Period of renovation.
Came following the Black Death, and caused a renewed interest in Greek/Roman culture.
Commerce and Price Revolutions.
Destruction of native culture.
Mercantilism surges regarding colonization.
- Spanish in the Americas.
- Britain in the Americas and elsewhere in the world for spices.
- Dutch to an extent. Spices as well, and often clashed head with British over it.
Wealth takes on a whole new level of importance.
Started with Martin Luther's 95 Theses.
Rejection of typical religious practices brought on by corrupt clergy.
- Scorned good works.
- People are their own priests, report only to god.
- Urged people to interpret the bible for themselves.
- Salvation by faith alone.
- The Elect.
- No leisure time.
- Bible to be interpreted literally.
In Germany, the Reformation led to the princes typically backing Luther as it undermined Kings' power. However, the peasants also agreed with Lutheran ideology which led to Luther disavowing the peasants.
In France, the Huguenots (French Protestants) faced persecution for their faith despite the Edict of Nantes being set in place by Catherine de Medici. Louis XIV pushed for a universal French faith of Catholicism.
In Great Britain, tensions arose from the Reformation which eventually led to the English Civil War.
A period of time among the main powers where strong monarchies were set in place. Normally led to a King/other ruler taking all power for themselves over the state, such as Peter the Great and Louis XIV.
Absolutism vs Constitutionalism
A recurrent motif during this time period would be the fight between Kings and other governing bodies, such as Parliament or the nobility.
Promoted religious toleration and freedom in the Holy Roman Empire amid Reformation tensions. Protestants were free to practice under this.
Split Germany at the Mahn River. North was mostly Protestant, south was Catholic.
Brought on by the intellectual movements before it (Renaissance/Reformation). Natural Philosophy, or science, started to rise to prominence and conflicted with established truth brought on by the church.
Scientific Thought: Based on Aristotle. Earth is the center of the universe.
Magical Thought: Alchemy, astrology, witchcraft. Led to witch hunts in the 1500s-1600s in France and Germany.
Philosophical Thought: Plato, the maths, and logic.
Religious Thought: Had to be Catholic. It was hard to voice opinions because of the church (except in France, where the state controlled the church). Protestants believed in Scientific thought.
- Heliocentric universe resulted in persecution by the church.
- Argues for separation between theology and science.
- Responsible for the early battle between Faith and Reason.
- Inductive Reasoning, aka scientific observation.
- Deductive Reasoning, aka scientific experimentation.
- "Father of Modern Philosophy"
- Principia Mathematica.
- Applied math to Galileo and Kelper thought.
- 3 Laws of Motion.
Collectively led to improvements in medicine, weapons, astronomy, and travel.
Brought on by the divide in German states over religion and the repeal of the Peace of Augsburg. Other countries jumped in on this war to weaken the Hapsburg Empire, namely France, who sought to not be surrounded by the Empire.
Since Ferdinand II had tried to force religious uniformity on the people, the people of the Holy Roman Empire revolted in the Bohemian Rebellion. Then began a phase of the Catholics and Protestants putting people into power only for the other side to oust and replace them. Soon the Swedish and Danish and the French joined in on the Protestant side to defeat the Holy Roman Empire.
Led to the Peace of Westphalia.
End of the Thirty Years' War. Reinstated the Peace of Augsburg and allowed for self-determination.
Rationalism: Logical reasoning based on fact.
Cosmology: Analysis of natural phenomena as systems brought on by Newtonian thought.
Secularism: Thought independent of the church.
Utilitarianism: Greatest good for the greatest number.
Tolerance: Religion, culture, etc.
Freedom: In thought, religion, culture, etc. No prejudice or persecution.
- Social Contract to prevent State of Nature.
- General Will.
- Sovereignty in the hands of the people.
- Anti-religious, anti-church. Brought on by a lifetime of exile and persecution.
- Freedom of speech.
- Wealth of Nations
From the Revolution until the end of Napoleon's reign.
- Liberalism (Human Rights/Natural Rights).
- Larger bureaucracy.
- Growth of Paris.
- Printing Press.
- Population Growth.
- Laboring poor.
- American Revolution: A republic is possible.
- Cahiers des doleances.
- The Estates
- First Estate: clergy.
- Second Estate: nobility (Robe and Sword).
- Third Estate: everyone else.
- Bourgeoisie: well-read and rich.
- Peasants: the poor farmers.
- Urban poor: the poor in the cities.
- Rich weren't taxed.
- Very economically weak country.
- War expenses.
- Nobles were trying to force a financial crisis to usurp power.
Instituted universal prayer.
Got excommunicated by the Pope.
Tried to centralize government with Parliament.
Years where the King or other absolutist powers fought Parliament for power.
A Scot placed on the British throne.
Divine Right of Kings.
True Law of a Free Monarchy: A king is representative of God.
Battle with Parliament over who should rule.
Rich get richer.
Common land is taken over by the government.
Nobility is taxed in order to hold office. Getting taxed is a privilege.
Protestantism grows in England in the form of Puritanism.
Puritans wanted Anglican Church reform.
Absolutist King. "Deceitful, dishonest, untrustworthy."
Dismissed Parliament for 11 years because he wanted to rule on his own (1629-1640).
The Scots revolt in 1640, and Charles I wants to go to war with them. He has to call back Parliament to accomplish raising an army. Long Parliament, 1640-1660.
Power struggle between Charles and Parliament still.
Charles winds up creating his own army.
Eventually, Charles is defeated and ousted from power (he tries to escape to Scotland, but the Scots hand him over). He is executed.
Now begins Parliament's rule over England in the shape of Oliver Cromwell and John Pym. Oliver Cromwell names himself Lord Protector and rules, attacking the Scots, Irish, and Dutch.
Bloodless coup putting William and Mary in power over James II. Now Parliament is the main governing body.
English Bill of Rights is created to formally settle dispute between the monarchy and Parliament.
Major political reforms are put in place now that Parliament has power.
- Whigs & Tories, the main political parties.
- Prime Minister position created.
- Cabinet formed in the Parliament.
A belief that two religions couldn't exist in the same state fueled the wars between Protestantism and Catholicism.
Huguenots = French Protestants.
Catherine d'Medici is pressured to wipe out the Huguenots, which results in the bloody massacre.
Starts with Henry IV of Navarre, who took over the throne. He starts the Bourbon family to the French throne.
Then Louis XIV comes in. The state is him, and he is the state. One King, One Law, One Faith.
- Wants France to become the strongest European power.
- Creates an aggressive foreign policy.
- Allows for people to buy nobility.
- Breeds nobility with Versailles to keep them under his eye and away from their posts.
- New nobles start a feud with the old nobles. New Nobility vs. Old Nobility. Nobles of the Robe vs. Nobles of the Sword.
- His wars and keeping the nobles from their positions dooms the French economy.
- Nobility wasn't taxed. A privilege to not be taxed.
- Forced religious uniformity. Revoked Edict of Nantes.
Upheld the Anti-Hapsburg rhetoric in France.
1st Fronde (1648-1649) ended in compromise.
2nd Fronde (1650-1652) crushed due to the feud between nobles.
Calling of the Estates, July 1788.
Step to the end of absolutism in France.
Louis XVI wanted a property tax, but was told that the government had no right to add another tax upon all of the taxes already placed on the people.
Royal Council gave the Third Estate twice as many votes.
Third Estate vs. First & Second Estates.
Radical changes in thought were popularized in this time through pamphlets spread across the country.
Abbe Sieyes' "What is the Third Estate?"
Cahiers de Doleances
- Due Process
Rising bread prices in Paris. The hungry get radicalized.
Third Estate refuses to sit alone at the Estates General.
Tennis Court Oath and the formation of the National Assembly, then became the National Constituent Assembly.
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette call up the army in support of the nobility. To revolt against the nobility was to revolt against the King.
Revolt of the Urban Poor
Bastille Day, July 14th 1789
Mobs storm the Bastille and kill troops and bureaucrats.
The Great Fear
NCA abolishes all feudal dues and the peasants get land. Peasants now become the conservative force in the Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
French Bill of Rights
The NCA attacked the church and nationalized church land, which made the Revolution lose support in the countryside.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Bishops were the Department of State.
No separation of church and state.
Religious orders were abolished.
All clergy must oppose Pope.
Pope disavows Revolution and liberalism.
Catholic Church vs. Liberalism, main blocking mechanism for rights and legislation.
Constitution of 1791
Tax-paying men can vote.
Rich landowners can hold office.
One chamber house.
No members of the NCA could apply for the house.
War was promoted to solve domestic problems.
Radicalization of the Revolution begins.
Marat, Danton, and Robespierre.
Radicalization of the Parisian people.
Creation of a Paris commune.
Arrival of the National Guard, singing the Marseillaise.
Peasants march to keep their land.
- Wanted immediate relief of hunger.
- Opposed unregulated economy, a contradiction to early Revolutionary capitalism.
Divisions of the Jacobins: Girondists are the conservative forces, and the Mountain is the left.
9 months of political struggle within the Convention.
Prussia and Austria both want to attack France during this Revolution, but frequently they doubt their abilities and allies and are often defeated in battle with the French.
France, wanting to spread its Revolutionary ideology, declares war on all of Europe amidst a wave of Anglophobia.
Committee of Public Safety for strong leadership. Jacque Danton.
Inflation rose due to the war.
New Insurrection, Mountain seizes power in the Convention and passes Democratic Constitution, but that is put in cold storage.
Danton and Robespierre killed anyone and everyone with conflicting ideologies to them.
Reign of Terror. Birth of modern nationalism.
Everyone is practically killed and imprisoned, then Robespierre goes after the far left.
Christianity is outlawed.
Robespierre is killed and the Directory is formed.
Abbe Sieyes is the leader of the Directory.
Socialism is dropped.
Sans Culottes are removed from power, and the working class is crushed by the army.
Directory floats along in this period of inaction before the monarchy is restored, but then a coup happened. Napoleon starts his rise to power amid this power vacuum.
Strict with Catholicism. Caused inflation. War expenses ruined the economy.
Economy was ruined.
- All resources were in the Americas. Little went to Spain itself.
- People didn't fear the Inquisition anymore.
- Little industry or agriculture, but still high taxes.
- Phillip III was only worried about enjoying his life.
- Church paid no taxes but owned a lot of the land.
- Nobility was exempted from taxes.
- Spain had to loan money from Portugal.
Other names: Nine Years' War/War of the Grand Alliance.
It was unsure who would take over the Spanish Throne since the current King Charles II was unable to produce an heir. France thought to conquer both Spain and the Rhineland under Louis XIV.
The war ended with little resolution to the problem, which is why the War of Spanish Succession occurred so shortly afterwards.
A continuation of the struggle shown in the War of the League of Augsburg. Louis XIV again tried to place a Frenchman on the Spanish Throne (Philip of Anjou, who Charles II even named as his successor) to combine empires. As this would make France nearly indestructible, the rest of Europe fought once again as the Grand Alliance to ensure that the two crowns wouldn't combine. Ultimately the battle had to be decided by British interference.
Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Named Philip of Anjou as Philip V of Spain, but the two crowns of the Habsburgs and Bourbons were to never unite.
Spain lost a lot of its territory to Austria.
French colonies in the New World were given to Britain.
Decline of Spain as a major empire.
End of the Wars of Louis XIV.
Martin Luther was German.
Princes took this as a way to undermine Holy Roman Empire's rule. Old vs New Regime.
Split Germany at the Mahn River. South Catholic, North Protestant.
Peter was an unnaturally strong and tall child, which already framed him as a good leader.
He went to the West to study how their civilizations were run. He realized how he needed to make Russia a stronger military power. He had to fix "Backwards Russia."
Restructured the Military.
- Nobles served for life as admins.
- Mandatory serving period for all citizens of 25 years.
- Table of Ranks for nobility. Also presented non-nobles a chance to join the ranks.
- Board of Administrators brought in to oversee war and other national agencies.
- Sought to expand empire.
- Split Russia up into provinces.
- Dissolved local parliaments to centralize power to the Czar.
- 5 years of studying abroad required for noble sons.
- Universities for skilled technicians/experts.
- Western dress and style.
- Traditional restrictions placed on women were slightly laxed.
- Soul tax placed on peasants. Unnaturally high.
- Nobles were not taxed as much.
- Introduction of serf labor.
- Industries were owned by the Czar.
- Most of the country's money went to the military.
Russia desperately wants a warm water port. This was the first real attempt at it. Open a window to the West.
Initially the Russians lost to Sweden, but they came back to win.
Russia gains access to the Baltic Sea as a result of the Peace of Nystadt.
St. Petersburg is built on the Baltic as new Russian capital.