolts

Interwar Period "Age of Anxiety"

1919 - 1939

-Rise of Fascism and Great Depression

National Fascist Party by Benito Mussolini


-Said it could save Italy from socialism
-All other parties declared illegal and Mussolini is dictator

National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP/Nazi Party)


-Led by Adolf Hitler

Lenin's New Economic Policy


-Temporary compromise allowing small businesses and rural peasants to sell their products. Worked to get the economy functioning again


1927 - 1953

Stalin's five year plans


-Rejected all notions of private enterprise and initiated state owned owned factories and power stations
-Also collectivization and liquidation of Kulaks, using them as scapegoats for economic failure

Great Depression

1929 - 1939

Enabling Act of March 1933 --> Hitler rules as dictator


Stalin's Purges

1935 - 1939

Britain lets Germany take Sutenland (Part of Czech) through appeasement policy


Anchluss: Germany annexes Austria without opposition


World war 2

1939 - 1945

Germany invades Poland, starting the war


End of WWII


-Vast numbers of people were displaced. People trying to get home, others homes were destroyed and there was no place to go
-Traditional power of Great Britain, France, and Germany were exhausted, overseas empires disintegrated. E.g. India broke from Britain

Cold war

1946 - 1991

Decolonization, Beginning when India declares independence

1947 - 1970

-of Asia (India, China, Vietnam) and Africa (Egypt, Sub-Saharan)

UN partitions Palestine into Jewish and Arab homelands.


-Arabs immediately attacked afterward

European Coal and Steel Community


industrial production under a centralized authority

France splits Vietnam


-North: communist led nation by Ho Chi Minh
-South: republic dominated by United States

Khrushchev: Destalinization

1955 - 1964

Winston Churchill (conservative party) dismissal --> Clement Attlee (labour party)


Nationalizing Suez Canal: Israel, Britain, France


Treaty of Rome --> European Economic Community (Common Market)


Fifth Republic of France under de Gaulle

1958 - 2017

de Gaulle uses prestige to grant Algerian independence


-France struggled to hold on to Indochina, but really struggled with Algeria since it was French possession since 1830 and more than a million native French lived in the territory

Brezhnev: Conservatism and Restalinization

1964 - 1982

Prague Spring


-Reform movement in Czechoslovakia by Alexander Dubcek
-Members of Warsaw pact invade country to halt reforms

Brezhnev Doctrine


-Soviet union would support with all the means at it's disposal any established communist state in Eastern Europe threatened by internal strife


1972 - 1979

Margaret Thatcher (Conservative party) becomes prime minister


-Economic policies of tight control over money supply to reduce inflation, sharp cuts in public spending, cut in taxes for high earners
-Reducing power of trade unions
-Left in 1990 to John Major who signed the treaty.

Gorbachev: glasnost and perestroika

1985 - 1991

Revolutions of 1989 and fall of Soviet Union 1991

1989 - 1991

European Union

1991 - Present

Ethnic Cleansing


-forced removal or execution/genocide of muslims and Bosnians in Yugoslavia since Serbs refused to allow themselves to become part of a Bosnian state they would be minority in

-Example: serbian shelling of Bosnian capital of sarejevo

The Maastricht Treaty --> European Union


-establishment of banknotes and coins, corporation in defense, justice, environmental affairs


Late Medieval

1300 - 1325

-Portrayed scenes from the Church and the Bible (especially Jesus and Mary)
-Artistics didn't try making things look realistic
-Made important figures bigger
-Flat and unrealistic

Early renaissance

1350 - 1400

-Giotto, Dantello, Majacio attempted to become more realistic in their work and channeled the ideas of Ancient Greeks and Romans

High Renaissance, ending with sacking of Rome

1450 - 1527

-Moved from Florence to Rome
-Leonardo da Vinci: Inventor, military engineer, architect, sculptor, scientist. Painter too, Mona Lisa
-Michelangelo: David commissioned by Florence, Sistine chapel commissioned by Julius II
-School of Athens: Plato, Aristotle, Leonardo and Michelangelo using single point perspective
-Chirusroscuro and linear perspective to portray scenes and figures as realistically as possible
-They mastered the ability to create 3 dimensional scenes using shadow and making figures smaller using positioning (Mainly Italian but also Northern)



1520 - 1580

-Type of art associated with Renaissance
-Later works of Michelangelo inspired mannerisam which was a reaction to the renaissance and focused on the strange and abnormal
-Gave freer reign to the individual
-Artists included El Greco and Timtometo


1550 - 1750

-Started as a way to glorify the Catholic Church
-Turned into a movement to glorify the power of kings such as Louis XIV
-Intense ornamentation and curved lines
-Contrast of Baroque vs Protestant art was protestant art was more simple and melancholy
-Sharp contrast between light and dark portrayed by Michelangelo Caravaggio and Bernini during the St. Peter's Basilica
-Work like Bernini's was associated with absolute politicians like Louis XIV and Charles of England. E.g. banquet hall and hall of mirrors at Versailles

Dutch Golden Age Art

1560 - 1650

-Art that highlights daily life using still life or paintings of inanimate objects that emphasize peasant life

William Shakespeare

1564 - 1616


1710 - 1780

-Rococo represented ideals of the old regime, focused on benefits for the nobility
-Lavish and carefree style
-Portrayed nobility doing leisurely activities
-Used pastel colors and played with light


1750 - 1800

-Mainly as response to Rococo
-Embraced ideals of the enlightenment
-Represented the Republican values of the French Revolution
-Used models from Renaissance and ancient world
-It criticized the old Regime, portraying stillness, public life/morals


1800 - 1850

-After French revolution people decided they actually like the Church and Neogothicism arose which glorified the Church and restored conservative ideals/cathedrals
-Fascination with the power of nature
-Humans getting wrecked by natural disasters
-Some showed little humanity at all

-Casper David Friedrich

Realism 1848-1900

1848 - 1900

Modern art

1860 - 1945


1870 - 1890

-Portrayed modern, social life of the urban middle lower class to the northern religious and historical themes of the past
-Mainly took place in Paris
-Manet, Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir
-Captured a moment in time/slice of life
-Depicted leisure activities of the Parisian bourgeoisie
-Different from traditional art, modern art that tries to get the viewer to figure out the artist's ideas

Post impressionism

1886 - 1905

-Social commentary
-Form and solidity
-Van goh, galgan
- Post-Impressionism emerged as a reaction against Impressionists' concern for the naturalistic depiction of light and colour.


1907 - 1914

-Presented multiple views of the same object
-Portrayed 2 dimensional space without traditional linear perspective
-Pablo Picasso, George Braque
-Lacks harmony and proportion
-Painted for limited group of people