Long term: Treaty of Versailles imposing debt and shame on Germany; thus, envoking rage. In addition, debt caused the war by making Germany even more unhappy and in need of a new leader, Hitler. In addition, the policy of appeasement didn't stop HItler from expanding into Austria and Czechloslovakia, so he didn't stop and kept expanding into Poland, which was when the war officially started.
- Great Britain and France declare war on germany because they invaded Poland. France builds the Maginot Line to keep the Germans out of France, as they had been there in ww1. Germany Blitzes Denmark, Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands, and then enters France through a break in the line in the forest (Luxemborg). Then at the Battle of Dunkirk, the French are pushed the farthest north, by the English Channel, and the British helping flee. Italy declares war on France and France becomes the Vichy republic (a nazi puppet state). Germany tries to Blitz GB in the Battle of Britain, but fails because they stop bombing the radar towers, so the Britains know where they are and are easily able to counter attacks. At the Battle of North Atlantic, (1939-1945) the two powers fought for naval superiority. At the Tehran Conference, the allied powers decided to open a second front on Germany, in Russia, and finish the war in the west with the battle of Normandy. The last battle fought in the west was the battle of the bulge, which was fought in Belgium.
-Hitler annexed the Rhineland, Austria, Sudetenland, Bohemia, and Bavaria, then he blitzed poland. He signed the non-aggresion pact with Russia at this time. Then, he annexed Hungary, yugoslavia, the caucasus (crimea), and decided to attack russia despite his generals' wishes not to. At the battle of Stalingrad it was determined that they couldn't win and at the battle of kursk, the greatest tank battle in history, they lost in the east.
-Mussolini tries to be cool like Hitler and invades Greece, but they are unprepared. This exposed the German Flank to Britain, so Hitler was mad and subsequently invaded Yugoslavia. operation Mincement was enacted where Great Britain would invade Italy by tricking the Germans into thinking that they were invading Greece by having a dead body wash ashore with fake plans. They took Rome, and Italy was no longer able to be a viable axis power.
- Japan invaded China in 1931 (manchuria). They then invaded and raped Nanjing because they were trying to take raw materials to help with industrialization and manufacturing. They allied with Germany and war brought out in the Pacific when they were taking islands. To try and stop the U.S from having to join the war, they bombed pearl harbor bc they thought that it would eliminate most of the navy. However, the u.s joined the war and Japan and Germany declared war on them. The strategy of island hopping was used during these battles. At Coral Sea Japan was tsopped from taking Australia and at Midway the U.S became the dominant pacific power. To definitively end this front, America atomic bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
- Germans and Italians are sent to Eygpt to take control of the Suez canal from Britain to cut off their oil supply. Britain come down to defend it under Montgomery. The Germans under Rommel broke through the defense with the help of the Afrikorps, and at El Alemein the Birtish push the Germans back into the desert when they crack the German code.