Scientific Rev., Renaissance, etc. and brief descriptions


Approx. 1350 - Approx. 1550

The Renaissance was a period of "rebirth" in European society after the Middle Ages, which begun with the discovery of ancient Greek and Roman texts in the mid 1300s. The Renaissance took place primarily in Italian city-states because of the amount of independence these states had, with no allegiance to a nation or monarch. There was an increase of trade, commerce, and banking as seen in the rise of the Medici family in Florence.
The discovery of old texts gave way to the Humanist movement that advocated: using Greek and Roman classics in education and to model society rather than the Catholic Church (Shift from ecclesiastical authority to classical authority), and the power, capability, and achievements of man. Humanism also grew out of Individualism, which placed importance on the individual/man over society. Secularism was also a major movement of the Renaissance, growing out of materialistic views of the world and stressing a separation from the Church.
ART: The Italian Renaissance featured art that reflected humanism, individualism, secularism with the persistence of traditional Catholic imagery. The Northern Renaissance illustrated a focus on Christianity and everyday life.
HUMANISTS: Petrarch - “Ascent of Mount Ventoux”; Lorenzo Valla - “On the Donation of Constantine”; Ficino - “Platonic Theology”; Mirandola - “Oration on the DIgnity of Man”; Machiavelli - “The Prince” “Discourses on Titus Livy”; Jean Bodin - “Six Books on the Republic”; Castiglione - “Book of the Courtier”; Guicciardini - “History of Italy”

Age of Exploration

Approx. 1450 - Approx. 1600


1517 - 1648

The protestant reformation began in 1517 when Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the Church of Wittenberg. He condemned the selling of indulgences by the Catholic Church and inspired reform to Christian religion. His doctrine was one of salvation by faith alone, and he believed in a priesthood of all believers. Lutheranism took root in the Holy Roman Empire, as the words of Luther were even used as a battle cry in the German Peasants revolt in the 1520s. The reformation was furthered by Ulrich Zwingli in Zurich, Switzerland. A more political leader, Zwingli died in battle in 1531. John Calvin began his reforms in Geneva, creating a state governed by a church in the 1530s. His ideas were spread to Scotland by the reformer John Knox and Calvinism became widely spread in France with Huguenots in the mid 1500s. These reformers and the Catholic church each differed in their interpretation of communion.
Transubstantiation (Catholic) - bread and wine become blood and body
Consubstantiation (Lutheran) - real presence; the bread and wine coexist with the blood and body, but do not fully transform
Sacramentarianism (Zwingli, Calvin) - bread and wine remain bread and wine; symbolic, not literal

Witchcraft Craze

1517 - 1648

Witchcraft affected the lives of many Europeans in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the height of the Reformation.
- More than 100,000 people were prosecuted for witchcraft.
Witchcraft was a practice that had been occurring for years, but it had recently been revived with a religious connotation. Witches were seen as heretics, individuals with powers from the Devil.
- They were believed to be given the ability to conjure storms, kill cattle, and murder children. People thought witches attended sabbats - nocturnal gatherings where they feasted, danced and even copulated with the devil in sexual orgies.
Witchcraft trials were held in England, Scotland, Switzerland, Germany, some parts of France and the Low Countries and even New England in America.
- Religious tensions heavily contributed to the witchcraft craze. Its height was in the 1500s and 1600s in poor, rural, and primarily Protestant areas. This is due to the fact that Protestant areas were the focus of political conflict and war; thus, they dealt with scarcity, poverty, and desperation. Villagers were in search of a scapegoat and blamed their issues on witches.
Torture and other horrifying methods were used to extract confessions from accused persons. One they admitted to practicing, witches were then burned at the stake or drowned.
Women, particularity elderly widowed women, were viewed as weaker than men so they were obviously more likely to submit to the devil. Women were believed to be obsessed with carnal pleasures, and only a demonic lover could satisfy them.

Witchcraft declined by the mid-seventeenth century. The destruction caused by religious wars forced people to accept toleration to some extent. Governments stabilized after this period of chaos and weren't as willing to accept such practices.

Scientific Revolution

Approx. 1550 - Approx. 1700

The Scientific Revolution of the 1500s -1700s created new views of the universe, new ways of learning, and challenged classical and ecclesiastical authority. Paracelsus, the father of modern medicine, challenged the ancient Galen's theory that all illness comes from an imbalance of the four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Paracelsus argued that like cures like and invented vaccines to cure viruses. Andreas Vesalius challenged Galen's theory that the liver was the center of the body and discovered that the heart was the center. William Harvey was an English physician who discovered systematic blood circulation in the body. The astronomer Copernicus challenged the geocentric model proposed by ancients Aristotle and Ptolemy and believed in a heliocentric model of the universe in the 1540s. Johannes Kepler furthered this discovery, using his extensive knowledge gained through Tyco Brahe's collection of astronomy observations and texts, to find that planets have elliptical orbits around the sun. Galileo proved that celestial bodies are not perfect and observed the cratered surface of the moon through telescope. He also supported the Copernican heliocentric view of the universe. Inductive study was espoused by Francis Bacon and encouraged thinkers to observe the natural world and conduct experiments to find greater truths in the world. Descartes was a proponent of deductive study, in which one could apply greater natural truths to smaller circumstances.
Inductive: small experiments to greater truths
Deductive: greater truths apply to small circumstances
Copernicus: On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres
Galileo: The Starry Messenger
Empiricism: theory that all knowledge comes from the senses
Rationalism: knowledge can be gained from things other than our senses (example: cause and effect relationships)

The Enlightenment

Approx. 1650 - Approx. 1800

The Industrial Revolution

Approx. 1750 - Approx. 1914

The Industrial Revolution saw the mechanization of agriculture and textile manufacturing and a revolution in power, including steam ships and railroads, that effected social, cultural and economic conditions. The industrial revolution saw that people no longer needed to work from hand, but instead used machines. The textile industry was the first thing to become iindustrialized with the spenning jenny of James Hargreaves and the water loom from Richard Arkwright. This revolution also saw the importance or coal and eventually steel too. Britain was leading in industrialization in its early years, but Germany began to rise in industrialization due to their courageousness to take on new inventions. Britain fell behind in industrialization because of their fear of investing in new technologies. Some important inventions of this time was the phone, cars, camera's, planes(model), and etc.( Very Broad Description)


1850 - 1900

Historians' term for the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories for the benefit of the colonial powers.

The Interwar Years

1919 - 1939

These were the years in between WW1 and WW2. During this time, Europe saw the Great Depression, the rise of fascism, and the rise of communism. The Great Depression was caused in 1929 when the American stock market crashed. Not only did this hurt America, but it hurt the countries that it had loaned money to, like Germany. Thus, the German economy failed and the money became literally useless due to severe inflation. 4.2 billion german marks became equal to 1 american dollar, and the poverty in Germany was unbearable, leaving the Germans in need of a savior. Adolf Hitler knew exactly how to monopolize on this need and take power. He gained some of his ideologies from his childhood such as the idea of pan germanism that sprung out of German unification (gross duetchland) and the anti-semitism of vienna, where he lived. The Jew had become the scapegoat for the German loss in the war even before Hitler, he just used that to help his rise to power and gain of power. Hitler liked this idea, so he joined the German workers party, which he changed into the national socialist german party (Nazis). His skill of public speaking captivated the people of Germany, which made the nazis elect him to lead the party in 1921. In 23 they tried the Beer hall Putsch, which failed, and made Hitler go to prison for treason, but he was let out of jail 264 days later. His change of mind was that he wasn't going to overthrow the government, but that he was going to legally take over. Thus, he began this journey, First he wrote mein Kampf which explained his back story and then why the current government was failing, utilizing the struggle of the german economy. He also used political propaganda. The SA was formed which was the paramilitary section of Hitler's party. He got 9th place in 1928, but the Great Depression was a turing point. America was trying to help them with the Dawes plan but the propoganda started to say that they weren't trying to help, (insinuating that only the nazi party could). In 32, he was in 2nd place and the communists were in 3rd. He used this to say that no one was worse than the communists, so they were more happy about Hitler. In 33, he was losing votes so the fear for communism was even more prevelant. Hitler's government looked the best to the middle and upper classes because it wasn't an anti-borgeiose party. So, he became the chancellor of Germany. The reichstag caught on fire and Hitler blamed the communists to have them lose even more popularity. He wanted to pass the Enabaling act in which we could make choices without parimentary consent for 4 years. It had to pass by 2/3 (but the fine print made it 4/9). The communists were jailed and forifted their seats. He won! So now all of Germany was under the Nazi party, and hitler was a dictator.

Fascism was also rising in Italy under mussolini. He played off of dissatisfaction with unemployment, inflation, fear of communism, and labor stirkes. He also played on the national pride of Italy. In 1921 he started a fascist party, with the need for a strong leader and state over personal freedom. In 22, he led his Black shirt followers in the march on Rome. The government didn't stop this movement so the king let him lead the government. The Parliament had unknowingly set up a dictatorship. He got public support by talking about Italy's past and glorifying the lower classes while saying that he would make italy a world power. He fixed the economy and industrialized, but this came because he silenced any opposers and used intense propoganda. Schools had to teach fascist ideology (similar to what happened in germany).

After the end of tsars in russia after the revolution, Lenin took over with the Bolesheviks. A civil war broke out in Russia between loyalists (whites) and bolsheviks (reds). The reds won and made the USSR. Banks were nationalized and land was redistributed. Any opposers were killed or sent away. Stalin gained power after Lenin's death by not letting anyone see his will where it said that Trotsky would come to power, and even killed trotsky despite his several attempts at escape. Stalin made the country an economic power by imposing heavy industry. His fake famine and collectivization killed many people.

The Digital Age

Approx. 1980 - Present

Beginning in the 80s with the creation of new, more powerful computers, the Digital Age led to a booming technology industry in the 90s. Computers became essential devices for communication, information, and entertainment. E-mail, developed in the 1990s, transformed the way in which people communicate. The internet was even more instrumental in changing the lives of human beings. By the early 2000s, the Internet had become a part of everyday life for the Western World. Phones became truly portable in the 1990s. The iPod was introduced in 2001; this digital music player revolutionized the music industry. Bill Viola was one of the first artists to exclusively employ video in his exhibits. Contemporary artists try to explore the interaction between the Western and non-Western world, particularly with multiculturalism. The video game industry has skyrocketed. As the years have gone by, higher levels of realism have been developed. Fantasy and epic films have proved themselves to be widely popular among Western audiences.


Wars, battles, their leaders

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

British and French conflict over the legitimate heir of the French throne, ends with Charles VII as King of France.

Wars of the Roses

1455 - 1485

War between the English House of Lancaster and York over the English throne. Henry VII of Lancaster defeated Richard III of York and marries his daughter Elizabeth of York.

Pazzi Conspiracy


The Pazzi family tried to displace the Medici as the rulers in Florence.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Battle of Pavia


Battle in which Holy Roman Emperor Charles V captured the French king, Francis I during the Habsburg-Valois Wars.

Sack of Rome


Siege of Vienna


Schmalkaldic Wars

1546 - 1555

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1547

War between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League of protestant German princes led by Philip I of Hesse and John Frederick I of Saxony. It was originally caused by demands for religious freedoms, but turned into political motivations.

80 Years War

1556 - 1648

The Eighty Years War was a successful revolt of the seven North Dutch provinces against the Spanish Habsburgs (Philip II, III, IV, Charles II). It was caused by the Protestant Reformation and political motivations of Philip II and ended with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia that recognized the independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. During this conflict, the Union of Utrecht in 1579 united the seven northern provinces and the Union of Arras 1579 unified the ten southern provinces.

French Religious Wars

1560 - 1598

Beginning with the Massacre of Vassy in 1562, this war was between French Catholics and Huguenots.

Spanish Armada


War of Three Henries

1588 - 1589

Henry III of France, Henry Duke of Guise, and Henry of Navarre (Henry IV).
Henry III has Henry Duke of Guise assassinated in a secret meeting 1588
Henry III acknowledged Henry of Navarre as the next French monarch
Henry III is assassinated in 1589 by Jaques Clement, a Catholic monk who did not want to see a Protestant monarch on the throne
Henry of Navarre is crowned Henry IV, the first Bourbon monarch in 1589 and a protestant

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

The last major religious war that ended with the treaty of Westphalia. This allowed for Calvinists, Lutherans, and Catholics to all be able to worship freely. Wars after this became predominately over the balance of power.

This was a wide-scale European conflict between 1618-1648 that primarily focused on the Holy Roman Empire.
The Thirty Years War essentially began as religious conflict within Christianity. [PROTESTANTISM vs. CATHOLICISM]
Peace of Augsburg in 1555 seemingly brought an end to religious warfare between German Catholics and Lutherans. Yet the rights of Calvinists were not recognized at all in this treaty (which several German states had adopted).
The Calvinist ruler of Palatinate, Frederick IV, assumed the role of leadership by forming the Protestant Union. To counteract it, the Catholic League of German States was organized by Duke Maximilian of the south German state of Bavaria.
As the war progressed, it became increasingly secular, dynastic-nationalist considerations were far more important [Bourbon Dynasty of France vs. the Habsburg Dynasties of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire].
Habsburg desire to consolidate power was resisted by princes.
Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)
Key Players:
Ferdinand → Catholic Habsburg; King of Bohemia
Frederick V → Protestant ruler of the Palatinate; head of the Protestant Union
Protestants vs. Catholics
In 1617, the nobles of the Bohemian Estates accepted Archduke Ferdinand. Because Ferdinand attempted to re-Catholicize Bohemia and tried to strengthen noble power, the Protestant nobles rebelled against him.
The event that marked the start of the war was the Second Defenestration of Prague in 1618. Protestant nobles proclaimed their resistance by throwing two of the Habsburg governors and a secretary out the window of the royal castle in Prague, the seat of the Bohemian government. The victims of this incident, representatives of Ferdinand, fell into manure and survived.
After this incident, the Bohemian rebels seized control of Bohemia, deposed Ferdinand and elected Frederick V as his replacement.
Even though Ferdinand had been elected as Holy Roman Emperor, he refused to accept this deposition. Because the election of Frederick V could upset the balance of religious and political power in central Europe and gave Protestant forces greater control of the Holy Roman Empire, Ferdinand sought the aid of the Duke Maximilian of Bavaria and the Catholic League.
The Imperial forces defeated Frederick and the Bohemian nobles at the Battle of White Mountain outside Prague on November 1620.
Spanish troops took advantage of Frederick’s predicament by conquering the Palatinate and conquering it by the end of 1622 (to gain an access route from Italy to the Netherlands) and Maximilian of Bavaria took the rest of the territory.
Ferdinand was reestablished as the king of Bohemia; he declared Bohemia as a hereditary Habsburg possession, confiscated the land of the Protestant nobles and reinstated Catholicism.
Danish Phase (1625-1629)
Key Players
Ferdinand → Catholic Habsburg
Albrecht von Wallenstein →A brilliant and enigmatic commander of the imperial forces; he was a Bohemian nobleman who had taken advantage of Ferdinand’s victory and became the country’s wealthiest landowner.

King Christian IV of Denmark → Lutheran who intervened on behalf of the Protestant cause by leading an army into northern Germany. He had made anti-Habsburg and anti-Catholic alliance with the United Provinces and England.
Seemingly Protestant vs. Catholic
Ulterior Motive: Christian IV wanted to gain possession of some Catholic territories in Northern Germany to benefit his family.
Ferdinand gained a new commander for the imperial forces in Albrecht von Wallenstein. Wallenstein’s forces defeated a Protestant army at Dessau and then continued to operate in northern Germany.
The forces of Christian IV were defeated in 1626 by an army of the Catholic League under Count Tilly and then suffered an even more devastating loss to Wallenstein’s forces the following year.
Christian IV’s defeat meant the end of the Danish supremacy in the Baltic.
After the success of the imperial armies, Emperor Ferdinand was at the height of his power so he issued the Edict of Restitution in March 1629. This proclamation prohibited Calvinist worship and gave the Catholic Church lots of Protestant land.
German princes were alarmed by Ferdinand’s great power so they forced him to get dismiss his general Wallenstein.
Swedish Phase (1630-1635)
Key Players
Ferdinand → Catholic Habsburg
Gustavus Adolphus → King of Sweden and military genius. This Lutheran is responsible for reviving Sweden and transforming it into a great Baltic power.
Protestant vs. Catholic
Gustavus Adolphus brought a disciplined and well-equipped army to northern Germany. His army swept the imperial forces to the north and they moved south.
In desperation, the imperial side recalled Wallenstein; he was given command of the imperial army that met Gustavus’ troops near Leipzig. At the Battle of Lutzen, the Swedish forces prevailed but paid a high price for the victory - Gustavus Adolphus was killed in battle.
Swedish forces remained in Germany, but they proved much less effective.
Even though Wallenstein was assassinated in 1634, the imperial army defeated the Swedes at the Battle of Nordlingen at the end of 1634.
This ensured southern Germany would remain Catholic.
The emperor made peace with the German princes by annulling the Edict of Restitution.
Nevertheless Swedes wanted to continue the fight and the French indirectly joined the war, under the influence of Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIV.
Franco-Swedish Phase (1635-1648)
Key Players
Ferdinand → Catholic Habsburg

Power Struggle [Catholics + Protestants vs. Catholics]
By this time, religious issues were losing their significance.

The Catholic French were now supporting the Protestant Swedes against the Catholic Habsburgs of Germany and Spain.
The Battle of Rocroi in 1643 proved decisive as the French beat and brought an end to Spanish military greatness.
The French moved onto victories over the imperialist-Bavarian armies in southern Germany.
By this time, all parties were ready for peace, and after five years of protracted negotiations, the Thirty Years War ended by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
The war between Spain and France raged on until the Peace of Pyrenees in 1659.
Spain emerged as a second class power, and France emerged as the dominant nation in Europe.

English Civil War

1637 - 1651

Parliament was successful in the first phase of the English Civil War (1642-1646).
The creation of the New Model Army comprised mostly of extreme Puritans called the Independents.
The Independents, which Oliver Cromwell was also one of, believed they were battling righteously for God.
Oliver Cromwell was a leader of the Independents.
Cromwell is credited because his fighters were well disciplined and trained in the latest military tactics.
Parliament ended the first phase of the English Civil War with the support of the New Model Army when they captured King Charles I in 1646.
The Parliamentary forces (politicians and army) split into 2:
The Presbyterian majority wanted to break the army and restore Charles I with a Presbyterian state church but the army mostly of radical Independents opposed an established Presbyterian church. The radical Independents marched on London in 1647.
Charles I fled and seeked help from the Scots.
Angry at the king, Cromwell and the army started the second civil war in 1648 gaining victory when they capture the king… again.
In response, Cromwell purges Parliament of Presbyterians leaving a Rump Parliament of 53 members of the House of Commons.
The Rump Parliament tried, condemned, and beheaded King Charles I (Charles Stuart) on January 30, 1649.
England’s Monarchy is destroyed.
Cromwell And New Governments: a part of the English revolution
Rump Parliament abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords and proclaimed England a republic or commonwealth from 1649-1653.
Oliver Cromwell, currently in the position of commander in chief of the army, had opposition: he had to crush a Catholic uprising in Ireland gaining him Irish enmity, there was an uprising in Scotland from Charles I’s son, and the Levellers in England opposed Cromwell.
The Levellers were a more radically minded group than the radical Independents who wanted to push their agendas in the current conflict of opposition towards Cromwell.
Levellers advocated freedom of speech, religious toleration, democratic republic, right to vote for all male householders over 21, annual Parliaments, women’s equality, government programs to care for the poor.
However, Cromwell believed only people with property could participate in state affairs because the poor would break them.
Cromwell smashed the Leveller radicals.
Cromwell had hard time working with Rump parliament at the same time, too, so he dispersed/broke it too in April 1653 shouting at them he did not want to do this, but that God was making him.
Cromwell managed to destroy the monarchy and parliament.
The army became the new government with the Instrument of Government, England’s first and only written constitution.
It put the Lord Protector (aka Cromwell) having executive power and a remade parliament having legislative power.
It failed though because it was hard for Cromwell to work with parliament since they argued about his authority and wanted to create the Presbyterian state church again.
1655: Cromwell dissolved parliament and divided England into 11 regions each ruled by a major general=military governor.
Cromwell levied a 10% land tax on all former Royalists to pay for military government since he was using military force to rule the and his fellow independents.
Cromwell was being worse than Charles I with random policies.
Cromwell died in 1658, the military establishment/government struggled for 18 months, so they gave up their own unfeasible rule and gave it Charles I’ son, Charles II, restoring monarchy.
The Restoration of the Stuart monarchy ended England’s troublesome times for a while.

The Fronde

1648 - 1652

First Phase (1648-1649)
Second phase (1650-1652)
French nobles vs. French monarchy [Louis XIV and Cardinal Mazarin]
- Nobles resented the centralized administrative power built up at the expense of the nobility so they allied with the Parlement of Paris and masses of Paris who resented the taxes collected to pay for the costs of the Thirty Years War.
- Nobles of the Robe wanted to secure their positions and increase their positions and increase their own power. They started fighting each other and were crushed.
- French concluded best hope for stability in France lay in the Crown.
- People accepted Louis XIV coming into the throne with supreme power.

Dutch War

1672 - 1678

Dutch Republic / Spain vs. France / Sweden / HRE / Prussia / England
- Triple Alliance
- Secret treaty of Dover with Charles II
- Appointment of William III, prince of Orange, in England.
Louis XIV’s Objectives:
Conquer new territory
French dominance
Weaken rivals
Personal glory
- Louis gains cities in Spanish Netherlands, but didn’t conquer the Dutch Republic.
- Dutch Republic begins a period of decline, end of the Dutch Golden Age.
- Glorious Revolution; anglo-Dutch alliance against Louis XIV.
- Grand Alliances (Britain, Austria, Prussia, Netherlands, Portugal, Savoy)

Battle of Vienna


Holy Roman Empire Habsburgs vs. Ottoman Turks
- Ottoman desire for expansion
Stopped the expansion westward of the Ottoman Turks
It ultimately led to the Austro-Hungarian Empire

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

Parliament persuaded Charles II to suspend the declaration and to pass the Test Act of 1673 - allowing only Anglicans to hold military and civil offices.
There was imaginary plot to kill Charles II and put Catholic James II in the throne, so parliament still tried to pass a failed bill that would not allow James II to receive the throne due to his different religion.
In response, 2 groups were created:
Whigs: wanted to exclude James II and establish a Protestant king
Tories: supported king James II despite their dislike of future heir being Catholic because they believed parliament should not tamper with the throne’s lawful succession, according to family ties and heirs
Charles II dismissed parliament in 1681 to stop anything that could prevent James II from gaining throne, and used French money to rule without parliament
Charles II died in 1685, and James II became king, starting a constitutional crisis
Tried to further Catholic interests and the conflict between king and parliament came back
Breaking the Test Act of 1673, he put Catholics in high government, army, navy, and university positions
1687: he issued a new Declaration of Indulgence - suspending all laws not allowing Catholics and dissenters from holding office to take care of the legality of his actions
Parliament decreased their rebellion towards James II because he was old and had two Protestant daughters (Mary and Anne) who would get the throne; HOWEVER, James II had a son born June 10, 1688 and he was Catholic.
7 prominent English men invite William of Orange, husband of James II’s daughter Mary II, to invade England (Immortal Seven)
William of Orange hated Louis XIV so he would use England’s resources to fight France
William III and Mary II raise army and invade England while James, his wife, and their infant boy flee to France
Through little bloodshed, England starts its “glorious revolution (1688)”
Revolution Settlement: confirmed William III and Mary II as monarchs
January 1689: convention parliament asserted that James II tried to subvert the constitution and declared the throne of England vacant, thus, they offered it to William and Mary who accept it with a Declaration of Rights that was made into the Bill of Rights in 1689.
Bill of Rights: affirmed parliament’s power even with a king present. Plus, it announced citizen rights “fashioned rule of law and a freely elected parliament for constitutional monarchy”
Affirmed parliament’s right to make laws, levy taxes, was not possible for king to be against parliament because parliament had the power in allowing the monarch to raise a standing army, king could not interfere in parliament’s “free” elections and debates
Citizen rights: they can petition the sovereign, keep arms, have a jury trial, and not be forced to suffer excessive bail
Did not settle religious questions of England during the 17th century
Toleration Act of 1689 granted Puritan dissenters the right of free public worship, but it excluded Catholics, who did not have full political equality since the Test Act was still in place
Toleration Act was a start to religious freedom, plus it means few people would ever again be persecuted for religious reasons
Parliament demolished divine right theory of kingship

Nine Years War

1689 - 1697

France vs. League of Augsburg [England / Scotland / HRE / Dutch Republic]
- Louis XIV tried expanding his empire eastward of the provinces Alsace and Lorraine.
- So Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, Sweden, and the United Provinces of Scotland and England formed the League of Augsburg.
- Louis XIV is forced to give up his eastward expansion.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

The Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II, dies and in his will he gives the throne to the French king Louis XIV's grandson, Philip V, from the House of Bourbon. A Grand Alliance of England, Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Dutch forms to prevent the unification of France with Spain and to put Charles II of Austria on the throne instead. Fighting breaks out, but later on the Holy Roman Emperor dies with Austrian Charles as his heir and people realize that him getting Spain would be even worse for the balance of power than Philip V getting it. The War ends with the Treaty of Utrecht.....

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI dies, having guaranteed his daughter Maria Theresa the throne with the Pragmatic Sanction in 1713. Frederick II comes to power in Prussia the same year and disregards the Sanction. He successfully invades and conquers Austria's Silesia, which is rich in resources and adjacent to Prussia. Ends with the Treaty of Aix La Chapelle...

Storming of the Bastille


Napoleonic Wars

1789 - 1815

Beats Austria, loses to England in naval Battle of Trafalgar, defeats Austria and Russia in Battle of Austerlitz. War with Austria in 1809, destroyed by French. Invades Russia in 1812, forced to retreat due to winter (disaster). War of 4th Coalition, French dessert Napoleon, make Treaty of Paris. Napoleon then escapes Elba marches into Belgium where he fights Battle of Waterloo, forced to flee after his failure and forced to in exile.

Royal family flees Paris


Louis XVI is executed


Battle of Austerlitz


Napoleon greatest victory against the Russian and Austrian coalition. Destroyed the Holy Roman Empire.

Battle of Waterloo


the British and Prussians defeated the French under Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon abdicated as emperor a few days after this final defeat, and a few weeks later he was captured and sent into exile.

Italian Unification

1817 - 1871

Under Piedmont leadership (diplomatic military maneuvers)
Agaisnt Austria--> Cavour asked France to support them and Napoleon III said he would because he wanted to have more power in Italy than the Hapsburgs. Then Cavour sent his troops into Crimea when the Crimean war was going on between Ottoman and Russian Empire. He helped the French in order to gain support when italy would become unified.
The plombienes agreement was signed between France and Italy when France won the Crimean war, which created an Alliance between France and Italy but this was not enough they had to have a marriage. diplomatic and political Italy provoked Austria into going to war with them, but Austria didn't want to go to war with them. Austria sent Piedmont an Ultimatum but Cavour refused. Italy and Austria went to war in 1859- Napoleon III stopped and stepped out. Italy won, and Italy still gave France Nice and Savoy. Ghirabaldi was upset because he was birth place was now French and he was big nationalist. He created Black Shirts. Kingdom of 2 Silicies was created --> 1861: Savoy State and Kingdom of Piedmont under new name (The Kingdom of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II)
March 1861--> Turin is the capital, 1864: Florence then Rome in 1870

Decembrist Revolution


The Decembrist Revolt was undertaken on December 26, 1825 to protest the ascension of Tsar Nicholas I to the throne after the death of his father Alexander I. When Alexander died, it was assumed that Constantine would take the throne so many officers pledged their allegiance to him. Constantine declined the role publicly but some of the officers did not know it or did not believe it. Nicholas I stepped forward but he was terribly unpopular so about 3,000 officers decided to take action.

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

started when the Russians wanted the right to protect the Christian shrines in the Palestine, a gift already given to the french. When the Ottomans refused, the Russians settled in Moldavia and Wallachia. The Ottomans declared war on Russia and France and Britain declared war on Russia. Russia depended on Austria’s support but they remained neutral and Russia fought alone.

Sepoy Mutiny


The revolt against the British by many different groups across India 1857 but led particularly by some of the disgruntled Indian soldiers working for the British. It caused the British government to take over more direct control of India from the British East India Company.

German Unification

1864 - 1871

Leaders: Otto Von BismarckAustro Prussian War(1866): Also known as the Seven Weeks' War Resulted in a Prussian victory & Austria permanently excluded from German affairs. After the Danish War, Bismarck gained Russia's sympathy by supporting Russia's suppression of a Polish revolt. Convinced Napoleon to be neutral in case of an Austro-Prussian war and promised Italy Venice if she supported Prussia. Bismarck then ordered his soldiers in the former Danish territories to be as obnoxious as possible to the Austrians. The Austrians appealed to the German Confederation to intervene. Bismarck claimed this was a violation of an earlier alliance and declared war. In this Seven Weeks War, it was Austria's turn to be crushed by the Prussians at the Battle of Königgrätz.
Franco Prussian War(1870-1871): enabled Bismarck to bring the states of Southern Germany into the confederation. France was defeated & the German empire was proclaimed. Napoleon III was sick and not eager for war but his government believed that a victory over the North German Confederation would renew wavering support for the empire and Napoleon' regime. The southern German states (Bavaria, Wurttemberg, etc.) honored their treaties with the Prussia and the Confederation. On September 1, at the Battle of Sedan, the Germans crushed Napoleon's army and captured the French emperor.

Zulu Resistance


lead by Shaka Zulu South African tribe who came into the conflict with the British army as the British expanded their control over southern Africa.

Boers War

1880 - 1881

The name given to the South African Wars of 1880-1 and 1899-1902, that were fought between the British and the descendants of the Dutch settlers (Boers) in Africa.

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.

Dreyfus Affair


Falsely charged for supplying French secrets to the Germans. Coincidentally a jew. Found guilty and sent to Devil's Island. After 10 years there he was given a full pardon by President Loubet.

Fashoda Crisis


British forces led by Kitchener closed in on towns occupied by French forces as both were headed to Omdurman and the upper Nile. They came to the brink of war but eventually, the French backed off as they were wracked by the Dreyfus Affair. Led to war scare between France and Britain.

Boxer Rebellion

1899 - 1901

wanted to get rid of all foreign influence
-thought that the westerners took away their jobs
-thought that westerners angered the Chinese spirits because they were in a time of famine
-Anti-Christian: killed missionaries and Chinese people who converted


1914 - 1918

This world war was caused by Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism. Militarism can be seen in the competition between states in artillery such as the anglo-german arms race. Similarly to what happened with the Britons starting the industrial revolution and not being able to progress as much afterwards, they made a new type of ship (the dreadnought) that allowed other states to build on from there and out manufacture and out navy the Britons. There was also tensions between the French and the Germans after the treaty that ended the Franco-Prussian War. Alliances were also a cause. This went back to Bismarck making alliances to keep a balance of power: Central powers= Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy and the Triple Entente: Uk, France, and Russia. The objective was peace; however, when one country fought a member of the other alliance, the allies had their back and this sped up war. Imperialism contributed because it made national rivalry global. Lastly, nationalism was a cause. This could mean either uniting or dividing to achieve national unity and freedom for one's ethnicity. For example, in former Yugoslavia, all of the countries were forced together and didn't have the same language, culture, etc. Here it became a hot-spot for Pan-slavism. The Black Hand wanted to liberate Slavs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Thus, they launched a terror campaign in which they killed archduke franz ferdinand who was the heir to the empire. This was a catalyst for the war because the austrians declared war on serbia, so russia joined, then germany and france and all the alliances acivated.

During the war, Germany was fighting two fronts, the eastern front in Russia and the western front in france. Germany started the Schliefflen Plan to enter France through nuetral Belgium because they though that they could defeat them quickly, before Russia mobilzed their troops. However, this violation of Begium's nuetrality caused Brittain to enter the war, and the plan resulted in trench warfare. The French attacked at the First battle of the marne. There was a stalemate because the Germans couldn't get to paris and the french couldn't push them back. Modern warfare began to arise as poison gas and tanks were utilized. The eastern front of the war ended when Russia left the war in 1917 due to the revolution. Submarine warfare began when germany sunk a british cruise ship in 1915, so usa joined and fought this warfare with U boats. Germany was scared of a revolution as had happened in Russia, so the kaiser adbicated and the weimar republic was set up. The Treaty of Versialles hirt Germany with harsh reparations and forcing them to lessen their artillery in the Guilt Clause. WW1 also saw the rise of total warfare in which everyone was constantly in danger, civilians as well as the military, and full mobilization was employed. New inventions include UBoats, flamethrowers, tanks, air crafts. Propoganda also became important because governments wanted full support from their country.

American entered the war because of the ZImmerman telegram in which Germany told the Mexicans to attack America so they could gain land when Germany won.

Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilson- League of Nations, 14 points at the Paris Peace Conference

Russian Revolution


The Russian people were angry at Tsar Nicolas II for getting them into a war, him leading the army, Rasputin's power, food shortage, and rising political opposition. Thus, the people revolted and were joined by workers on strike as well as the army who was sent to stop them and instead joined them. The tsar abdicated and he and his family were executed, leaving a new government the chance to emerge. It was run by both the Petrograd soviet under Lenin and the provisonal government under Kernesky. No one liked the provisional government because it kept Russia in the war and didn't solve the food shortage. Lenin's slogan, "peace, bread, and land" appealed to the people in this time of need. On november 7 (or october based on the juilian calendar) stormed the winter palace, arested the govt., took power, and left the war. Civil war between reds and whites emerged, but the reds won and the USSR was formed.


1939 - 1945

Long term: Treaty of Versailles imposing debt and shame on Germany; thus, envoking rage. In addition, debt caused the war by making Germany even more unhappy and in need of a new leader, Hitler. In addition, the policy of appeasement didn't stop HItler from expanding into Austria and Czechloslovakia, so he didn't stop and kept expanding into Poland, which was when the war officially started.

- Great Britain and France declare war on germany because they invaded Poland. France builds the Maginot Line to keep the Germans out of France, as they had been there in ww1. Germany Blitzes Denmark, Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands, and then enters France through a break in the line in the forest (Luxemborg). Then at the Battle of Dunkirk, the French are pushed the farthest north, by the English Channel, and the British helping flee. Italy declares war on France and France becomes the Vichy republic (a nazi puppet state). Germany tries to Blitz GB in the Battle of Britain, but fails because they stop bombing the radar towers, so the Britains know where they are and are easily able to counter attacks. At the Battle of North Atlantic, (1939-1945) the two powers fought for naval superiority. At the Tehran Conference, the allied powers decided to open a second front on Germany, in Russia, and finish the war in the west with the battle of Normandy. The last battle fought in the west was the battle of the bulge, which was fought in Belgium.

-Hitler annexed the Rhineland, Austria, Sudetenland, Bohemia, and Bavaria, then he blitzed poland. He signed the non-aggresion pact with Russia at this time. Then, he annexed Hungary, yugoslavia, the caucasus (crimea), and decided to attack russia despite his generals' wishes not to. At the battle of Stalingrad it was determined that they couldn't win and at the battle of kursk, the greatest tank battle in history, they lost in the east.

-Mussolini tries to be cool like Hitler and invades Greece, but they are unprepared. This exposed the German Flank to Britain, so Hitler was mad and subsequently invaded Yugoslavia. operation Mincement was enacted where Great Britain would invade Italy by tricking the Germans into thinking that they were invading Greece by having a dead body wash ashore with fake plans. They took Rome, and Italy was no longer able to be a viable axis power.

- Japan invaded China in 1931 (manchuria). They then invaded and raped Nanjing because they were trying to take raw materials to help with industrialization and manufacturing. They allied with Germany and war brought out in the Pacific when they were taking islands. To try and stop the U.S from having to join the war, they bombed pearl harbor bc they thought that it would eliminate most of the navy. However, the u.s joined the war and Japan and Germany declared war on them. The strategy of island hopping was used during these battles. At Coral Sea Japan was tsopped from taking Australia and at Midway the U.S became the dominant pacific power. To definitively end this front, America atomic bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

- Germans and Italians are sent to Eygpt to take control of the Suez canal from Britain to cut off their oil supply. Britain come down to defend it under Montgomery. The Germans under Rommel broke through the defense with the help of the Afrikorps, and at El Alemein the Birtish push the Germans back into the desert when they crack the German code.

The Cold War

Approx. 1946 - Approx. 1991

At the The Yalta Conference of 1945, Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt met to talk about what to do in the post-war years. Great Britain and America wanted the Declaration of a Liberated Europe, in which the eastern states could choose what government they wanted (obviously the two democratic countries assumed they would choose democracy), but Stalin wanted them to be communist, although he allowed for these free elections. However, he slowly began to extend his sphere of influence by electing communist leaders after the Potsdam Conference which worried the two democratic powers. There was civil war in Greece in which Britain and the US were supporting anti communist forces. They made the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan in which Europe was paid to help repair after the destruction of the war. The Soviets also made a financial alliance called COMECON. Next, the west made NATO, or a military alliance between western countries to protect against communism. This was suspicious to the Soviet Union who decided to make the Warsaw Pact, essentially the same thing but for the eastern states. When Germany was divided in between France, Great Britain, Russia, and America, Russia's eastern Europe was more hostile towards the western section so they put up the Berlin Blockade in which the east couldn't take western exports or have any relations economically with the country. Next was the Korean war in which the west fought alongside South Korea and the east and China sided with the north. There was an armistice in 1953. This showed how both world powers were trying to push their ideologies on the rest of the world. Then there was the Hungarian Revolution in which the Hungarians tried to get rid of their communist government, but were violently supressed. Next was the implementation of the Berlin Wall which further implemented the separation of Germany, officially making two states- East Germany and West Germany. Then, there was the Cuban Missile Crisis. In cuba, Fidel Castro led a communist revolution and the americans tried to stop his reign at the Bay of Pigs but brutally failed. Operation Mongoose also failed which was their attempt to either kill or humiliate him. Krushev proposed placing bombs in Cuba, which could reach any place in USA except for the state of Washington, the Americans found out, and it was resolved with both countries withdrawing missiles that could reach either country as the US had some in Turkey. The Vietname war of 65-73 started because of French colonism, and the vietnamese break and struggle for freedom, the north wanted communism and the south not. SImilarly to in Korea this battle waged on with Lyndon B Jonhson entering USA into the war and Nixon's withdraw. There was a lack of support from America, and America lost which showed their limited power. There was also a Chinese Revolution in which they became communist. With the Hundred Flower's Campaign in 1956 they asked people to say what they thought was wrong with the government, but this failed and the government persecuted these people. The Great Leap Forward was Mao's attempt to collectivize, industrialize but this caused a great famine. There was a proltariat revolution in which they tried to eliminate the 4 olds: ideas, culture, customs, and habits- this purged capitalism and made a conformist society. Back in Europe, the Prague Spring was when Czechoslovakia was for a short time free of communist rule. In 1969 the space race reached it's peak when USA went to the moon. In 72 the two world powers signed the antibalistic missile treaty. In 79 The Soviets invaded afganistan, and then in 80 the USA didnt go to the soviet olympics and in 84 the soviets didnt go to the USA olympics. Finally, in 1989, the Berlin wall was taken down, signifying the end of the Cold War.


Stalin- Holodomer (extermination by hunger). He made Russia a nuclear power by emphasizing heavy industry and no light industry. He also did major collectivization and imposed communist governments on the eastern blockade.
Krushev- de-stalinizationm but crushed the hungarian revolution, started the cuban missile crisis, and made the Berlin Wall.
Breshnev- had the spirit of detente in which he tried to coexist with America and other capitalist countries. Led the invasion of Afganistan and Prague Spring.
Andropov- Member of the KGB
Gorbachev- liked reagan and employed peristroika, which was restructuring Russia into more of a capitalist place, and allowing glasnost, or open discussion of beilefs.

Truman- Truman Doctrine that repaired war torn Europe
Eisenhower- Truce in korea
Kennedy- During cuban missile crisis
Lindon b. Johnson- Put USA into the vietnam war
Nixon- Took USA out of the vietnam war. Met with China to help ease tensions.
Ford- detente and helped isreal to prevent war in the middle east
Carter- helped to bring animity between Egypt and Isreal. Made relations with communist China.
Reagan- Tear down that wall!

Civil War in Greece


between ELAS and British puppet government-ELAS is assisted by Hungarian Communist Leader, Marshall Tito. US provided financial support through Truman Doctrine because US want to see democracy spread

Berlin Blockade

1948 - 1949

Soviet Union blocked West Berlin so that western powers cannot come in. However, the western countries used airlift to supply West Berlin



Northern Atlantic Treaty Organization. Established as a military organization of the western countries

Korean War

06/25/1950 - 07/27/1953

North Korea (communist) with Chinese support vs. South Korea (capitalist) backed by the US and other European countries. 38 parallel dividing north and south

Warsaw Pact


Military treaty in the Eastern block countries under Soviet control

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

North supported the south Vietcong, a communist common front, which fought a guerrilla war against anti-communists. US was involved in the 60s, worried about a domino theory that will increase the spread of communism worldwide

Hungarian Revolution


revolt started as a student demonstration, against Soviet control. Soviet installed gov. in order to suppress the public opposition

Sputnik I

October 4, 1957

Russia launched first satellite

Berlin War Constructed


construction of Berlin War by Soviet Union, separating the West and East Berlin

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14, 1962 - October 28, 1962

almost sparked a nuclear war b/t US and USSR. US president Kennedy prevented the war

Proletarian Cultural Rev

1966 - 1976

in China, purge capitalist influences. eliminate 4 olds.

Prague Spring

January 5, 1968 - August 21, 1968

Czech wanted to revolt to get free speech

USA to moon



1972 - 1979

antiballistic missile treaty b/t US and USSR. Helsinki Accords.

Fall of Berlin Wall


Fall of Soviet Union


War in Afghanistan

2001 - 2014

U.S. president George W. Bush promised to wage a lengthy war on terrorism and worked to create a coalition of nations to assist in ridding the world of al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups. In October 2001, United States and NATO air forces began bombing Taliban controlled areas. On the ground, Afghan forces opposed to the Taliban, assisted by U.S. special forces, pushed the Taliban out of the capital city of Kabul and seized control of nearly all of the country by the end of November. President Obama promised to send 30,000 U.S. troops to Afghanistan.

Terrorist Attack on the United States

September 11, 2001

Four groups of terrorists hijacked four commercial jet airplanes after takeoff from Boston, Newark and Washington, D.C. Two planes crashed directly into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. A third plane crashed into the Pentagon near Washington, D.C. The fourth plane crashed into an isolated area of Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 people died, including everyone aboard the four planes. These attacks were carried out by a terrorist organization known as al-Qaeda, run by the now deceased Osama bin Laden.

War in Iraq

2003 - 2011

George W. Bush believed that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein had not only provided support to bin Laden's terrorist organization but also sought to develop weapons of mass destruction. These claims were widely doubted by other members of the United Nations. As a result of this, U.S. troops invaded Iraq in 2003. The Iraqi army was quickly defeated, and occupation forces sought to restore stability to the country while setting forth plans to lay down the foundations for a future democratic society. While Hussein was captured by U.S. troops, his supporters, foreign terrorists, and Islamic militants continued to battle the American-led forces. Americans attempted to train an Iraqi military force capable of defeating the insurgents and establishing an Iraqi government that could hold free elections and create a democracy. However, the three major groups in Iraqi society couldn't seem to get along. They were the Shi'ite Muslims, Sunni Muslims, and ethnic Kurds. By 2006, violence had increased dramatically and Iraq seemed to be descending into a widespread civil war. President Obama withdrew all American troops once he took office.

Other events/Treaties/Laws passed

Fall of Constantinople


Constantinople falls to the Ottomans marking the end of the Byzantine empire.

Invention of the Printing Press


Johannes Gutenberg created the printing press which allowed for ideas to be spread much more easily.

Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella


Spain is united under the house or Aragon because of a dynastic union.

Court of Star Chamber

1487 - Approx. 1640

A court created by Henry VII to try nobles and limit their power against the king. This was one of Henry VII's ways of centralizing power as a New Monarch.

Treaty of Tordesilla


A treaty passes by Pope Alexander VI that split the new world between the two Catholic countries of Portugal and Spain. Spain "had the right to" things west of Brazil and Portugal had a smidge of Brazil and all of Africa.

Albuquerque conquers the Persian Gulf


Machiavelli's The Prince


Cortes conquers the Aztecs


Copernicus' On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres


Scientific Revolution book on astronomy that espouses a Helio-centric model of the universe. Counters the theories of Aristotle and Ptolemy for a geo-centric universe.

Vesalius' On the Fabric of the Human Body


Scientific Revolution book on anatomy, refuting the theories of Galen.

Galileo's The Starry Messenger


Scientific Revolution book on astronomy that describes the cratered and imperfect surface of the Moon, as seen through a telescope.

Thomas Hobbes writes Leviathen


John Locke writes Two Treatises of Government


The Treaty of Utrecht

April 1713

Ended the War of Spanish Succession!
– Philip V gets to keep Spain and its colonial territories on the condition that he renounce his/his descendants' claim to the French throne. *This meant that from then on the French and Spanish thrones would always be separate. *
– The rest of the Spanish empire was divided, Charles got the Spanish Netherlands and most of the Italian territory, the rest went to Savoy.
– France is basically bankrupt and Louis XIV's French expansion interests are thwarted
(Loooong term effect will too much territory + no money causing the French Rev.)

Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle


Treaty which ended the War of Austrian Succession. It confirmed Maria Theresa as the rightful heiress to Austrian lands, but Prussia's conquest of Silesia was sanctioned. Did not establish long lasting peace because the commercial struggle between England and France in the West Indies, Africa, and India was not settled.
Also, Prussia consolidates.

Act of Union


Created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which lasted until 1922.

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

An international conference (1814-15) held at Vienna after Napoleon's banishment to Elba, with Metternich as the dominant figure, aimed at territorial resettlement and restoration to power of the crowned heads of Europe.

Concert of Europe

1815 - 1856

An alliance of Austria, Prussia, Russia, & England that was established to prevent the spread of liberalism and nationalism. [a.k.a. "The Holy Alliance"] Who...

  • Managed to establish a true balance of power among European nations.
  • Its actions kept France from becoming too strong and over-powering other countries or too weak and becoming over-powerless.
  • Succeeded in overseeing a prolonged period of peace.


1844 - 1889

German philosopher who rejected traditional rational philosophy. He claimed God was dead and that there were "supermen" who would come to govern and run socities over ordinary men. He died in 1889.

Sigmund Freud

1856 - 1939

Sigmund Freud
An Austrian doctor credited as being the "father" of psychology. He studied and wrote extensively about the importance of dreams and developed psychoanalysis.

Dual Monarchy


Due to the opposition of the magyars of the the Austrians had to compromise to appease the Hungarians. They created the ausgleich Meaning compromise the agreement between the Habsburg Emperor and the Hungarians to give Hungary considerable authority autonomy in 1867. It created the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

Indian Congress Party


Nationalist group in India that called for independence from Britain, which was led by Western-educated Indian elites, and it led India in the early postcolonial era.

Collapse of U.S. housing market


The collapse of the U.S. housing market led to a huge decline in the U.S. stock market as stocks lost almost $8 trillion in value from mid-September to November of 2008. This led to a worldwide recession. As the American economy slowed, trade decreased worldwide. Production in Asia decreased, and prices of commodities fell, including the price of oil, which had an impact on Middle Eastern countries and Russia as well. Eastern European economies experienced a drastic devaluation of their currencies as investors fled to the stronger dollar and euro.

Religious Events/Periods

Religions, their leaders, and major events like nailing the 95 theses.

Spanish Inquisition


Ferdinand and Isabella expel Jews and Muslims out of the Iberian Peninsula in order to create unity in the country under the Catholic church.

Luther 95 Theses


Luther posts 95 theses (according to legend) on the door of the Wittenberg castle, protesting papal abuses and Leo X/Johann Tetzel's sale of indulgences

Leo X has Johann Tetzel sell indulgences


Leipzig Debate


Debate between Johann Eck (Catholic) and Martin Luther and his disciple Andreas Karlstadt (Protestant) on Lutheran principles, free will, and the corruption of the Catholic Church.

Diet of Worms


Council called by Pope Leo X and presided over by Charles V to determine the fate of Martin Luther in regards to his heresy. The HRE asked Luther to recant, but he did not and was exiled from the Empire, although he remained under the protection of Frederick the Wise of Saxony.

Act of Supremacy 1534


The Act of Supremacy by Henry VIII declared the monarch of England as the Supreme Head of the Anglican Church in 1534. This is part of the English Protestant Reformation.

John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion


The reformer publishes one of the religious texts of Calvinism.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

This was the Church's effort to reform the Church. It limited the selling of indulgences, reaffirmed all of their sacraments that Protestants disagreed with, prevented abuses in the church like ignorance among priests, and created the index of prohibited books. It began under Pope Paul III and ended under Pius IV.

Peace of Augsburg


Treaty between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic league that granted German princes to determine their region as either Catholic or Lutheran in 1555.

Act of Supremacy 1558


Queen Elizabeth I of England declares herself "Supreme Governor" of the Anglican Church in the first year of her reign.

Edict of Nantes


Henry IV of France grants Catholics and Huguenots the right to practice their religion in 1598.

Art Movements

Include artists, architects, musicians, their major works, and descriptions of the styles within events

Northern Renaissance

Approx. 1350 - Approx. 1550

The Northern Renaissance illustrated a focus on Christianity and everyday life.

Jan van Eyck - Arnolfini and his Bride, Ghent Altarpiece
Pieter Bruegel the Elder - The Hunters in the Snow, The Peasant Wedding, Children’s Games

Italian Renaissance

Approx. 1350 - Approx. 1550

The Italian Renaissance of 1350-1550 featured art that reflected humanism, individualism, and secularism with the persistence of traditional Catholic imagery to promote personal, political, and religious goals.

Michelangelo - Sistine Chapel, David, La Pieta, St Peter’s Basilica Dome, The Last Judgement
Raphael - School of Athens
Da Vinci - Mona Lisa, Vitruvian Man, Lady with an Ermine, The Last Supper
Donatello - Bronze David
El Greco (Mannerism) - Burial of the Count of Orgaz, Laocoon
Brunelleschi - Duomo of Florence
Alberti - Facade of the Santa Maria Novella
Palladio - Four Books of Architecture

Patrons: Princes, merchants, bankers, popes


1600 - 1750

associated with drama, movement, richness, grandeur, and fleshed out nudes.
Artemisia Gentileschi - "Judith Beheading Holofernes"
Peter Paul Rubens - "The Landing of Marie de Medici"

Bernini - St. Peter's Piazza


Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1850

a 19th century artistic and intellectual movement that rejected the emphasis on reason of the Enlightenment. Instead, Romantics stressed the importance of intuition, feeling, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing, a reaction to the Enlightenment


1850 - 1899

19th century artistic and intellectual movement that was very much a continuation of the Enlightenment and a rejection of Romanticism.
It was very much a response to the Scientific Revolution in the sense that realism was essentially an attempt to apply a scientific approach to realm of human activity.
Realism was first described as a 19th century school of painting that emphasized the everyday life of ordinary people, depicted with photographic accuracy.


1870 - 1885

a movement that originated in France in the 1870s when a group of artists rejected studios and museums and went to paint nature directly.


1907 - 1914

objects are broken into abstract things


1909 - 1914

emphasize progress, speech, etc, and violence. initially italian and influenced by cubism


1916 - 1922

post wwi. anti-war, anti-courgeois, anti-art


1921 - 1966

Post WWI from Dada
rejects norms of reality in favor of unconscious
disturbing and evocative images

Abstract Expressionism

1940 - 1950

post WWII
energentic, spontaneous, large canvas

Pop Art


UK and USA.
employs common images of advertising, comic books, and mass culture, similar to Dada


Monarchs, rulers, their countries, dates

Blue - England
Purple - France
Orange - Russia
Red - United States
Green - Prussia
Brown - Spain

Ferdinand II

1475 - 1516

Isabella I

1475 - 1504

Henry VII

1485 - 1509

New Monarch. Won the War of the Roses making him the king of England and making the Tudor Dynasty the ruling family. Court of Star Chamber which allowed him to try and torture the Nobility in order to centralize power.

Joanna (the Mad) and Philip I

1504 - 1516

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

In between new monarch and absolute. Created Anglican church with the Act of Supremacy of 1534. The church remained very catholic in doctrine and appearance however he was the head of the church instead of the pope. This centralized power and he took catholic land and sold it for more money in his state. Sold this land to the Nobility in order to improve the relationship between them.

Francis I

1515 - 1547

New monarch. Issued the concordat of Bologna in 1516 which gave him the power to elect bishops but had to pay money to the catholic church. Fought in the Habsburg-Valois wars against his counterpart Charles V.

Charles V

1516 - 1556

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

Henry II

1547 - 1559

Ivan IV (The Terrible)

1547 - 1584

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Ultra Catholic. Changed England back to Catholic church

Philip II

1556 - 1598

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Changed back to the Anglican Church but she didn't seek out dissenters. Fought in Spanish Armada - the Spanish under Phillip II sailed up to England but Elizabeth I booty cheaked em.

Francis II

1559 - 1560

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

The wife of Henry II who ruled alongside him, making radical decisions during a time of French religious tensions. She ruled as regent for her son Francis II.

Charles IX

1560 - 1574

Henry III

1574 - 1589

War of Three Henries

Feodor I

1584 - 1598

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Became victorious after the War of Three Henries making him the King of France. He issued the Edict of Nantes giving more rights to the Huguenots but not complete religious freedom. "Paris is worth a Mass" Peace of unity

Maria de Medici

1589 - 1610

Philip III

1598 - 1621

James I

1603 - 1625

First Monarch from the House of Stuart. Peace over unity. King of three Crowns (Irish, Scottish, and English). Fought with parliament for money because he did not use it well. but it did not lead to civil war until Charles I.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

First years as ruler were controlled by Cardinal Richelieu. Absolute Monarch. Mercantilist through Colbert's economic policies. Fought in 30 years War and sided with the Protestants in order contain Habsburg power. Spent a lot of Money

Michael I

1613 - 1645

First leader in the Romanov dynasty who improved relations with surrounding countries like the Polish.

Philip IV

1621 - 1665

Charles I

1625 - 1649

He wanted money from Parliament but Parliament wanted to actually be involved. He imposed the Book of Common Prayer through William Laud which upset the Presbyterian Scotts because they thought the Anglican church was to similar to the Catholics. These Bishops Wars led to him asking for even more money but parliament refused granting him tonnage and poundage for only a year when they usually gave it for life. This then led the the English Civil War between King Charles I (ROYAL ARMY) and Parliament (NEW MODEL ARMY). Parliament ultimately destroys the Royal army and kills Charles I which lead to the Protectorate under Cromwell.

Frederick the Great Elector

1640 - 1688


Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Absolute monarch because he subdued the nobility and

Alexis I

1645 - 1676

Began serfdom in Russia that lasted until Alexander II

Oliver Cromwell

1653 - 1658

English Commonwealth

Richard Cromwell

1658 - 1659

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Charles II

1665 - 1700

Feodor III

1676 - 1682

Ivan V

1682 - 1696

Peter I

1682 - 1725

Tsar from 1682 to 1721, Emperor from 1721-1725

James II

1685 - 1688

Frederick I

1688 - 1713

Duke of Prussia (1688-1701)
Duke of Brandenburg (1688 - 1713)
King of Prussia (1701-1713)

William III

1689 - 1702

Mary II

1689 - 1694

Anne I

1702 - 1714

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

George I

1714 - 1727

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Catherine I

1725 - 1727

Peter II

1727 - 1730

George II

1727 - 1760


1730 - 1740

Ivan VI

1740 - 1741

Frederick II

1740 - 1786


1741 - 1762

George III

1760 - 1820

Catherine II the Great

1762 - 1796

Peter III


Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Frederick William II

1786 - 1797

Paul I

1796 - 1801

Frederick William III

1797 - 1840

Alexander I

1801 - 1825

Napoleon I

1804 - 1814

Emperor of France after the French Revolution. Reversed many laws that gave rights to women. Promoted education but suppressed the media.


1815 - 1824

George IV

1820 - 1830

Charles X

1824 - 1830

In 1830, Charles issued the July Ordinances that censored the press, dissolved the legislative assembly, and reduced the electorate. This led to the July Revolutions in which a new provisional government appealed to Louis Philippe to become the constitutional king of France.

Nicholas I

1825 - 1855

Nicholas I was a reactionary ruler who strengthened the bureaucracy, increased censorship, and suppressed individual freedoms with secret police to prevent rebellion. He came to power during the Decembrist Revolt of 1825 when the military leaders of the Northern Union rebelled against his ascension; the Union was crushed by troops loyal to Nicholas.

Louis Philippe I

1830 - 1848

Bourgeois monarch of France elected in 1830 and overthrown in the Revolutions of 1848 because he failed to make reforms.

William IV

1830 - 1837

During his reign of England, the Corn Laws of 1832 and Reform Act of 1832 that benefitted the upper middle class.

Victoria I

1837 - 1901

Frederick William IV

1840 - 1861

Napoleon III

1852 - 1870

Alexander II

1855 - 1881

William I

1861 - 1888

Alexander III

1881 - 1894

Frederick III


William II

1888 - 1918

Nicholas II

1894 - 1917

Edward VII

1901 - 1910

George V

1910 - 1936

Woodrow Wilson

1913 - 1921


Vladmir Lenin

1922 - 1924

Joseph Stalin

1924 - 1953

Franklin D. Roosevelt

1933 - 1945

WWII. Tehran and Yalta.

Edward VIII


George VI

1936 - 1952

Harry S. Truman

1945 - 1953

Truman Doctrine was made under his Presidency after the death of FDR right before the end of World War II. His ideologies conflicted with those of Stalin because he wanted free elections in Eastern Europe. He went to the Potsdam meeting towards the end of the Second World War.

Elizabeth II

1952 - Present

Nikita Khrushchev

1955 - 1964

John F. Kennedy

1961 - 1963

He's dead but he eased tensions with the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis. They both agreed to remove missiles from Cuba.

Leonid Brezhnev

1964 - 1982

Invaded Afghanistan with Russian soviet forces

Richard Nixon

1969 - 1974

Nixon met with Brezhnev and Mao Zedong. Cool guy.

Ronald Reagan

1981 - 1989

Very anti-communist. Movie star. Worked closely with British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, to fight the USSR and Communism.

Yuri Andropov

1982 - 1984

Konstantin Chernenko


Mikhail Gorbachev

1985 - 1991

Glasnost; open criticism towards government
Perestroika - Gorbie's attempt to reform Russia with limited private enterprise and property.

George H. W. Bush

1989 - 1993

Vladimir Putin

2000 - 2008

George W. Bush

2001 - 2009

Barack Obama

2009 - 2017


Vladimir Putin

2012 - Present

Союз нерушимый республик свободных
Сплотила навеки Великая Русь.
Да здравствует созданный волей народов
Единый, могучий Советский Союз!

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Дружбы, народов надежный оплот!
Знамя советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы, к победе ведет!

Сквозь грозы сияло нам солнце свободы,
И Ленин великий нам путь озарил.
Нас вырастил Сталин - на верность народу
На труд и на подвиги нас вдохновил.

Славься, Отечество чаше свободное,
Счастья народов надежный оплот!
Знамя советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы к победе ведет!

Мы армию нашу растили в сраженьях,
Захватчиков подлых с дороги сметем!
Мы в битвах решаем судьбу поколений,
Мы к славе Отчизну свою поведем!

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Славы народов надежный оплот!
Знамя советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы к победе ведет!